The Early Middle Ages is a period in the history of Europe following the fall of the Western Roman Empire spanning roughly five centuries from AD 500 to 1000. The history of Europe describes the passage of time from humans inhabiting the European continent to the present day The Western Roman Empire refers to the western half of the Roman Empire, from its division by Diocletian in 285 the other half of the Roman Empire was the Eastern Events By Place Europe Possible date for the Battle of Mons Badonicus: Romano-British and Celts defeat an Anglo-Saxon  Aspects of continuity with the earlier classical period are discussed in greater detail under the heading "Late Antiquity". Late Antiquity (c 300-600 is a Periodization used by historians to describe the transitional centuries from Classical Antiquity to the Middle Ages, in The Early Middle Ages were followed by the High Middle Ages. The High Middle Ages was the period of European history in the 11th 12th and 13th centuries (AD 1000&ndash1299
Starting in the second century, various indicators of Roman civilization began to decline, including urbanization, seaborne commerce, and population. Only 40 percent as many Mediterranean shipwrecks have been found for the third century as for the first.  The population of the Roman Empire shrank from 65 million in 150 to 50 million in 400, a decline of more than 20 percent. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Some have connected this to the Migration Period Pessimum (300-700), when there was a decline in temperature globally which reduced agricultural harvests. The Migration Period Pessimum (also referred to as Dark Ages Cold Period) was a period of unusually cold climate in the North Atlantic region lasting from about 
Migrating south from Scandinavia, the Germanic peoples reached the Black Sea early in the third century. They created confederations which proved more formidable opponents than the Sarmatians, whom the Romans had dealt with earlier. The Sarmatians, Sarmatae or Sauromatae ( Old Iranian Sarumatah 'archer' Σαρμάτες In Romania and the grassy steppes north of the Black Sea, the Goths, a Germanic people, created at least two kingdoms, one Therving, the other Greuthung. The Goths ( Gothic: Gothic usvg|14px|u]]Gothic asvg|14px|a]]Gothic s The Thervingi, Tervingi, or Teruingi (sometimes pluralised "Tervings" or "Thervings" were a Gothic people of the Danubian plains west The Greuthungs, Greuthungi, or Greutungi were a Gothic people of the Black Sea Steppes in the third and fourth centuries  The arrival of the Huns in 372-375 ended the history of these kingdoms. The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads with a Turkic core of aristocracy The Huns were a confederation of central Asian tribes who founded an empire with a Turkic-speaking aristocracy. They had mastered the difficult art of shooting composite recurve bows from horseback. A bow is a Weapon that projects arrows powered by the elasticity of the bow The Gothic people were forced to seek refuge in Roman territory (376). The Goths agreed to enter the Empire as unarmed settlers, but many bribed the Danube border guards into allowing them to bring their weapons with them.
The discipline and organization of a Roman legion made it a superb fighting machine. The Romans preferred infantry to cavalry because infantry could be trained to retain formation in combat, while cavalry tended to flee when faced with danger. But unlike a barbarian army, the legions required constant training and salaries that made them a huge expense for the empire. As agriculture and economic activity declined, taxes grew harder to collect, and the system came under strain.
In the Gothic War (376-382), the Goths revolted and confronted the main Roman army in the Battle of Adrianople (378). The second Battle of Adrianople ( August 9 378) sometimes known as the Battle of Hadrianopolis, was fought between a Roman army led by the Not wanting to share the glory, Eastern Emperor Valens ordered an attack on the Therving infantry under Fritigern without waiting for Western Emperor Gratian, who was on the way with reinforcements. This article is about the Roman Emperor For other people called Valens see Valens Flavius Julius Valens ( Latin: DOMINVS The Thervingi, Tervingi, or Teruingi (sometimes pluralised "Tervings" or "Thervings" were a Gothic people of the Danubian plains west Fritigern, or Fritigernus (died ca 380 was a Gothic war-leader whose military victories in the Gothic War (376-382 extracted favourable terms for the For other figures with this name see Gratian (disambiguation. While the Romans were fully engaged, the Greuthung cavalry arrived. Only one third of the Roman army managed to escape. It was the most shattering defeat that the Romans had suffered since Cannae, according to Roman military writer Ammianus Marcellinus. For the 11th century battle in the Byzantine conquest of the Mezzogiorno, see Battle of Cannae (1018. Amiricanus Gambilinus (325/330-after 391 was a fourth-century Roman historian. The core army of the eastern empire was destroyed, Valens killed, and the Goths freed to lay waste the Balkans, including the armories along the Danube. As Edward Gibbon comments, "The Romans, who so coolly and so concisely mention the acts of justice which were exercised by the legions, reserve their compassion and their eloquence for their own sufferings, when the provinces were invaded and desolated by the arms of the successful Barbarians. Edward Gibbon ( April 27, 1737 January 16, 1794) was an English historian and Member of Parliament. "
The empire lacked the resources, and perhaps the will, to reconstruct the professional mobile army that had been destroyed at Adrianople, so it was forced to rely on barbarian armies to fight on its behalf. The Eastern Roman Empire was able to buy off the Goths with tribute. The Western Roman Empire was less fortunate. The Western Roman Empire refers to the western half of the Roman Empire, from its division by Diocletian in 285 the other half of the Roman Empire was the Eastern Stilicho, the western empire's half-Vandal military commander, stripped the Rhine frontier of troops to fend off invasions of Italy by the Visigoths in 402-03 and by other Goths in 406-07. Flavius Stilicho (occasionally written as Stilico) (ca 359 &ndash August 22, 408) was a high-ranking general ( Magister militum The Rhine (Rhein Rijn Rhin Reno Rain Rhenus is one of the longest and most important Rivers in Europe at 1320 kilometres (820 mi with an average discharge
Fleeing before the terrifying advance of the Huns, the Vandals, Suebi, and Alans launched an attack across the frozen Rhine near Mainz; on December 31, 406, the frontier gave way and these tribes surged into Gaul. The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads with a Turkic core of aristocracy The Suebi or Suevi (from Proto-Germanic * swēbaz based on the Proto-Germanic root * swē- meaning "one's own" The Alans or Alani (occasionally but more rarely termed Alauni or Halani) were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people Mainz (ˈmaɪ̯nʦ (Mayence is a City in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. Events 406 – Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia. Events By Place Western Roman Empire Roman legions in Britain mutiny against Honorius and select Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western They were soon followed by the Burgundians and by bands of the Alamanni. The Burgundians or Burgundes were an East Germanic tribe which may have emigrated from mainland Scandinavia to the island of Bornholm, whose The Alamanni, Allemanni, or Alemanni were originally an alliance of Germanic tribes located around the upper Main river ( Germany In the fit of anti-barbarian hysteria which followed, Emperor Honorius had Stilicho summarily beheaded (408). Honorius may refer to Honorius (emperor (Flavius Augustus Honorius western Roman emperor 395-423 Honorius of Canterbury (Saint Honorius Stilicho submitted his neck, "with a firmness not unworthy of the last of the Roman generals," wrote Gibbon. Honorius was left with only worthless courtiers to advise him. In 410, the Visigoths led by Alaric I captured the city of Rome and for three days there was fire and slaughter as bodies filled the streets, palaces were stripped of their valuables, and those thought to have hidden wealth interrogated and tortured. Alaric I ( Alareiks in the original Gothic; Alarik or Alarich in modern Germanic languages Alaricus in Latin and Alarico As newly converted Christians, the Goths respected church property. But those who found sanctuary in the Vatican and in other churches were the fortunate few. Vatican City, officially the State of the Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano is a Landlocked sovereign City-state whose territory
The Goths and Vandals were only the first of many waves of invaders that flooded Western Europe. Some lived only for war and pillage and disdained Roman ways. Others admired Rome and wished to become its heirs. "A poor Roman plays the Goth, a rich Goth the Roman" said King Theodoric of the Ostrogoths. Theodoric the Great (454 – August 30, 526) known to the Romans as Flavius Theodoricus, was king of the Ostrogoths (471-526 ruler of 
The Romans were trinitarian Christians, the disciplined subjects of a long-established bureaucratic empire. The Germanic peoples knew little of cities, money, or writing. They were recent converts to Arian Christianity and were thus heretics to the churchmen of the empire. Arianism is the theological teaching of Arius (c AD 250-336 who was ruled a heretic by the Christian church at the Council of Nicea.
The era of the migrations has historically been termed the "Dark Ages" by some Western European historians, and as Völkerwanderung, or "wandering of the peoples", by German historians. This article is about the phrase "Dark Age(s" as a characterization of the Early Middle Ages in Western Europe The Migration Period, also called Barbarian Invasions, or sometimes Völkerwanderung ( German for "wandering of peoples" is the English name The term "Dark Ages" may have fallen from favour since the Second World War, partly to avoid the entrenched stereotypes associated with the phrase, but also because more recent research and archaeological findings from the period challenge old notions of backwardness in the arts, technology, political and social organizations.
The earlier settled population was left intact or only partially displaced. Whereas the peoples of France, Italy, and Spain continued to speak dialects of Latin, that today constitute the Romance languages, the language of the smaller Roman-era population of what is now England disappeared with barely a trace in the territories conquered by the Anglo-Saxons, although the Brittanic kingdoms of the west remained Brythonic speakers. The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages, or Neolatin languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family comprising all The Brythonic languages (or Brittonic languages or British languages) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family the other being The new peoples greatly altered established society, including law, culture, religion, and patterns of property ownership.
