|Computer memory types|
An EPROM, or Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory, is a type of computer memory chip that retains its data when its power supply is switched off. DDR SDRAM ( double data rate synchronous dynamic random access memory) is a class of memory Integrated circuit used in Computers It achieves nearly twice Static random access memory (SRAM is a type of Semiconductor memory where the word static indicates that unlike ''dynamic'' RAM (DRAM, it does not Z-RAM, short for " zero capacitor RAM " is a new type of Computer memory in development by Innovative Silicon Inc Twin Transistor RAM ( TTRAM) is a new type of Computer memory in development by Renesas The Williams tube or the Williams-Kilburn tube (after inventors Freddie Williams and Tom Kilburn) developed about 1946 or 1947 Genesis in radar The basic concept of the delay line originated with World War II Radar research as a system to reduce clutter from reflections from the ground Non-volatile memory, nonvolatile memory, NVM or non-volatile storage, is Computer memory that can retain the stored information A programmable read-only memory ( PROM) or field programmable read-only memory ( FPROM) is a form of digital memory where the setting of each bit is EEPROM (also written E2PROM and pronounced e-e-prom or simply e-squared which stands for E lectrically E rasable P rogrammable EEPROM (also written E2PROM and pronounced e-e-prom or simply e-squared which stands for E lectrically E rasable P rogrammable Flash memory is non-volatile computer memory that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed Ferroelectric RAM ( FeRAM or FRAM) is a Random access memory similar in construction to DRAM but uses a Ferroelectric layer instead Magnetoresistive Random Access Memory ( MRAM) is a non-volatile computer memory ( NVRAM) technology which has been under development since The programmable metallization cell, or PMC, is a new form of non-volatile Computer memory being developed at Arizona State University and Phase-change memory (also known as PCM, PRAM, PCRAM, Ovonic Unified Memory, Chalcogenide RAM and C-RAM) is a type This article is about the music device manufacturer For the computer memory system see SONOS. Resistive random-access memory ( RRAM) is a new Non-volatile memory type being developed by Fujitsu, Sharp, Samsung, Micron IBM Racetrack Memory is an experimental Non-volatile memory device under development at IBM 's Almaden Research Center by a team led by Stuart Nano-RAM is a proprietary Computer memory technology from the company Nantero. Drum memory is a magnetic Data storage device and was an early form of Computer memory widely used in the 1950s and into the 1960s invented by Gustav Tauschek Magnetic core memory, or ferrite-core memory, is an early form of Random access Computer memory. Prehistory twistor memory Bubble memory is largely the brainchild of a single person Andrew Bobeck. Twistor is a form of Computer memory, similar to Core memory, formed by wrapping or closing Magnetic tape around a current-carrying wire Microchipsjpg|right|thumb|200px|Microchips ( EPROM memory with a transparent window showing the integrated circuit inside In other words, it is non-volatile. Non-volatile memory, nonvolatile memory, NVM or non-volatile storage, is Computer memory that can retain the stored information It is an array of floating-gate transistors individually programmed by an electronic device that supplies higher voltages than those normally used in electronic circuits. The floating gate transistor is a kind of Transistor that is commonly used for Non-volatile storage such as flash, EPROM and EEPROM Once programmed, an EPROM can be erased only by exposing it to strong ultraviolet light. Ultraviolet ( UV) light is Electromagnetic radiation with a Wavelength shorter than that of Visible light, but longer than X-rays That UV light usually has a wavelength of 235nm (for optimum erasure time) and belongs to the UVC range of UV light. EPROMs are easily recognizable by the transparent fused quartz window in the top of the package, through which the silicon chip can be seen, and which permits UV light during erasing. Fused quartz and fused silica are types of Glass containing primarily Silica in amorphous (non- Crystalline form Silicon (ˈsɪlɪkən or /ˈsɪlɪkɒn/ silicium is the Chemical element that has the symbol Si and Atomic number 14
