Earth First! is a radical environmental advocacy group that emerged in the Southwestern United States in 1979. The environmental movement, a term that includes the conservation and green movements is a diverse scientific social and Political movement for The Southwestern area of the United States could be defined as the states west of the Mississippi River, with the qualification of a certain northern limit such as the 37 The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
Inspired by Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, Aldo Leopold's land ethic, and Edward Abbey's The Monkey Wrench Gang, a group of activists pledged "No Compromise in Defense of Mother Earth!" Environmental activist Dave Foreman, ex-Yippie (Youth International Party) Mike Roselle, Wyoming Wilderness Society representatives Bart Koehler and Howie Wolke and former Park Ranger Ron Kezar were traveling in Foreman's VW bus from the Pincate Desert in northern Mexico to Albuquerque, New Mexico. Rachel Louise Carson (May 27 1907 – April 14 1964 was an American marine biologist and Nature writer whose writings are credited with advancing the global Silent Spring is a book written by Rachel Carson and published by Houghton Mifflin in September 1962 Aldo Starker Leopold ( January 11, 1887 – April 21, 1948) was an American Ecologist, Forester and Environmentalist Edward Paul Abbey ( January 29, 1927 - March 14, 1989) was an American author and essayist noted for his advocacy of environmental The Monkey Wrench Gang is a Novel written by American Author Edward Abbey (1927&ndash1989 published in 1975 Dave Foreman (born 1947 is a US Environmentalist and co-founder of the radical environmental movement Earth First! Early life and education The The Youth International Party, whose members were commonly called Yippies, was a highly theatrical and Anti-authoritarian Political party established in The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America.
Provoked by what they considered a sell-out by mainstream environmental advocates during the "RARE II" (the Forest Service's Roadless Area and Review Evaluation) meetings, the activists envisioned a revolutionary movement to set aside multi-million acre ecological preserves all across the United States. "Suddenly Foreman called out 'Earth First!' The next thing you know," Wolke says, "Roselle drew a clenched fist logo, passed it up to the front of the van, and there was Earth First!"
There are Earth First! groups in the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Netherlands, Belgium Philippines, Czech Republic, India, Mexico, France, Germany, New Zealand, Poland, Nigeria, Slovakia, Ireland, Italy, and Spain. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP The Czech Republic ( ˈt͡ʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka short form in Česko ˈt͡ʃɛskɔ also called Czechia, India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Nigeria, officially named the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal Constitutional republic comprising thirty-six states and one Federal Slovakia (long form Slovak Republic; Slovak:, long form, is a Landlocked country in Central Europe with a population of over five million Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.
During the group's early years (1979-1986), Earth First! mixed publicity stunts (such as rolling a plastic "crack" down Glen Canyon Dam) with far-reaching wilderness proposals that reportedly went beyond what mainstream environmental groups were willing to advocate (with conservation biology research from a biocentric perspective). Glen Canyon Dam is a Dam on the Colorado River at Page Arizona, USA operated by the United States Bureau of Reclamation. Wilderness is generally defined as a Natural environment on Earth that has not been significantly modified by Human activity "Conservation Biology" redirects here For the Scientific journal, see Conservation Biology (journal. Biocentrism (from Greek βίος bio, "life" and κέντρον kentron, "center" is a term that has several meanings but is commonly defined The group's proposals were published in a periodical, Earth First! The Radical Environmental Journal, informally known as the Earth First! Journal. Edward Abbey often spoke at early gatherings, and his writings were an inspiration that led him to be revered by the early movement. Edward Paul Abbey ( January 29, 1927 - March 14, 1989) was an American author and essayist noted for his advocacy of environmental An annual gathering of the group was known as the Round River Rendezvous, with the name taken from an Ojibwa myth about a continuous river of life flowing into and out of itself and sustaining all relations. The Ojibwa or Chippewa (also Ojibwe, Ojibway, Chippeway) is the largest group of Native Americans - First Nations The rendezvous is part celebration with art and music, part activist conference with workshops and accounts of past actions.