The pax Romana had provided safe conditions for trade and manufacture, and a unified cultural and educational milieu of far-ranging connections. Pax Romana ( Latin for " Roman Peace " was the long period of relative peace and minimal expansion by military force As this was lost, it was replaced by the rule of local potentates, sometimes members of the established Romanized ruling elite, sometimes new lords of alien culture. In Aquitania, Gallia Narbonensis, southern Italy and Sicily, Baetica or southern Spain, and the Iberian Mediterranean coast, Roman culture lasted until the sixth or seventh centuries. Gallia Narbonensis ( Narbonese Gaul) was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France. Hispania Baetica was one of three Imperial Roman provinces in Hispania, (modern Iberia)
Everywhere, the gradual break-down of economic and social linkages and infrastructure resulted in increasingly localized outlooks. This breakdown was often fast and dramatic as it became unsafe to travel or carry goods over any distance; there was a consequent collapse in trade and manufacture for export. Major industries that depended on trade, such as large-scale pottery manufacture, vanished almost overnight in places like Britain. Tintagel in Cornwall, as well as several other centres, managed to obtain supplies of Mediterranean luxury goods well into the sixth century, but then lost their trading links. Tintagel (tɪnˈtædʒəl with the stress on the second syllable Cornish: Dintagell) is a village situated on the Atlantic coast of Cornwall Cornwall ( Kernow ˈkɛɹnɔʊ is the most southwesterly county of England, on the Peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar Administrative, educational and military infrastructure quickly vanished, and the loss of the established cursus honorum led to the collapse of the schools and to a rise of illiteracy even among the leadership. The cursus honorum ( Latin: "course of honors" or "honors race" was the sequential order of Public offices held by aspiring The careers of Cassiodorus (died c. Flavius Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus Senator (c 485 - c 585 commonly known as Cassiodorus, was a Roman statesman and great writer serving in the administration 585) at the beginning of this period and of Alcuin of York (died 804) at its close were founded alike on their valued literacy. Alcuin of York (Alcuinus or Ealhwine, nicknamed Albinus or Flaccus (c
For the formerly Roman area, there was another 20 percent decline in population between 400 and 600, or a one third decline for 150-600.  In the eighth century, the volume of trade reached its lowest level since the Bronze Age. The very small number of shipwrecks found that dated from the 8th century supports this (which represents less than 2% of the number of shipwrecks dated from the first century CE). There was also reforestation and a retreat of agriculture that centred around 500. This phenomenon coincided with a period of rapid cooling, according to tree ring data.  The Romans had practised two-field agriculture, with a crop grown in one field and the other left fallow and ploughed under to eliminate weeds. With the gradual breakup of the institutions of the empire, owners were unable to stop their slaves from running away and the plantation system broke down. Systematic agriculture largely disappeared and yields declined to subsistence level.
The death of Theodosius I in 395 was followed by the division of the empire between his two sons. Flavius Theodosius (January 11 347 – January 17 395 also called Theodosius I and Theodosius the Great ( Greek: Θεοδόσιος Α΄ The Western Roman Empire disintegrated into a mosaic of warring Germanic kingdoms in the fifth century, making the Eastern Roman Empire in Constantinople the legal successor to the classical Roman Empire. The Western Roman Empire refers to the western half of the Roman Empire, from its division by Diocletian in 285 the other half of the Roman Empire was the Eastern After Greek replaced Latin as the official language of the Empire, historians refer to the empire as "Byzantine. Medieval Greek (Μεσαιωνική Ελληνική is a linguistic term that describes the fourth period in the history of the Greek language. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. " Westerners would gradually begin to refer to it as "Greek" rather than "Roman. " The inhabitants, however, always called themselves Romaioi, or Romans.
The Eastern Roman Empire aimed at retaining control of the trade routes between Europe and the Orient, which made the Empire the richest polity in Europe. Making use of their sophisticated warfare and superior diplomacy, the Byzantines managed to fend off assaults by the migrating barbarians. Their dreams of subduing the Western potentates briefly materialized during the reign of Justinian I in 527-565. Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus ( Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ιουστινιανός; known in English as Justinian I or Not only did Justinian restore some western territories to the Roman Empire, but he also codified Roman law (with his codification remaining in force in many areas of Europe until the 19th century) and built the largest and the most technically advanced edifice of the Early Middle Ages, the Hagia Sophia. Roman law is the legal system of Ancient Rome. As used in the West the term commonly refers to legal developments prior to the Roman/Byzantine state's adopting Hagia Sophia (Ayasofya Αγία Σοφία " Holy Wisdom " Sancta Sophia or Sancta Sapientia) is a former patriarchal Basilica, later A pandemic, the Plague of Justinian, however, marred Justinian's reign, infecting the Emperor, killing perhaps 40% of the people in Constantinople, and contributing to Europe's early medieval population decline. A pandemic (from Greek παν pan all + δήμος demos people is an Epidemic of Infectious disease that spreads through The Plague of Justinian was a Pandemic that afflicted the Byzantine Empire, including its capital Constantinople, in the years 541 – 542
Justinian's successors Maurice and Heraclius had to confront invasions of the Avar, Bulgar and Slavic tribes. Flavius Mauricius Tiberius Augustus (Φλάβιος Μαυρίκιος Τιβέριος Αύγουστος Մավրիկ Mavrig; 539 &ndash November 27 Heraclius, or Herakleios (Flavius Heraclius Augustus;) (c 575 - February 11, 641) was a Byzantine Emperor, who ruled the East The Caucasian Avars are a modern people of Caucasus, mainly of Dagestan. In 626 Constantinople, by far the largest city of early medieval Europe, withstood a combined siege by Avars and Persians. Events By Place Byzantine Empire The Byzantines defeat the Avars and Slavs, who were besieging Constantinople Within several decades, Heraclius completed a holy war against the Persians by taking their capital and having a Sassanid monarch assassinated. The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty or Sassanian Dynasty (ساسانیان) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian empire Yet Heraclius lived to see his spectacular success undone by the Arab conquest of Syria, Palestine, Egypt, and North Africa which was considerably facilitated by religious disunity and the proliferation of heretical movements (notably Monophysitism and Nestorianism) in the areas converted to Islam. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية Palestine is a name which has been widely used since Roman times to refer to the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning 'one alone' and physis meaning 'nature' or Monophysiticism is the Christological position that Nestorius Nestorius (c  386 &ndashc  451) was a pupil of Theodore of Mopsuestia in Antioch in Syria (modern
Although Heraclius's successors managed to salvage Constantinople from two Arab sieges (in 674-77 and 717), the empire of the 8th and early 9th century was rocked by the great Iconoclastic Controversy, punctuated by dynastic struggles between various factions at court. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS Iconoclasm, Greek for "image-breaking" is the deliberate destruction within a culture of the culture's own religious Icons and other symbols or monuments The Bulgar and Slavic tribes profited from these disorders and invaded Illyria, Thrace and even Greece (which they called Morea). Illyria ( Albanian Iliria ( Ancient Greek; Latin Illyria; see also Illyricum) was in Classical antiquity a region in the Thrace (Тракия Trakiya or "Trakija" or Trakia, Θράκη Thráki, Trakya is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Morea ( Greek: Μορέας or Μοριάς) was the name of the Peloponnese peninsula in southern Greece during the Middle Ages
To counter these threats, a new system of administration was introduced. The regional civil and military administration were combined in the hands of a general, or strategos. A theme, which formerly denoted a subdivision of the Byzantine army, came to refer to a region governed by a strategos. The reform led to the emergence of great landed families which controlled the regional military and often pressed their claims to the throne (see Bardas Phocas and Bardas Sklerus for characteristic examples). Bardas Phocas was an eminent Byzantine general who took a conspicuous part in three revolts pro and contra the ruling Macedonian dynasty. Bardas Skleros or Sclerus was a Byzantine general who led a wide-scale Asian Rebellion against Emperor Basil II in 976-979
By the early eighth century, notwithstanding the shrinking territory of the empire, Constantinople remained the largest and the wealthiest city of the entire world, comparable only to Sassanid Ctesiphon, and later Abassid Baghdad. For the Spanish saint see Ctesiphon of Vergium. Ctesiphon (قطسيفون تیسفون was one of the great cities of the Persian Empire Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous The population of the imperial capital fluctuated between 300,000 and 400,000 as the emperors undertook measures to restrain its growth. The only other large Christian cities were Rome (50,000) and Salonika (30,000). Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη), Thessalonica, or Salonica is the second-largest city in Greece and the capital of Macedonia  Even before the eighth century was out, the Farmer's Law signalled the resurrection of agricultural technologies in the Greek Empire. As the 2006 Encyclopædia Britannica noted, "the technological base of Byzantine society was more advanced than that of contemporary western Europe: iron tools could be found in the villages; water mills dotted the landscape; and field-sown beans provided a diet rich in protein". The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 
The ascension of the Macedonian dynasty in 867 marked the end of the period of political and religious turmoil and introduced a new golden age of the empire. The following is a list of emperors of the Byzantine Empire belonging to the Macedonian dynasty (also known as the Armenian Dynasty) of Armenian While the talented generals such as Nicephorus Phocas expanded the frontiers, the Macedonian emperors (such as Leo the Wise and Constantine VII) presided over the cultural flowering in Constantinople, known as the Macedonian Renaissance. This article is about the Byzantine Emperor There is also an article on Pope Leo VI Leo VI "the Wise" or "the Philosopher" Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos or Porphyrogenitus, "the Purple-born" ( Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Ζ΄ Πορφυρογέννητος The enlightened Macedonian rulers scorned the rulers of Western Europe as illiterate barbarians and maintained a nominal claim to rule over the West. Although this fiction had been exploded with the coronation of Charlemagne in Rome (800), the Byzantine rulers did not treat their Western counterparts as equals. Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his Generally, they had little interest in the political and economical developments in the barbarian (from their point of view) West.