As the quartz window is expensive to make, OTP (one-time programmable) chips were introduced; the only difference is that the EPROM chip is packed in an opaque package, so it can not be erased after programming. A programmable read-only memory ( PROM) or field programmable read-only memory ( FPROM) is a form of digital memory where the setting of each bit is OTP versions are manufactured for both EPROMs themselves and EPROM-based microcontrollers. However, OTP EPROM (whether separate or part of a larger chip) is being increasingly replaced by EEPROM for small amounts where the cell cost isn't too important and flash for larger amounts. EEPROM (also written E2PROM and pronounced e-e-prom or simply e-squared which stands for E lectrically E rasable P rogrammable Flash memory is non-volatile computer memory that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed
A programmed EPROM retains its data for about ten to twenty years and can be read an unlimited number of times. The erasing window must be kept covered with a foil label to prevent accidental erasure by sunlight. Old PC BIOS chips were often EPROMs, and the erasing window was often covered with a label containing the BIOS publisher's name, the BIOS revision, and a copyright notice. In Computing, the BIOS (ˈbaɪoʊs In Computing, the BIOS (ˈbaɪoʊs
Some microcontrollers, often those from before the era of EEPROMs and flash memory, use EPROM to store their program. A microcontroller (also MCU or µC is a functional Computer system-on-a- chip. Flash memory is non-volatile computer memory that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed Such microcontrollers include some versions of the Intel 8048, the Freescale 68HC11, and the "C" versions of the PIC microcontroller. The Intel 8048 Microcontroller (µC (MCS-48 Intel's first microcontroller was used in the Magnavox Odyssey² Video game console, the Roland Jupiter-4 The 68HC11 ( 6811 or HC11 for short is a 8-bit Microcontroller (µC family originally from Motorola now produced by Freescale Semiconductor PIC is a family of Harvard architecture Microcontrollers made by Microchip Technology, derived from the PIC1640 originally developed by General Instrument Like EPROM chips, such microcontrollers came in windowed (expensive) versions that were useful for debugging and program development, and also the same chip came in (somewhat cheaper) opaque OTP packages for production. Leaving the die of such a chip exposed to light can also change behavior in unexpected ways when moving from a windowed part used for development to a non-windowed part for production.
EPROMs come in several sizes both in physical packaging as well and storage capacity. While parts of the same type number from different manufacturers are compatible as long as they're only being read, there are subtle differences in the programming process.
Most EPROMS could be identified by the programmer through "signature mode" by forcing 12V on pin A9 and reading out two bytes of data. However, as this was not universal, programmer software also would allow manual setting of the manufacturer and device type of the chip to ensure proper programming.
|EPROM Type||Size — bits||Size — bytes||Length (hex)||Last address (hex)|
|1702, 1702A||2 Kbit||256||100||000FF|
|2708||8 Kbit||1 KB||400||003FF|
|2716, 27C16||16 Kbit||2 KB||800||007FF|
|2732, 27C32||32 Kbit||4 KB||1000||00FFF|
|2764, 27C64||64 Kbit||8 KB||2000||01FFF|
|27128, 27C128||128 Kbit||16 KB||4000||03FFF|
|27256, 27C256||256 Kbit||32 KB||8000||07FFF|
|27512, 27C512||512 Kbit||64 KB||10000||0FFFF|
|27C010, 27C100||1 Mbit||128 KB||20000||1FFFF|
|27C020||2 Mbit||256 KB||40000||3FFFF|
|27C040||4 Mbit||512 KB||80000||7FFFF|
|27C080||8 Mbit||1 MB||100000||FFFFF|
Close up of a EPROM die
A 32KB (256Kbit) EPROM
EPROM. A bit is a binary digit, taking a value of either 0 or 1 Binary digits are a basic unit of Information storage and communication A byte (pronounced "bite" baɪt is the basic unit of measurement of information storage in Computer science. In Mathematics and Computer science, hexadecimal (also base -, hexa, or hex) is a Numeral system with a A kilobit is a unit of information abbreviated kbit (or kb) The standard definition is 1 kilobit = 103 bit = 1000 Bit. A megabit is a unit of Information or computer storage abbreviated Mbit (or Mb) 60x closeup