In the spring of 1985, a nationwide call to action in the Earth First! Journal brought Earth First! members from around the United States to the Willamette National Forest of western Oregon, to take action against Willamette Industries, a logging company. The Willamette National Forest is a National Forest located in the central portion of the Cascade Range of Oregon, US. Oregon ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Willamette Industries Inc ( NASDAQ:WMTT was a Fortune 500 forest products company based in Portland Oregon, United States. Finding logging road blockades (carried out by Corvallis-based Cathedral Forest Action Group) were offering too short-term a protection, Marylander Ron Huber and Washingtonian Mike Jakubal devised tree sitting as a more effective civil disobedience alternative. Corvallis (kɔrˈvælɪs is a City located in central western Oregon, United States. Washington ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Tree sitting is a form of environmentalist Civil disobedience in which a Protester sits in a Tree, usually on a small platform built for the purpose Civil disobedience is the active refusal to obey certain Laws demands and commands of a Government, or of an occupying power, without resorting to physical 
On May 23, 1985 Mike Jakubal made the first Earth First! tree sit. Events 1430 - Siege of Compiègne: Joan of Arc is captured by the Burgundians while leading an army to relieve Compiègne Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar)  When U.S. Forest Service law enforcement official Steve Slagowski arrived, Mike Roselle, Ron Huber and others were arrested sitting at the base of the tree in support. This first tree sit lasted less than a day—Jakubal came down in the evening to look over the remains of the forest that had been cut down around him that day, and was arrested by a hidden Forest Service officer—but the tree-sitting concept was deemed sound by Earth First! members. Huber and Jakubal, in the company of Mike Roselle, brought the concept to the June 14th Washington EF Rendezvous; on June 23, a convoy of activists arrived at Willamette National Forest, and set up tree platforms in a location "Squaw/Three timbersale" the group thought was threatened with imminent destruction. Events 1180 - First Battle of Uji, starting the Genpei War in Japan 1305 - The Flemish While at one point, up to a dozen trees were occupied, a July 10 clash took down all the trees with platforms except for Ron Huber's as the other sitters had gone for an overnight meeting elsewhere. Huber remained in his tree, dubbed Yggdrasil, until July 20 when two Linn County sheriff's deputies were lifted in a crane box and wrestled him from the tree. In Norse mythology, Yggdrasil ( Old Norse Yggdrasill, ˈyɡˌdrasilː the extra -l is a Nominative case marker is the World Events 1304 - Wars of Scottish Independence: Fall of Stirling Castle - King Edward I of England takes the last rebel stronghold SHERIFF is a telecom fraud detection and management system originally developed by BT and MCI.
Later, from about 1987 on, Earth First! became primarily associated with direct action to prevent logging, building of dams, and other forms of development which Earth First! finds may cause destruction of wildlife habitats or the despoilation of wild places. Direct action is political action which happens outside normal political channels via indirect actions such as electing representatives. Logging is the process in which Trees are cut down for Forest management and Timber. A dam is a barrier that divides waters. Dams generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water while other structures such as Floodgates, Levees Subdivision is the act of dividing land into pieces that are easier to sell or otherwise develop usually via a Plat. Wildlife includes all non-domesticated plants animals and other organisms A habitat (which is Latin for "it inhabits" is an Ecological or environmental area that is inhabited by a particular Species. This change in direction attracted many new members to Earth First!, some of whom came from a leftist or anarchist political background or involvement in the counterculture. Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i Counterculture (also " counter-culture " is a sociological term used to describe the values and norms of behavior of a Cultural group, or Dave Foreman has related that this led to the introduction of such activities as a "puke-in" at a shopping mall, a flag burning, heckling of Edward Abbey at a 1987 Earth First rendezvous, and back-and-forth debates in the Earth First! Journal on such topics as anarchism, with which Foreman and others did not wish to be associated. Vomiting (also called throwing up, emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of one's Stomach through the Mouth and sometimes the Most of the group's older members, including Dave Foreman, Howie Wolke, Bart Koehler, Christopher Manes, George Wuerthner, and Earth First! Journal editor John Davis became increasingly uncomfortable with this new direction. This change reportedly severed their ties to Earth First! in 1990. Many of them went on to launch a new magazine, Wild Earth, and a new environmental group, The Wildlands Project. Wild Earth was an Environmentalist Magazine published in the United States by the Wildlands Project between 1991 and 2004 Roselle, on the other hand, along with activists such as Judi Bari, welcomed the new direct-action and leftist direction of Earth First!. Judi Bari ( November 7, 1949 &ndash March 2, 1997) was an American Environmentalist and labor leader a
Starting in the mid-1980s, Earth First! began an increasing promotion of and identification with "Deep Ecology," a philosophy put forward by Arne Næss, Bill Devall, and George Sessions, which holds that all forms of life on Earth have equal value in and of themselves, without regard for their utility to human beings. Deep ecology is a recent branch of ecological Philosophy ( Ecosophy) that considers Humankind an integral part of its environment. Arne Dekke Eide Næss (born January 27, 1912) is widely regarded as the foremost Norwegian Philosopher of the 20th century and is the founder Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus Earth First followers use this philosophy to justify an ecocentric view of the world in which intrinsic values for organisms and ecosystems outweigh their resource values. Ecocentrism is a philosophy that recognizes that the Ecosphere, rather than any individual organism is the source and support of all life and as such advises a holistic and An ecosystem is a natural unit consisting of all plants animals and micro-organisms( Biotic factors in an area functioning together with all of the non-living physical (