Against this economic background, the culture and the imperial traditions of the Eastern Roman Empire attracted its northern neighbours — Slavs, Bulgars, and Khazars — to Constantinople, in search of either pillage or enlightenment. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS The movement of the Germanic tribes to the south triggered the great migration of the Slavs, who occupied the vacated territories. In the seventh century, they moved westward to the Elbe, southward to the Danube and eastward to the Dnieper. The Elbe ( die Elbe Low German: de Ilv) is one of the major Rivers of Central Europe. The Danube (In Donau from earlier Danuvius, Celtic *dānu, meaning "to flow run" Slovak and Polish Dunaj For the rocket see Dnepr rocket. For other uses see Dnieper (disambiguation. By the 9th century, the Slavs had expanded into sparsely inhabited territories to the south and east from these natural frontiers, peacefully assimilating the indigenous Illyrian and Finno-Ugric populations. The 9th century is the period from 801 to 900 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. Illyrians has come to refer to a broad ill-defined " Indo-European " group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans ( Illyria, roughly
Following the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, Abū Bakr (r. Muslims regard as Prophets of Islam ( Arabic: نبي) those non-divine humans chosen by Allah as Prophets IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics Early life Abu Bakr was born at Mecca some time in the year 573 CE, in the Banu Taym branch of the Quraysh tribe 632-34) became the first khalīfah or caliph of a newly unified polity under the Islamic faith in the Arabian peninsula. The Caliph is the Head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية šibh al-jazīra al-ʻarabīya or جزيرة العرب jazīrat al-ʻarab) The early Rashidun caliphs were both head of state and supreme religious authority while the later caliphs came to be seen as the political leader of Muslims. The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( ar الخلفاء الراشدون) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first The early caliphs were chosen by a shūrā, or council, in the same way that the head of an Arabian tribe or clan would be chosen. Shura is an ( Arabic شورَى | شورا word for "consultation" Abū Bakr launched a campaign in the ridda wars which brought central Arabia under Muslim control. The Ridda wars (Arabic حروب الردة also known as the Wars of Apostasy) were a set of military campaigns against the rebellion of several Arabic tribes against the The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية šibh al-jazīra al-ʻarabīya or جزيرة العرب jazīrat al-ʻarab) (633)
'Umar I (r. Umar (a=عمر بن الخطاب|t=`Umar ibn al-Khattāb c 581-83 CE &ndash 7 November, 644) also known as Umar the Great or Omar the Great 634-44), the second caliph, proclaimed himself "commander of the faithful" (amīr al-mu 'minīn). In the 630s, he brought Syria, Jordan, Palestine, and Iraq under Muslim control. Jordan, officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (الأردنّ al-Urdunn) is an Arab country in Southwest Asia spanning the southern For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Egypt was taken from the Byzantines in 645 by 'Uthmān, the third caliph. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Early life Uthman was born in Ta’if, which is situated on a hill and the presumption is that Uthman was born during the summer months since wealthy Meccans Abū Bakr, 'Umar I, 'Uthmān, and his successor Alī are remembered as the "rightly guided caliphs" who presided over a golden age of pure Islam. ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (a=علي بن أﺑﻲ طالب|t=ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib 13th Rajab, 24 BH – 21st Ramaḍān, 40 AH
Alī's caliphate started amid political controversy over the murder of Uthman and sparked a power struggle and the First Islamic civil war led by Mu'āwiyah, governor of Syria. The First Islamic Civil War (656–661 also called the First Fitna (a=فتنة مقتل عثمان|t=Fitnah Maqtal Uthmān was the first major Civil Mu'awiyah I (a=معاوية بن أبي سفيان|t=Mu‘āwīyah ibn Abī Sufyān 602-680 was a Sahaba (companion of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad When Alī, son-in-law of Muhammad, was killed while praying in Kufah, Iraq, Mu'āwiyah established the Ummayyad dynasty of caliphs (661–750) with Damascus as its capital. Kufa ( Arabic, ar الكوفة) is a city in modern Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. Damascus ( دمشق,, also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. Those who supported 'Alī, his son Husayn(who led a revolt against the Ummayyads), and their descendants would eventually became the Shī'ite sect. Husein, Hussein, Hossain, Hussain, Husain, Hosein, Husayn, Hussaini ( Arabic:حسین Under 'Abd al-Malik (r. Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (646-705 (عبد الملك بن مروان was the 5th Umayyad Caliph. 685–705), the Ummayyads reached their peak, conquering Central Asia, coastal North Africa, and Spain. Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east and from southern Russia in the north to northern Pakistan in the south North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Al-Malik also Arabized the state with Arabs replacing the Greek and Persian civil servants. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding
The conquest of Iberia commenced when the Moors (mostly Berbers with some Arabs) invaded the Christian Visigothic Iberia in the year 711, under their Berber leader Tariq ibn Ziyad. The Umayyad conquest of Hispania ( 711 – 718) began as an army of the Umayyad Caliphate consisting largely of Berbers inhabitants The description Moors has referred to several historic and modern populations of Muslim (and earlier non-Muslim people of Berber and Arab descent Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, or Wisi were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra Tariq Ibn Ziyad or Taric bin Zeyad (طارق بن زياد d 720 known in Spanish history and legend as Taric el Tuerto (Taric the one-eyed was They landed at Gibraltar on April 30 and worked their way northward. Gibraltar (dʒɨˈbrɒltər is a British overseas territory located near the southernmost tip of the Iberian Peninsula overlooking the Strait of Gibraltar Events 313 - Roman emperor Licinius unifies the entire Eastern Roman Empire under his rule Tariq's forces were joined the next year by those of his superior, Musa ibn Nusair. Musa bin Nusair also Musa ben Nusair or Musa Ibn Nusayr (موسى بن نصير 640—716 was a Syrian Muslim who served as a governor and general under During the eight-year campaign most of the Iberian Peninsula was brought under Muslim rule — save for small areas in the northwest (Asturias) and largely Basque regions in the Pyrenees. The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion The Principality of Asturias ( Spanish: Principado de Asturias, Asturian: Principáu d'Asturies or Asturies) is an The Basques (Euskaldunak are a people who inhabit a region spanning over parts of north-central Spain and southwestern France. The Pyrenees (Pirineos French: Pyrénées; Catalan: Pirineus; Occitan: Pirenèus; Aragonese: Perinés This territory, under the Arab name Al-Andalus, became part of the expanding Umayyad empire. Al-Andalus (الأندلس was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims or
The unsuccessful second siege of Constantinople (717) weakened the Umayyads and reduced their prestige. After their success in overrunning Iberia, the conquerors moved northeast across the Pyrenees, but were defeated by the Frankish leader Charles Martel at the Battle of Tours in 732. Francia or Frankia, later also called the Frankish Empire (imperium Francorum Frankish Kingdom (Latin regnum Francorum, "Kingdom of the Charles "The Hammer" Martel (Carolus Martellus Charles "the Hammer" (ca The Battle of Tours (October 10 732 also called the Battle of Poitiers and in معركة بلاط الشهداء (ma‘arakat Balâṭ ash-Shuhadâ’ Battle of Court For the area code see Area code 732. Events By Place Europe October 10 — Battle of The Umayyads were overthrown in 750 by the 'Abbāsids and most of the Umayyad clan massacred.
A surviving Umayyad prince, Abd-ar-rahman I, escaped to Spain and founded a new Umayyad dynasty in the Emirate of Cordoba, (756). Abd ar-Rahman I Arabic (عبد الرحمن الداخل (known as the "Falcon of Andalus" or "The Falcon of the Quraish " (born 731 ruled from 756 through The Caliphate of Córdoba (Arabic خلافة قرطبة ruled the Iberian peninsula ( Al-Andalus) and North Africa from the city of Charles Martel's son, Pippin the Short retook Narbonne, and his grandson Charlemagne established the Marca Hispanica across the Pyrenees in part of what today is Catalonia, reconquering Girona in 785 and Barcelona in 801. Pepin or Pippin (714 &ndash 24 September 768) called the Short, and often known as Pepin the Younger or Pepin III, was Narbonne ( Narbona in Catalan and in Occitan, the Roman Narbo) is a commune in southwestern France in the The Marca Hispanica (or Spanish March, also March of Barcelona) was a Buffer zone beyond the province of Septimania, created by Charlemagne Catalonia (Cataluña Catalunya Aranese: Catalonha) is an Autonomous Community in the northeast part of Spain. Girona ( Catalan: Girona ʒiˈɾonə Spanish: Gerona xeˈɾona is a city located in the northeast of Catalonia, Spain Barcelona ( Catalan bəɾsəˈlonə Spanish baɾθeˈlona is the capital and most populous city of the Autonomous Community of Catalonia
The unified Muslim caliphate disintegrated over the course of the ninth century as the Idrisids and Aghlabids of North Africa and the Samanids of Persia gained independence. The Idrisids ( Arabic, الأدارسة) were the first Sayyid Shia dynasty in the western Maghreb ruling from 788 The Aghlabid dynasty of emirs members of the Arab tribe of Bani Tamim, ruled Ifriqiya (northern Africa nominally on behalf of the Abbasid The Samanids (819–999 ( Sāmāniyān) were a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and Greater Khorasan, named after its founder Saman Eventually, the Shiite Fatimids set up a rival caliphate in Tunisia (920). Tunisia (تونس Tūnis officially the Tunisian Republic ( is a country located in North Africa. The Umayyids in Spain soon proclaimed themselves caliphs as well (929). The Buwayhids (Persian Shiites) gained control of Baghdad in 934. The Buyids (آل بویه Āl-e Buye, Caspian: Bowyiyün also known as Buwaihids or Buyyids, were a Shī‘ah Iranian In 972, the Fatimids conquered Egypt.
Conditions in Western Europe began to improve after 700 as Europe experienced an agricultural boom that would continue until at least 1100.  A study of limestone deposited in the Mediterranean seabed concludes that there was a substantial increase in solar radiation received between 600 and 900.  The first signs of Europe's recovery on the battlefield are the defense of Constantinople in 717 and the victory of the Franks over the Arabs at the Battle of Tours in 732. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS The Battle of Tours (October 10 732 also called the Battle of Poitiers and in معركة بلاط الشهداء (ma‘arakat Balâṭ ash-Shuhadâ’ Battle of Court
Between the fifth and eighth centuries a political and social infrastructure developed across the lands of the former empire, based upon powerful regional noble families, and the newly established kingdoms of the Ostrogoths in Italy, Visigoths in Spain and Portugal, Franks and Burgundians in Gaul and western Germany. The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi or Austrogothi were a branch of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe that played a major role in the political events of the late Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, or Wisi were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group The Burgundians or Burgundes were an East Germanic tribe which may have emigrated from mainland Scandinavia to the island of Bornholm, whose Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. These lands remained Christian, and their Arian conquerors were converted (Visigoths and Lombards) or conquered (Ostrogoths and Vandals). Arianism is the theological teaching of Arius (c AD 250-336 who was ruled a heretic by the Christian church at the Council of Nicea. The Franks converted directly from paganism to Catholic Christianity under Clovis I. Clovis I (c 466 &ndash 27 November 511) was the first King of the Franks to unite all the Frankish tribes under one ruler The interaction between the culture of the newcomers, their warband loyalties, the remnants of classical culture, and Christian influences, produced a new model for society, based in part on feudal obligations. Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed The centralized administrative systems of the Romans did not withstand the changes, and the institutional support for chattel slavery largely disappeared. The Anglo-Saxons in England also started to convert from heathenism with the arrival of Christian missionaries around the year 600. For their language see Anglo-Saxon language. Anglo-Saxon is the term usually used to describe the invading Tribes in the south England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Anglo-Saxon paganism refers to the Migration Period religion practiced by the English in 5th to 7th century England. Events By Place World The population of the Earth rises to about 208 million people Unlike that of the France, two major forms of Christianity existed in England, Roman Catholicism in the south and Celtic Christianity in the north. This came to a head at the Synod of Whitby in 664 after which Roman practices proved to be dominant. The Synod of Whitby was a seventh century Northumbrian Synod where King Oswiu of Northumbria ruled that his kingdom would calculate Easter and Events By Place Asia Arab armies conquer Kabul. Kuo Wu Tsung of Tang comes to Japan
The Lombards, who first entered Italy in 568 under Alboin, carved out a state in the north, with its capital at Pavia. The Lombards ( Latin Langobardi, whence the alternative names Langobards and Longobards) were a Germanic people originally from The history of Corsica in the Medieval period begins with the collapse of the Western Roman Empire and the invasions of various Germanic peoples The Lombards ( Latin Langobardi, whence the alternative names Langobards and Longobards) were a Germanic people originally from Events By Place Europe April 1 — King Alboin leads the Lombards into Italy refugees fleeing from them go on Alboin or Alboïn (died 572 or 573 was king of the Lombards, and conqueror of Italy. Pavia (pronounced Pavìa,) the ancient Ticinum, is a town and Comune of south-western Lombardy, northern Italy, 35 km south At first, they were unable to conquer the Exarchate of Ravenna, the Ducatus Romanus, and Calabria and Apulia. The Exarchate of Ravenna or of Italy was a centre of Byzantine power in Italy, from the end of the 6th century to 751, when the For the football club see SS Lazio Lazio ( Latium in Latin) is a regione of central Calabria ( Latin: Brutium) is a region in southern Italy, south of Naples, located at the "toe" of Apulia ( Italian: Puglia) is a region in southeastern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea in the east the Ionian Sea The next two hundred years were occupied in trying to conquer these territories from the Byzantine Empire.
The Lombard state was truly barbarian in custom compared with the earlier Germanic states of Western Europe. It was highly decentralized at first, with the territorial dukes having practical sovereignty in their duchies, especially in the southern duchies of Spoleto and Benevento. The independent Duchy of Spoleto was a Lombard territory founded about 570 in Central Italy by the Lombard Dux Faroald. The Duchy and later Principality of Benevento was the southernmost Lombard duchy in medieval Italy centred on Benevento, a city central in the Mezzogiorno For a decade following the death of Cleph in 575, the Lombards did not elect a king and the period is called the Rule of the Dukes. Cleph (also Clef, Clepho, or Kleph; in Italian, Clefi) was king of the Lombards from 572 or 573 to 574 or 575 Events By Place Europe The Kingdom of East Anglia is founded by the Angle groups "North Folk" and "South The Rule of the Dukes was an Interregnum in the Lombard Kingdom of Italy (574/5&ndash584/5 during which Italy was ruled by the Lombard Dukes The first written legal code was composed in poor Latin in 643: the Edictum Rothari. Events By Place Europe Rothari King of the Lombards, issues the Lombard law code The Edictum Rothari (also Edictus Rothari or Edictum Rotharis) was the first written compilation of Lombard Law, codified and promulgated It was primarily the codification of the oral legal tradition of the people.
The Lombard state was well-organized and stabilized by the end of the long reign of Liutprand (717–744), but its collapse was sudden. Liutprand was the king of the Lombards from 712 to 744 and is chiefly remembered for his Donation of Sutri, in 728 and his long reign which brought him into a series Events By Place Europe March 21 — The Battle of Vincy is fought between Charles Martel and Ragenfrid. For the aircraft see Boeing_747-400 Events By Place Europe February — Hildeprand succeeds Liutprand Unsupported by the dukes, King Desiderius was defeated and forced to surrender his kingdom to Charlemagne in 774. Desiderius (also known as Daufer or Dauferius; Didier in French and Desiderio in Italian) was the last king of the Events By Place Europe Charlemagne conquers the kingdom of the Lombards, and takes title King of the Lombards The Lombard kingdom came to an end and a period of Frankish rule was initiated. The Frankish king Pepin the Short had, by the Donation of Pepin, given the pope the "Papal States" and the territory north of that swath of papally-governed land was ruled primarily by Lombard and Frankish vassals of the Holy Roman Emperor until the rise of the city-states in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Pepin or Pippin (714 &ndash 24 September 768) called the Short, and often known as Pepin the Younger or Pepin III, was See also Donation of Constantine The "Donation of Pepin" in 756 provided a legal basis for the erection of the Papal States, which extended The Papal States, State(s of the Church or Pontifical States (in Italian Stato Ecclesiastico, Stato della Chiesa, Stati della Chiesa The Holy Roman Emperor (Römischer Kaiser or Römisch-Deutscher Kaiser Romanorum Imperator was the elected monarch ruling over the many varying numbers of states
In the south, a period of anarchy began. The duchy of Benevento maintained its sovereignty in the face of the pretensions of both the Western and Eastern Empires. In the ninth century, the Saracens conquered Sicily and began settling in the peninsula. Saracen was a term used by Europeans in the Middle Ages for Fatimids at first then later for all who professed the religion of Islam. Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. The coastal cities on the Tyrrhenian Sea departed from Byzantine allegiance. The Tyrrhenian Sea (Mar Tirreno is part of the Mediterranean Sea off of the western coast of Italy. Various states owing various nominal allegiances fought constantly over territory until events came to a head in the early eleventh century with the coming of the Normans, who conquered the whole of the south by the end of the century. The Normans were the people who gave their names to Normandy, a region in northern France.
In the mid-5th century several tribes from modern Germany, Holland, and Denmark began sporadic and marginally successful invasions of Britain, at that point a neglected Roman province. The History of Anglo-Saxon England covers the history of Early medieval England from the end of Roman Britain and the establishment of Anglo-Saxon The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in Anno Domini / Common Era. Traditionally, two Jutish chieftains named Hengest and Horsa were promised land by the powerful British king Vortigern in exchange for routing the warlike Pict tribe. Horsa, according to tradition was a fifth century warrior and brother of Hengest who took part in the invasion and conquest of Britain from its native Vortigern (ˈvɔrtɨɡɝːn also spelled Vortiger and Vortigen and in Welsh Gwrtheyrn was a 5th century warlord in Britain, a leading ruler among The Picts were a Confederation of tribes in what was later to become eastern and northern Scotland from Roman times until the 10th century According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, after they defeated the Picts, "They sent to Angeln and called on them to send more forces, and to tell people about the worthlessness of the Britons and the merits of their land. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of Annals in Old English chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons. " This marked the beginning of decades of invasion and conquest of southern and central Britain, by such Germanic peoples as the Jutes, Angles, and Saxons. The Jutes, Iuti, or Iutae were a Germanic people who according to Bede were one of the three most powerful Germanic peoples of the time The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestral region of Angeln, a modern district located in The Saxons or Saxon people were a Confederation of Old Germanic tribes. At least 50 percent of England's original Celtic inhabitants were killed off in the process.  The Anglo-Saxons eventually established several kingdoms of differing longevity and significance. King Alfred the Great (871-899) of Wessex led Anglo-Saxon resistance to the invading Danish forces. Alfred the Great (also Ælfred from the Old English Ælfrēd ˈælfreːd (c West Saxon redirects here For other meanings of Wessex or West Saxon see Wessex (disambiguation. The unification of England was completed in 926 when Northumbria was annexed by King Athelstan, a grandson of Alfred.