Since 1990, action within the Earth First! movement has become increasingly influenced by anarchist political philosophy. Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i Political philosophy is the study of questions about the City, Government, Politics, Liberty, Justice, Property, Rights The change also brought a rotation of the primary media organ in differing regions, an aversion to organized leadership or administrative structure, and a new trend of identifying Earth First! as a mainstream movement rather than an organization. In 1992, Earth First! push as a mainstream movement caused members who refused to abandon criminal acts to start a militant offshoot called Earth Liberation Front. The Earth Liberation Front ( ELF) also known as " Elves " or " The Elves " is the collective name for anonymous and autonomous  Most members of Earth First! liken themselves to a decentralized, locally informed activism based on communitarian ethics while Earth First adversaries characterize the group as conducting a form of terrorism. __FORCETOC__ Decentralization or Decentralisation (see Spelling differences) is the process of dispersing Decision-making governance closer to the people Communitarianism, as a group of related but distinct philosophies began in the late 20th century opposing in its opinion exalted forms of Individualism while advocating phenomena
In various parts of the country, individual citizens and small groups form the nuclei for grassroots political actions, which may take the form of legal actions--i. e. protests, timber sale appeals, and educational campaigns--or civil disobedience--tree sitting, road blockades, and sabotage - called "ecotage" by some Earth First! members, claiming it is done as a form of ecodefense. Protest expresses relatively overt reaction to events or situations sometimes in favor though more often opposed Civil disobedience is the active refusal to obey certain Laws demands and commands of a Government, or of an occupying power, without resorting to physical Tree sitting is a form of environmentalist Civil disobedience in which a Protester sits in a Tree, usually on a small platform built for the purpose A road is an identifiable route, way or path between two or more places. A blockade is any effort to prevent supplies Troops information or aid from reaching an opposing force Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening an enemy oppressor or employer through subversion obstruction disruption and/or destruction Ecotage is a Portmanteau of the "eco-" prefix and " Sabotage " Ecodefense A Field Guide To Monkeywrenching is a book edited by Dave Foreman, with a foreword by Edward Abbey. Often, disruptive direct action is used primarily as a stalling tactic in an attempt to prevent possible environmental destruction while Earth First! lawsuits try to secure long-term victories. In law a lawsuit is a civil action brought before a Court in which the party commencing the action the Plaintiff, seeks a legal or equitable remedy Reported tactics include road blockades, activists locking themselves to heavy equipment, tree-sitting, and sabotage of machinery.
Earth First! was known for providing information in the Earth First! Journal on the practice of tree-spiking and monkeywrenching (or ecotage) which have led to reports of injuries from such tactics, although no evidence that Earth First! was involved in related activity. New Zealand Beech trees that were being logged in 1998 in the Tuatapere area were spiked Monkeywrenching is Economic warfare by Sabotage, or Ecotage, with the intent to slow down or halt activities which the monkeywrencher perceives  In 1990, however, Judi Bari led Earth First! in the Northern California and Southern Oregon region to renounce these practices, calling them counterproductive to an effort to form a coalition with workers and small logging businesses to defeat large-scale corporate logging in Northern California. Judi Bari ( November 7, 1949 &ndash March 2, 1997) was an American Environmentalist and labor leader a Northern California is the northern portion of the US state of California. Oregon ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean.
Some critics of the movement still call Earth First! activity eco-terrorism, though Earth First! proponents say that the term more accurately describes the people who destroy the environment. Eco-terrorism, also called ecoterrorism or green terrorism, is Terrorism committed in support of ecological, environmental, or In response to being labeled terrorists, some Earth First! members have adopted the neologism terrist instead. A neologism (from Greek neo = "new" + logos = "word" is a word that although devised relatively recently in a specific time period has been
In 1990, a bomb was placed in Judi Bari's car, shattering her pelvis and also injuring fellow activist Darryl Cherney. A bomb is any of a range of devices that typically rely on the Exothermic Chemical reaction of an Explosive material to produce an extremely Darryl Cherney is a musician and environmental activist He is member of the Earth First! radical environmental movement Police and the Federal Bureau of Investigation suspected that they were responsible for the bomb but were unable to find any evidence tying them to the explosion. Bari died in 1997 of cancer, but her federal lawsuit against the FBI and Oakland, California police resulted in a 2002 jury verdict awarding her estate and Darryl Cherney a total of $4. Oakland (ˈoʊklənd founded in 1852 is the eighth-largest city in the U 4 million.  Eighty percent of the damages were awarded for violating their First and Fourth Amendment rights during the course of investigating the bombing. The First Amendment to the United States Constitution is part of the United States Bill of Rights that expressly prohibits the United States Congress The Fourth Amendment' ( Amendment IV) to the United States Constitution is a part of the Bill of Rights. 