The Merovingians established themselves in the power vacuum of the former Roman provinces in Gaul, and Chlodwig I following his victory over the Alemanni at the Battle of Tolbiac (496) converted to Christianity, laying the foundation of the Frankish Empire, the dominant state of medieval Western Christendom. The Merovingians (also Merovings) were a Salian Frankish dynasty that came to rule the Franks in a region (known as Francia in Latin Clovis I (c 466 &ndash 27 November 511) was the first King of the Franks to unite all the Frankish tribes under one ruler The Alamanni, Allemanni, or Alemanni were originally an alliance of Germanic tribes located around the upper Main river ( Germany The Battle of Tolbiac was fought between the Franks under Clovis I and the Alamanni, traditionally set in 496. Francia or Frankia, later also called the Frankish Empire (imperium Francorum Frankish Kingdom (Latin regnum Francorum, "Kingdom of the
Starting with the Frankish realms at the beginning of the ninth century, Charlemagne united much of modern day France, western Germany and northern Italy into the Carolingian Empire. Francia or Frankia, later also called the Frankish Empire (imperium Francorum Frankish Kingdom (Latin regnum Francorum, "Kingdom of the Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his Carolingian Empire is a historiographical term sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the Carolingian dynasty. Scholarship and Classical learning flourished under Charlemagne leading to what twentieth-century historians called the "Carolingian Renaissance". The Carolingian Renaissance was a period of intellectual and cultural revival occurring in the late eighth and ninth centuries with the peak of the activities
The 840s saw renewed disorder, with the breakup of the Frankish Empire and the beginning of a new cycle of barbarian raids, at first by the Vikings and later by the Magyars. A Viking is one of the Norse ( Scandinavian Explorers Warriors Merchants, and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas Hungarians (or Magyars, magyarok are an Ethnic group primarily associated with Hungary.
Around 800, there was a return to systematic agriculture in the form of the open field, or strip, system. This article is about the medieval system "Manors" redirects here The open field system was the prevalent Agricultural system in much of Europe from the Middle Ages to as recently as the 20th century in places A manor would have several fields each subdivided into one-acre strips of land. This article is about the medieval system "Manors" redirects here This was considered to be the amount of land an ox could plough before taking a rest, according to one theory. Another possibility is that the holdings were originally rectangular and were split into strips because of the way land was inherited. In the idealized form of the system, each family got thirty such strips of land. The three-field system of crop rotation was first developed in the ninth century: wheat or rye was planted in one field, the second field had a nitrogen-fixing crop (barley, oats, peas, or beans), and third was fallow.  Compared to the earlier two-field system, a three-field system allows for significantly more land to be put under cultivation. Even more important, the system allows for two harvests a year, reducing the risk that a single crop failure will lead to famine. Three-field agriculture creates a surplus of oats that can be used to feed horses.  Because the system required a major rearrangement of real estate and the social order, it took until the 11th century before it came into general use. The heavy wheeled plough was introduced in the late 10th century. It required greater animal power and promoted the use of teams of oxen. Illuminated manuscripts depict two-wheeled ploughs with both a mouldboard, or curved metal ploughshare, and a coulter, a vertical blade in front of the ploughshare. The Romans had used light, wheelless ploughs with flat iron shares that often proved unequal to the heavy soils of northern Europe.
The return to systemic agriculture coincided with the introduction of a new social system called feudalism. Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed This system featured a hierarchy of reciprocal obligations. Each man was bound to serve his superior in return for the latter's protection. This made for confusion of territorial sovereignty since allegiances were subject to change over time, and were sometimes mutually contradictory. Feudalism allowed the state to provide a degree of public safety despite the continued absence of bureaucracy and written records. Even land ownership disputes were decided based solely on oral testimony. Territoriality was reduced to a network of personal allegiances.
The Viking Age spans the period between AD 793 and 1066 in Scandinavia and Britain, following the Germanic Iron Age (and the Vendel Age in Sweden). Viking Age is the term denoting the years from about 700 to 1066 in European history. Events By Place Europe June 8 - Viking age: Vikings sack the Monastery of Lindisfarne, Northumbria Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands The Germanic Iron Age is the name given to the period AD 400 –A Swedish prehistory the Vendel era ( 550 - 793) is the name given to a part of the Germanic Iron Age (or more generally the Age of Migrations During this period, the Vikings, Scandinavian warriors and traders, raided and explored most parts of Europe, south-western Asia, northern Africa and north-eastern North America. A Viking is one of the Norse ( Scandinavian Explorers Warriors Merchants, and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas Apart from exploring Europe by way of its oceans and rivers with the aid of their advanced navigational skills and extending their trading routes across vast parts of the continent, they also engaged in warfare and looted and enslaved numerous Christian communities of Medieval Europe for centuries, contributing to the development of feudal systems in Europe.
Prior to the rise of the Kievan Rus, the eastern frontier of Europe had been dominated by the Khazars, a Turkic people who had gained independence from the Turkic Empire by the seventh century. Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Русь romanised: Kievskaya Rus', rusʲ also written as Kyivan Rus′ (Ки́ївська Русь or Kievan "Kazar" redirects here for the Marvel Comics character see Ka-Zar; for the village in Azerbaijan see Xəzər. Khazaria was a multiethnic commercial state which derived its well-being from control of river trade between Europe and the Orient. They also exacted tribute from the Alani, Magyars, various Slavic tribes, the Goths and Greeks of Crimea. The Alans or Alani (occasionally but more rarely termed Alauni or Halani) were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people Hungarians (or Magyars, magyarok are an Ethnic group primarily associated with Hungary. Crimea (kraɪˈmiːə or the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Крим Автономна Республіка Крим Avtonomna Respublika Krym; Крым Through a network of Jewish itinerant merchants, or Radhanites, they were in contact with the trade emporiums of India and Spain. The Radhanites (also Radanites, Hebrew sing רדהני Radhani, pl India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.
Once they found themselves confronted by Arab expansionism, the Khazars pragmatically allied themselves with Constantinople and clashed with the Califate. A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfa) is the political leadership of the Muslim community in classical and medieval Islamic history Despite initial setbacks, they managed to recover Derbent and eventually penetrated as far south as Caucasian Iberia, Caucasian Albania and Armenia. Derbent (Дербе́нт Azeri: Dərbənd; Lezgian: Дербент Avar: Дербенд; Persian: دربند Darband This article is about the people of ancient Georgia For the Iberians of ancient Iberian Peninsula see Iberians. This region should not be confused with modern-day Albania in south-eastern Europe. Armenia (Հայաստան transliterated: Hayastan,) officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Hayastani In doing so, they effectively blocked the northward expansion of Islam into Eastern Europe several decades before Charles Martel achieved the same in Western Europe. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent. Charles "The Hammer" Martel (Carolus Martellus Charles "the Hammer" (ca 
In the seventh century, the northern littoral of the Black Sea was hit with a fresh wave of nomadic attacks, led by the Bulgars, who established a powerful khanate of Great Bulgaria under the leadership of Kubrat. The Black Sea is an inland Sea bounded by southeastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Anatolian peninsula ( Turkey The Bulgars (also Bolgars or proto-Bulgarians) were a seminomadic people probably of Turkic descent originally from Central Asia, Old Great Bulgaria or Great Bulgaria (Стара Велика България Παλαιά Μεγάλη Βουλγαρία in Byzantine chronicles alternative Kubrat or Kurt (Кубрат Χουβρατις was a Bulgar ruler credited with establishing the confederation of Old Great Bulgaria in 632 The Khazars managed to oust the Bulgars from Southern Ukraine into the middle reaches of the Volga (Volga Bulgaria) and into the lower reaches of the Danube (Danube Bulgaria, or the First Bulgarian Empire). Volga Bulgaria or Volga-Kama Bolghar, is an historic state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of The Danube (In Donau from earlier Danuvius, Celtic *dānu, meaning "to flow run" Slovak and Polish Dunaj The First Bulgarian Empire (Първo Българско царство Părvo Bălgarsko Tsarstvo) was a Medieval Bulgarian state founded in AD 632 The Danube Bulgars were quickly Slavicized and, despite constant campaigning against Constantinople, accepted the Greek form of Christianity. Through the efforts of two local missionaries, Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius, the first Slavic alphabet came into being and a vernacular dialect, now known as Old Church Slavonic, was established as a language of books and liturgy. Saints Cyril and Methodius (Κύριλλος και Μεθόδιος Old Church Slavonic: Кѷриллъ и Меѳодїи) were two Byzantine Greek brothers born Saints Cyril and Methodius (Κύριλλος και Μεθόδιος Old Church Slavonic: Кѷриллъ и Меѳодїи) were two Byzantine Greek brothers born to make sure old Cyrillic letters are displayed properly (For example instead of just Ѣ write Ѣ
To the north from the Byzantine periphery, the first attested Slavic polity was Great Moravia, which emerged under the aegis of the Frankish Empire in the early 9th century. Great Moravia (see Name section was a Slavic state that existed in Central Europe from the 9th century to the early 10th century Until its defragmentation in consequence of the conflicts with the East Franks a century later, Moravia was a stage for confrontation between the Christian missionaries from Constantinople and from Rome. East ( ern) Francia ( Regnum Francorum orientalium) known variously as Francia Orientalis or the Kingdom of the East Franks, was the Although the West Slavs eventually acknowledged the Roman ecclesiastical authority, the clergy of Constantinople succeeded in converting into the Greek faith the largest state of contemporary Europe, Kievan Rus, towards 990. Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Русь romanised: Kievskaya Rus', rusʲ also written as Kyivan Rus′ (Ки́ївська Русь or Kievan Led by a Varangian dynasty, the Kievan Rus controlled the routes connecting Northern Europe to Byzantium and the Orient. The Varangians or Varyags ( Old Norse: Væringjar Greek: Βάραγγοι Βαριάγοι Váraggoi / Varyágoi, Ukrainian The trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks (Путь «из варяг в греки» Put iz varyag v greki) was a Trade route, which connected Scandinavia
Both before and after the Christianization, the Rus staged predatory raids against Constantinople, some of which resulted in the mutually beneficial trade treaties. The importance of Russo-Byzantine relations is highlighted by the fact that Vladimir I of Kiev was the only foreigner who married a Byzantine princess of the Macedonian dynasty, a singular honour which many rulers of Western Europe sought in vain. Saint Vladimir Svyatoslavich the Great ( Old Russian: Володимеръ Святославичь, c The military campaigns of Vladimir's father, Svyatoslav I, had crushed the statehood of two strongest powers of Eastern Europe, namely the Bulgars and the Khazars. Sviatoslav I of Kiev ( Old East Slavic: С~тославъ (Свąтославъ Игорєвичь ( Sventoslavŭ Igorevichǐ) Russian: ru Святослав
In 681 the Bulgarians founded a powerful state which played a major role in Europe and specifically in South Eastern Europe until its fall under Turkish rule in 1396. Bulgarian Empire (Българско царство Balgarsko tsarstvo ˈʦar Theodore the Studite', also called St Theodore of Stoudios or St Theodore of Studium (759 - 826 was a Byzantine monk and abbot of Events By Place Byzantine Empire The Bulgars win the war with the Byzantine Empire; the latter signs a peace treaty which The Bulgarians (българи balgari) are a South Slavic people generally associated with the Republic of Bulgaria and the Bulgarian language In 718 the Bulgarians decisively defeated the Arabs near Constantinople, and their ruler Khan Tervel became known as "The Saviour of Europe". For the area code see Area code 718 Events By Place Europe Tervel 's reign as monarch of Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS Tervel (Тервел also called Tarvel, or Terval, or Terbelis in some Byzantine sources was the ruler of the Bulgars at the beginning Bulgaria effectively stopped the barbarian tribes (Pechenegs, Khazars) from migrating further to the west and in 806 destroyed the Avar Khanate. The Pechenegs or Patzinaks ( Turkish: Peçenekler, Hungarian: Besenyő, Greek: Patzinaki/Petsenegi or Πατζινάκοι/Πετσενέγοι/Πατζινακίται "Kazar" redirects here for the Marvel Comics character see Ka-Zar; for the village in Azerbaijan see Xəzər. Events By Place Asia Emperor Heizei succeeds Emperor Kammu as Emperor of Japan. Under the first Emperor Simeon I (893-927), the state was the largest in Europe, threatening the existence of Byzantium. Simeon I may refer to Simeon I of Bulgaria Simeon of Russia Simon I (High Priest (in the Temple in Jerusalem This article is about the city See also Byzantine Empire. Byzantium ( Greek: Βυζάντιον Latin: la BYZANTIVM
After the adoption of Christianity in 864, Bulgaria became the cultural and spiritual centre of the Eastern Orthodox Slavic world. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Events By Place Europe July 25 - Edict of Pistres: Charles the Bald orders defensive measures against the Vikings The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world The Cyrillic alphabet was invented by the Bulgarian scholar Clement of Ohrid in 885. The Cyrillic alphabet (səˈrɪlɪk also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters is actually a family of Alphabets, subsets of which are used by Saint Clement of Ohrid (Свети Климент Охридски sve'ti 'kliment 'oxridski (ca Events By Place Europe The Vikings besiege Paris. Godfrith the Sea King is killed in Lobith. Literature, art and architecture were thriving with the establishment of the Preslav and Ohrid Literary Schools,and the Preslav Ceramics School. The Preslav Literary School (Pliska Literary School was the first literary school in the medieval Bulgarian Empire. The Ohrid Literary School was one of the two major medieval Bulgarian cultural centres along with the Preslav Literary School ( Pliska Literary School) In 927 the Bulgarian Orthodox Church was the first European national Church to gain independence with its own Patriarch. Events Asia The Chu State is founded by Ma Yin. Korea: Hubaekje sacks the Silla capital of The Bulgarian Orthodox Church (Българска православна църква Bălgarska pravoslavna cărkva) is an Autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church
With the end of the Western Roman Empire and urban centres in decline, literacy and learning decreased in the West. Education became the preserve of monasteries and cathedrals. A "Renaissance" of classical education would appear in Carolingian Empire in the 8th century. In the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium), learning (in the sense of formal education involving literature) was maintained at a higher level than in the West. Further to the east, Islam conquered many of the Eastern Patriarchates, and it outstripped Christian lands in science, philosophy, and other intellectual endeavors in a "golden age" of learning.
The classical education system, which would persist for hundreds of years, emphasized grammar, Latin, Greek, and rhetoric. Pupils read and reread classic works and wrote essays imitating their style. By the fourth century, this education system was Christianized. In De Doctrina Christiana (started 396, completed 426), Augustine explained how classical education fits into the Christian worldview. Christianity was a religion of the book, so Christians must be literate. Preaching required learning the classical principles of rhetoric. Rhetoric has had many definitions no simple definition can do it justice Tertullian was more sceptical of the value of classical learning, asking "What has Athens to do with Jerusalem?" But even he did not object to Christian enrollment in classical schools. Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, Anglicised as Tertullian, (ca
De-urbanization reduced the scope of education and by the sixth century teaching and learning moved to monastic and cathedral schools, with the center of education being the study of the Bible.  Education of the laity survived modestly in Italy, Spain, and the southern part of Gaul, where Roman influences were most long-lasting. However, in the seventh century, learning began to emerge in Ireland and the Celtic lands, where Latin was a foreign language and Latin texts were eagerly studied and taught. 
In the ancient world, Greek was the primary language of science. In the Middle Ages, Science progressed dramatically from the time of antiquity in areas as diverse as Astronomy, Medicine, and Mathematics Advanced scientific research and teaching was mainly carried on in the Hellenistic side of the Roman empire, in Greek. This article focuses on the cultural aspects of the Hellenistic age for the historical aspects see Hellenistic period. Late Roman attempts to translate Greek writings into Latin had limited success.  As the knowledge of Greek declined, the Latin West found itself cut off from its Greek philosophical and scientific roots. Latin-speakers who wanted to learn about science had access to only a couple of books by Boethius (c. Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius (480&ndash524 or 525 was a Christian philosopher of the 6th century 470-524) (that summarized Greek handbooks by Nicomachus of Gerasa) and the works of other Latin encyclopedists. Nicomachus (Νικόμαχος (c 60 &ndash c 120 was an important mathematician in the ancient world and is best known for his works Introduction to Arithmetic An encyclopedia (or '''encyclopædia''') is a comprehensive written Compendium that contains Information on either all branches of Knowledge
The leading scholars of the early centuries were clergyman for whom the study of nature was but a small part of their interest. Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given Religion. Nature, in the broadest sense is equivalent to the natural world, physical universe, material world or material universe. The study of nature was pursued more for practical reasons than as an abstract inquiry: the need to care for the sick led to the study of medicine and of ancient texts on drugs, the need for monks to determine the proper time to pray led them to study the motion of the stars, the need to compute the date of Easter led them to study and teach rudimentary mathematics and the motions of the Sun and Moon.  Modern readers may find it disconcerting that sometimes the same works discuss both the technical details of natural phenomena and their symbolic significance. 
Even though not much progress occurred in the Early Middle Ages, the period laid the foundations for important scientific developments in the High Middle Ages and beyond. 