Some theories have focused on Mike Sweeney, Bari's estranged ex-husband, who is alleged to have a history of domestic violence and political bombings dating back to the 60s. This theory has been advanced by Kate Coleman, author of The Secret Wars of Judi Bari, as well as Bruce Anderson, editor of the Anderson Valley Advertiser. This theory is dismissed by Friends of Judi Bari as part of a "right-wing funded smear" campaign. A smear campaign, smear tactic or simply smear is a Metaphor for activity that can harm an individual or group's reputation by conflation with Bari's supporters believe there is evidence the FBI helped plan the bombing, although there has never been a government investigation into this claim. Special Agent Richard W. Held, who supervised the Bari case for the FBI, was dismissed from the lawsuit in early 1997.
The Earth First! movement in the United Kingdom started in the 1990, when a group in Hastings Sussex organising an action at Dungeness nuclear power station in Kent. The environmental direct action movement in the United Kingdom started in 1990 with the forming of the first UK Earth First! group The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Hastings is a town on the coast of East Sussex in England; it is also the administrative centre for the Borough of the same name Sussex is a historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex. Nuclear power is any Nuclear technology designed to extract usable Energy from atomic nuclei via controlled Nuclear reactions KENT (1400 AM) is a Radio station broadcasting a Adult Standards/MOR format It grew rapidly, and many groups formed, with or without the EF! name, over the next years.
The first big Earth First! actions happened in 1992 and focused around the importation of tropical hardwoods. The first major action happened in London at Tilbury Docks. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Tilbury is a town in the borough of Thurrock, Essex, England. The second major action, the Merseyside Dock Action, attracted between 200-600 people who occupied Liverpool docks for two days. The Port of Liverpool is the name for the enclosed dock system that runs from Herculaneum Dock to Seaforth Dock, in the city of Liverpool, This action coincided with the Earth First! roadshow, in which a group of UK & US Earth Firsters toured the country. Other early campaign also focused on timber-yards, most notably Timbmet yard in Oxford. 
At the first national gathering in Sussex the debate focused on the use of criminal damage as a protest technique. Earth First! did not condone or condemn criminal damage, instead it focused more on non-violent direct action techniques. Nonviolence is a philosophy and strategy for social change that rejects the use of physical Violence. Some people at the gathering coined the term Earth Liberation Front (ELF), which became a separate movement which spread back to the US. The Earth Liberation Front ( ELF) also known as " Elves " or " The Elves " is the collective name for anonymous and autonomous Actions involving criminal damage did happen often under cover of night and were typically done under ELF banner and attributed to elves and pixies, giving a distinctly British feel to the movement. An elf is a creature of Norse mythology. The elves were originally imagined as a race of minor nature and fertility gods, who are often pictured as youthful-seeming Pixies (also Piskies and Pigsies as they are sometimes known in Cornwall) are mythical creatures of Folklore, considered to be particularly concentrated
Major growth in the direct action movement started when the focus shifted to roads, and a protest camp at Twyford Down was started, against the M3 in Hampshire. Twyford Down is a small area of ancient chalk Downland lying directly to the southeast of Winchester, Hampshire, England. Whilst Earth First! groups still played a major part, other groups such as the Dongas tribe soon formed. The Dongas Tribe were a UK road protest group in England originally noted for their occupation of Twyford Down outside Winchester, Hampshire Along with SchNEWS the Earth First! Action Update, Do or Die and , Earth First! gathering were key means of communication between the groups. SchNEWS is a free weekly publication from Brighton, England, which has been running since November 1994 The movement grew to many other road protest camps including Newbury bypass, the A30, the M11 link road protest in London, where whole streets were "squatted. The Newbury bypass, officially known as 'The Winchester-Preston Trunk Road (A34 (Newbury Bypass' is a stretch of Dual carriageway Road which bypasses The A30 is an old Trunk road (main road which runs from central London to Land's End, the westernmost point of the mainland of southern Great Britain ( though The M11 link road protest was an anti-road campaign in London, United Kingdom in the early 1990s " Later the focus winded to other campaigns including notably Reclaim the Streets, anti-GMO campaigns, Rising Tide, Peat Alert, Plane Stupid. Reclaim the Streets ( RTS) is a collective with a shared ideal of Community ownership of Public spaces Participants characterize the collective as a Plane Stupid is a UK focused non-violent direct action group that want to see an end to airport expansion and "unneccessary and unsustainable" short haul flights . . The growth of this wider movement is more extensively covered in environmental direct action in the United Kingdom. The environmental direct action movement in the United Kingdom started in 1990 with the forming of the first UK Earth First! group
The UK Earth First! groups differed considerably from the U. S. groups as reported in a ten year retrospective of the Earth First! by two of the founders Jake Bowers and Jason Torrance:
|“||We knew EF US's original hardline "rednecks for wilderness" attitude wouldn't appeal here, so we set out to build a group that combined radical action and social justice to protect Britain's few remaining natural places. ||”|