The modern stereotype of this Age as a time of backwardness is reflected in popular misconceptions related to the history of science. The Middle Ages in history is an overview of how previous periods have both romanticised and disparaged the Middle Ages. Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers Notions such as: "the rise of Christianity killed off ancient science", "the medieval Christian Church suppressed the growth of the natural sciences", "the medieval Christians thought that the world was flat", and "the Church prohibited autopsies and dissections during the Middle Ages", are all reported by Ronald Numbers and others as examples of widely popular myths that still pass as historical truth, even though they are not supported by historical research. Ronald L Numbers (born 1942 is an American historian of science 
Around 800, there was renewed interest in Classical Antiquity as part of the Carolingian Renaissance. Classical antiquity (also the classical era or classical period) is a broad term for a long period of cultural History centered on the Mediterranean The Carolingian Renaissance was a period of intellectual and cultural revival occurring in the late eighth and ninth centuries with the peak of the activities Charles the Great carried out a reform in education. Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency The English monk Alcuin of York elaborated a project of scholarly development aimed at resuscitating classical knowledge by establishing programmes of study based upon the seven liberal arts: the trivium, or literary education (grammar, rhetoric and dialectic) and the quadrivium, or scientific education (arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and music). England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Alcuin of York (Alcuinus or Ealhwine, nicknamed Albinus or Flaccus (c The term liberal arts refers to a particular type of educational Curriculum broadly defined as a Classical education. Grammar is the field of Linguistics that covers the Rules governing the use of any given natural language. Rhetoric has had many definitions no simple definition can do it justice In classical Philosophy, dialectic (διαλεκτική is controversy the exchange of arguments and counter-arguments respectively advocating Propositions Arithmetic or arithmetics (from the Greek word αριθμός = number is the oldest and most elementary branch of mathematics used by almost everyone Geometry ( Greek γεωμετρία; geo = earth metria = measure is a part of Mathematics concerned with questions of size shape and relative position Astronomy (from the Greek words astron (ἄστρον "star" and nomos (νόμος "law" is the scientific study Music is an Art form in which the medium is Sound organized in Time. From the year 787 on, decrees began to circulate recommending, in the whole empire, the restoration of old schools and the founding of new ones. Events By Place Europe Canual succeeds Talorgen as king of the Picts. A decree is an order made by a Head of state or government and having the force of Law. Institutionally, these new schools were either under the responsibility of a monastery, a cathedral or a noble court. This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics. For the life inside monasteries and its historical roots see Monasticism. This article is about the history and organisation of the cathedral The real significance of these measures would only be felt centuries later. The teaching of dialectic (a discipline that corresponds to today's logic) was responsible for the rebirth of the interest in speculative inquiry; from this interest would follow the rise of the Scholastic tradition of Christian philosophy. Logic is the study of the principles of valid demonstration and Inference. Scholasticism was the dominant form of theology and philosophy in the Latin West in the Middle Ages, particularly in the 12th 13th and 14th centuries Christian philosophy is a term to describe the fusion of various fields of Philosophy with the theological doctrines of Christianity. In the 12th and 13th century, many of those schools founded under the auspices of Charles the Great, especially cathedral schools, would become universities. This article is about Western European institutions See also Medieval university (Asia and Byzantine university Medieval university
Byzantium's great intellectual achievement was the Corpus Juris Civilis ("Body of Civil Law"), a massive compilation of Roman law made under Justinian (r. The Corpus Juris Civilis ("Body of Civil Law" is the modern name for a collection of fundamental works in Jurisprudence, issued from 529 Roman law is the legal system of Ancient Rome. As used in the West the term commonly refers to legal developments prior to the Roman/Byzantine state's adopting Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus ( Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ιουστινιανός; known in English as Justinian I or 528-65). The work includes a section called the Digesta which abstracts the principles of Roman law in such a way that they can be applied to any situation. Pandects ( Lat pandectae, adapted from Gr pandektes, all-containing is a name given to a compendium or digest of Roman law The level of literacy was considerably higher in the Byzantine Empire than in the Latin West. Elementary education was much more widely available, sometimes even in the countryside. Secondary schools still taught the Iliad and other classics. The Iliad ( Greek: Ἰλιάς (Ancient Ιλιάδα (Modern is together with the Odyssey, one of two ancient As for higher education, a Neoplatonic school in Athens was closed in 526 for paganism. Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's There was also a school in Alexandria which remained open until the Arab conquest (640). The University of Constantinople, originally founded by Emperor Theodosius II (425), may have dissolved around this time. The University of Constantinople, sometimes known as the University of the palace hall of Magnaura in the Byzantine Empire was recognised as a University Flavius Theodosius ( 10 April, 401 – July 28, 450) called the Calligrapher, known in English as Theodosius II, was It was refounded by Emperor Michael III in 849. Michael III the Drunkard (Μιχαήλ Γ΄ ο Μέθυσος Mikhaēl III ho Methysos) ( January 19, 840 &ndash September 23–24 867 Higher education in this period focused on rhetoric, although Aristotle's logic was covered in simple outline. Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Under the Macedonian dynasty (867–1025), Byzantium enjoyed a golden age and a revival of classical learning. There was little original research, but many lexicons, anthologies, encyclopaedias, and commentaries.
Under the Umayyads (661–750), Islamic scholarship focused on Koranic matters. But the ‘Abbasid dynasty which followed promoted Hellenistic and humanistic learning in accordance with the doctrines of the officially favoured Mu'tazili school of Islamic interpretation. Muʿtazilah ( Arabic المعتزلة al-mu`tazilah) is a theological school of thought within Sunni Islam. This school was founded in Basra by Wasil ibn Ata (700–748) and held that the Koran is a created work and that god desires only the best for man, views rejected by the Ash'ariyyah and Athariyyah ("Textualist") schools now considered orthodox. TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Wasil ibn Ata (700–748 (واصل بن عطاء was a Muslim theologian The Ash'ari theology ( Arabic الأشاعرة al-asha`irah) is a school of early Muslim speculative theology founded by the theologian Abu al-Hasan Athari ( al-Athariyya) in English is translated as textualism which is derived from the Arabic word Athar, which means "Narrations"
Thus the "gates of ijtihad" were opened, allowing discussion and debate within Islam, supposedly among 135 schools of thought. Ijtihad (Arabic اجتهاد is a technical term of Islamic law that describes the process of making a legal decision by independent interpretation of the legal sources In 800, Baghdad was the largest Muslim city in the world, the first to have a population of over 1 million. Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous Its "House of Wisdom" (Dār al-Ḥikma) was the intellectual hub of the Muslim world. Philosophers such as al-Kindī (801–873) and al-Fārābī (870–950) translated the works of Aristotle and applied his thinking to Islam. ( أبو يوسف يعقوب إبن إسحاق الكندي) (c TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Abū Nasr Muhammad ibn al-Farakh al-Fārābi ( Nastaliq:) or Abū Nasr al-Fārābi Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Al-Khwārizmī (790-840) wrote the The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing, the first book on algebra. Algebra is a branch of Mathematics concerning the study of structure, relation, and Quantity. (The word "algebra" come from the Arabic title of the book. The word "algorithm" comes from al-Khwārizmī's name. ) He also wrote The Image of the Earth, an updated version of Ptolemy's Geography, and participated in a project to determine the circumference of the Earth by measuring the length of a degree of meridian on a plain in Iraq.
Opponents of ijtihad began proclaiming the "closing of the gates of ijtihad" in the tenth century. Discussion of humanism and other philosophical issues continued, but became increasingly restricted. Muslim learning depended on the whim and patronage of the ruler and Islam did not develop a university system or other permanent institution to honour and promote non-Koranic scholarship.
In the course of the 11th century, Islam's scientific knowledge began to reach Western Europe. The astrolabe, invented in classical times, was reintroduced to Europe and the works of Euclid and Archimedes, lost in the West, were translated from Arabic to Latin in Spain. The astrolabe is a historical Astronomical instrument used by classical astronomers, Navigators Euclid ( Greek:.) fl 300 BC also known as Euclid of Alexandria, is often referred to as the Father of Geometry Archimedes of Syracuse ( Greek:) ( c. 287 BC – c 212 BC was a Greek mathematician, Physicist, Engineer The modern Hindu-Arabic numerals, including a notation for zero, was developed by Hindu mathematicians in the fifth and sixth centuries. The arabic numerals (often capitalized are the ten Digits (0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 which—along with the system Muslim mathematicians learned of it in the seventh century and added a notation for decimal factions in the ninth and tenth centuries. Around 1000, Gerbert of Aurillac (later Pope Sylvester II) made an abacus with counters engraved with Hindu-Arabic numbers. Pope Sylvester II, or Silvester II (c 946&ndash May 12, 1003) born Gerbert d'Aurillac, was a prolific scholar teacher and Pope A treatise by Al-Khwārizmī on how to perform calculations with these numerals was translated into Latin in Spain in the 12th century.
From the early Christians, early medieval Christians inherited a church united by major creeds, a stable Biblical canon, and a well-developed philosophical tradition. Early Christianity is commonly defined as the Christianity of the three centuries between the Crucifixion of Jesus ( c
During the early Middle Ages, the divide between Eastern and Western Christianity widened, paving the way for the East-West Schism in the 11th century. The East-West Schism, or the Great Schism, divided medieval Christendom into Eastern (Greek and Western (Latin branches which later became known as the In the West, the power of the Bishop of Rome expanded. The Bishop of Rome is the bishop of the Holy See, more often referred to in the Catholic tradition as the Pope. In 607, Boniface III became the first Bishop of Rome to use the title Pope. For the Boniface III count of Montferrat see Boniface of Montferrat Boniface III was Pope from February 19 to History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and Pope Gregory the Great used his office as a temporal power, expanded Rome's missionary efforts to the British Isles, and laid the foundations for the expansion of monastic orders.
In the East, the conquests of Islam reduced the power of the Greek-speaking patriarchates. A patriarchate is the Office or jurisdiction of a Patriarch. A patriarch as the term is used here is either one of the highest-ranking
Celtic Christianity comprised a separate Christian tradition in the British Isles. Celtic Christianity, or Insular Christianity (sometimes called the Celtic Church or the British Church) broadly refers to the Early Medieval
The Roman Catholic Church, the only centralized institution to survive the fall of the Western Roman Empire intact, was the sole unifying cultural influence in the West, selectively preserving some Latin learning, maintaining the art of writing, and preserving a centralized administration through its network of bishops ordained in succession. The Decline of the Roman Empire, leading to the Fall of the Roman Empire, or the Fall of Rome, was the end of the Western Roman Empire. A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight The Early Middle Ages are characterized by the urban control of bishops and the territorial control exercised by dukes and counts. The rise of urban communes marked the beginning of the High Middle Ages. Communes in Europe in the Middle Ages were sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms among community members of a town or city The High Middle Ages was the period of European history in the 11th 12th and 13th centuries (AD 1000&ndash1299
The Christianization of Germanic tribes began in the fourth century with the Goths, and continued throughout the Early Middle Ages, in the sixth to seventh centuries led by the Hiberno-Scottish mission, replaced in the eighth to ninth centuries by the Anglo-Saxon mission, with Anglo-Saxons like Alcuin playing an important role in the Carolingian renaissance. The Germanic peoples underwent gradual Christianization in the course of Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. Irish and Scottish missionaries (Iro-Scottish Hiberno-Scottish were instrumental in the spread of Christianity in Anglo-Saxon England and the Anglo-Saxon missionaries were instrumental in the spread of Christianity in the Frankish Empire during the 8th century, continuing the work Alcuin of York (Alcuinus or Ealhwine, nicknamed Albinus or Flaccus (c The Carolingian Renaissance was a period of intellectual and cultural revival occurring in the late eighth and ninth centuries with the peak of the activities By AD 1000, even Iceland became Christian, leaving only more remote parts of Europe (Scandinavia, the Baltic and Finno-Ugric lands) to be Christianized during the High Middle Ages. Iceland, officially the Republic of Iceland ( ( Ísland or Lýðveldið Ísland ( Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well Baltic Seven Islandsgif|right|thumb|330px|A contemporary transnational Euroregion encompasses the islands of the Baltic countries
Urban planner Tertius Chandler has made a survey of city sizes through history.  For the period considered here, the largest cities in the world were: Constantinople (340-570), Ctesiphon of the Sassanids (570-637), Changan in China (637-775), Baghdad (775-935), and Cordoba (935-1013). For the Spanish saint see Ctesiphon of Vergium. Ctesiphon (قطسيفون تیسفون was one of the great cities of the Persian Empire The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty or Sassanian Dynasty (ساسانیان) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian empire UserEl_C --> Xi'an ( Postal map spelling: Sian is the Capital of the Shaanxi province in the China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous ||-||-||} Córdoba ( Cordova in English is a City in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba. 
These are Chandler's estimates for the largest cities in the Europe and Middle East (in units of one thousand inhabitants):
Chandler’s default assumption is 10,000 inhabitants/km². Muslim cities are thought to have had higher population densities. A city is defined as a continuously inhabited area.
Listless and often ill, Carolingian Emperor Charles the Fat, provoked an uprising led by his nephew Arnulf of Carinthia which resulted in the division of the empire into the kingdoms of France, Germany, and (northern) Italy (887). The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in Otto I the Great ( 23 November 912 &ndash 7 May 973) son of Henry I the Fowler and Matilda of Ringelheim, was Duke Charles the Fat (Carolus Pinguis 13 June 839 – 13 January 888) was the King of Alemannia from 876 King of Italy from Arnulf of Carinthia (Arnulf von Kärnten Arnulf Koroški 850 &ndash December 8 899) was the Carolingian King of East Francia from 887 Taking advantage of the weakness of the German government, the Magyars had established themselves in the Alföld, or Hungarian grasslands, and began raiding across Germany, Italy, and even France. The German nobles elected Henry the Fowler, duke of Saxony, their king at a Reichstag, or national assembly, in Fritzlar in 919. Henry's power was only marginally greater than that of the other leaders of the stem duchies, which were the feudal expression of the former German tribes. Henry's son King Otto I (r. Otto I the Great ( 23 November 912 &ndash 7 May 973) son of Henry I the Fowler and Matilda of Ringelheim, was Duke 936-973) was able to defeat a revolt of the dukes supported by French King Louis IV (939). Louis IV ( 10 September 920 – 30 September 954) called d'Outremer or Transmarinus (both meaning "from overseas" In 951, Otto marched into Italy and married the widowed Queen Adelaide, named himself king of the Lombards, and received homage from Berengar of Ivrea, king of Italy (r. Saint Adelaide of Italy, also called Adelaide of Burgundy (931/932 &ndash 16 December 999) was perhaps the most prominent European woman of the 10th 950-52). Otto named his relatives the new leaders of the stem duchies, but this approach didn't completely solve the problem of disloyalty. His son Liudolf, duke of Swabia, revolted and welcomed the Magyars into Germany (953). At Lechfeld, near Augsburg in Bavaria, Otto caught up the Magyars while they were enjoying a razzia and achieved a signal victory (955). The Battle of Lechfeld ( 10 August 955) perhaps the defining event for holding off the incursions of the Magyars into Central Europe, was a decisive After this, the Magyars ceased to be a nation that lived on plunder and their leaders created a Christian kingdom called Hungary (1000). Otto, his prestige greatly enhanced, marched into Italy again and was crowned emperor (imperator augustus) by Pope John XII in Rome (962). John XII (c 937&ndash May 14, 964) was Pope from December 16, 955 to May 14, 964. Historians count this event as the founding of the Holy Roman Empire, although the term was not used until much later. The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in The Ottonian state is also considered the first Reich, or German Empire. Otto used the imperial title without attaching it to any territory. He and later emperors thought of themselves as part of a continuous line of emperors that begins with Charlemagne. Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his (Several of these "emperors" were simply local Italian magnates who bullied the pope into coronating them. ) Otto deposed John XII for conspiring with Berengar against him and named Pope Leo VIII to replace him (963). Leo VIII (died March 1, 965) considered by the Church an Antipope from 963 to 964 a true Pope from 964 to 965 a Roman by birth Berengar was captured and taken to Germany. John was able to reverse the deposition after Otto left, but died in the arms of his mistress soon afterwards.
Aside from founding the German Empire, Otto's achievements include the creation "Ottonian church system," in which the clergy (the only literate section of the population) assumed the duties of an imperial civil service. He raised the papacy out of the muck of Rome's local gangster politics, assured that the position was competently filled, and gave it a dignity that allowed it to assume leadership of an international church.
Speculation that the world would end in the year 1000 was confined to a few uneasy French monks.  Ordinary clerks used regnal years, i. A regnal year is a year of the reign of a sovereign. From Latin regnum meaning kingdom rule e. the 4th year of the reign of Robert II (the Pious) of France. The use of the modern "anno domini" system of dating was confined to the Venerable Bede and other chroniclers of universal history. Bede (ˈbiːd (also Saint Bede, the Venerable Bede, or (from Latin Beda (beda (c
Europe remained a backwater compared to Islam, with its vast network of caravan trade, or China, at this time the world's most populous empire under the Song Dynasty. The Song Dynasty ( Wade-Giles: Sung Ch'ao was a ruling dynasty in China between 960&ndash1279 CE it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Constantinople had a population of about 300,000, but Rome had a mere 35,000 and Paris 20,000.  In contrast, Islam had over a dozen major cities stretching from Córdoba, Spain, at this time the world's largest city with 450,000 inhabitants, to central Asia. ||-||-||} Córdoba ( Cordova in English is a City in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba. The Vikings had a trade network in northern Europe, including a route connecting the Baltic to Constantinople through Russia. A Viking is one of the Norse ( Scandinavian Explorers Warriors Merchants, and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas The trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks (Путь «из варяг в греки» Put iz varyag v greki) was a Trade route, which connected Scandinavia But it was modest affair compared to the caravan routes that connected the great Muslim cities of Cordoba, Alexandria, Cairo, Baghdad, Basra, and Mecca. Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt. Basra ( BGN: AlBasrah also called Basorah Abillah and Uruk or IRAQ The name that British colony has adopted for Basra Mecca ˈmɛkə also spelled Makkah ˈmækə (in full Makkah Al-Mukarramah (Arabic mækːæ(t ælmʊkarˑamæ مكّة المكرمة, literally Honored
With nearly the entire nation freshly ravaged by the Vikings, England was in a desperate state. The long-suffering English later responded with a massacre of Danish settlers in 1002, leading to a round of reprisals and finally to Danish rule (1013). But Christianization made rapid progress and proved itself the long-term solution to the problem of barbarian raiding. Scandinavia had been recently Christianized and the kingdoms of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark established. Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe Kievan Rus, recently converted to Orthodox Christianity, flourished as the largest state in Europe. Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Русь romanised: Kievskaya Rus', rusʲ also written as Kyivan Rus′ (Ки́ївська Русь or Kievan Iceland and Hungary were both declared Christian about AD 1000. Iceland, officially the Republic of Iceland ( ( Ísland or Lýðveldið Ísland ( Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic
In Europe, a more formalised institution of marriage was established among the nobility. Ottonian Architecture evolved during the reign of Emperor Otto the Great ( 936 - 975) The Church of St Michael (Michaeliskirche in Hildesheim, Germany, is an early- Romanesque church  North of Italy, where masonry construction was never extinguished, stone construction was replacing timber in important structures. Deforestation of the densely wooded continent was under way. The tenth century marked a return of urban life, with the Italian cities doubling in population. London, abandoned for many centuries, was by 1000 once again England's main economic centre. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. By 1000, Bruges and Ghent held regular trade fairs behind castle walls, a tentative return of economic life to western Europe. Bruges (Brugge is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium. Ghent (ˈɡɛnt Gent ʝɛnt in Dutch, Gand in French, and formerly Gaunt in English) is a City and a
This time also marks the disintegration of the Muslim Caliphate, an imposing and united rival only a century before. Muslim unity was hobbled by the divisions between Shiite and Sunni conflicts as well as Arab Persian ones. Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding At this time, there were three caliphs, an Umayyid caliph in Spain, an Abbasid caliph in Baghdad, and a Shiite (Fatimid) caliph in Egypt. The population of Baghdad, the Abbasid capital, had shrunk to 125,000 (compared to 900,000 in AD 900).  The Umayyids were still strong and assertive in 1000, but declined rapidly after 1002 and disappeared entirely by 1031.
In the culture of Europe, several features surfaced soon after 1000 that mark the end of the Early Middle Ages: the rise of the medieval communes, the reawakening of city life, and the appearance of the burgher class, the founding of the first universities, the rediscovery of Roman law, and the beginnings of vernacular literature. Communes in Europe in the Middle Ages were sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms among community members of a town or city This article is about Western European institutions See also Medieval university (Asia and Byzantine university Medieval university Roman law is the legal system of Ancient Rome. As used in the West the term commonly refers to legal developments prior to the Roman/Byzantine state's adopting
In 1000, the papacy was firmly under the control of German Emperor Otto III, or "emperor of the world" as he styled himself. Otto III (980 &ndash January 23, 1002) was the fourth ruler of the Saxon or Ottonian dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire. But later church reforms enhanced its independence and prestige: the Cluniac movement, the building of the first great Transalpine stone cathedrals and the collation of the mass of accumulated decretals into a formulated canon law. The Abbey of Cluny (or Cluni, or Clugny, pronunciation klyˈni is an abbey in France. Decretals ( Epistolae decretales) is the name that is given in Canon law to those letters of the Pope which formulate decisions in ecclesiastical law Canon law is internal ecclesiastical law governing the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox churches and the Anglican Communion of churches