|The Dutch (Nederlanders)|
| Floris V • D. Erasmus • Rembrandt van Rijn • B. van Zuylen|
C. Huygens • H. Schaft • H. Lorentz • M. de Ruyter
W. Drees • A. van Leeuwenhoek • H. Grotius • T. Edison
25 million - 28 million
|Regions with significant populations|
Main languages of Dutch emigrants: English and Afrikaans. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. Dutch ( is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people 22 million of which are from the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname Afrikaans is an Indo-European language, derived from 17th century Dutch and classified as Low Franconian Germanic, mainly spoken in
|Roman Catholic (30%), Protestant (21%) (Reformed 6% and Dutch Reformed 12%), other (8%), no member of church society (41%). Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. The Reformed churches are a group of Christian Protestant Denominations formally characterized by a similar Calvinist system of doctrine historically Dutch Reformed Church (in Dutch: Nederlandse Hervormde Kerk or NHK was one of many branches of churches coming out of the Protestant Reformation in Europe |
|Related ethnic groups|
|(In alphabetical order)|
Afrikaners, Flemings, Frisians. The term Afrikaner people refers to white Afrikaans -speaking people who have been established in Southern Africa since the 17th century and are mainly of northwestern The terms Fleming and Flemings ( Vlaming and Vlamingen in Dutch) denote respectively a person and people and the Flemings or The Frisians are an ethnic group of Germanic people living in coastal parts of The Netherlands and Germany. 
The Dutch (self-designation: ) are an Indo-European ethnic group traditionally inhabiting the coastal lowlands east of the North Sea (geopolitically: the Low Countries and northern France) but in contemporary times found in migrant communities world wide. Dutch ( is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people 22 million of which are from the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname In physical Geography, a lowland is any broad expanse of land with a general low level The North Sea is a marginal, Epeiric sea of the Atlantic Ocean on the European Continental shelf. Geopolitics is the study that analyzes Geography, History and Social science with reference to Spatial politics and patterns at various scales The Low Countries, the historical region of de Nederlanden, are the countries on low-lying land around the delta of the Rhine, Scheldt This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.  As of 2008, they form the majority (80. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common 9%) of the population of the Netherlands and a considerable part of the population of Canada,Australia, South Africa and the United States. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa The United States of America —commonly referred to as the 
Their traditional language is Dutch, a West Germanic language spoken natively by 22 million people, their traditional religion is Christianity, though in modern times a large percentage of the Dutch are adherents of humanism. A language is a dynamic set of visual auditory or tactile Symbols of Communication and the elements used to manipulate them Dutch ( is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people 22 million of which are from the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three traditional branches of the Germanic family of Languages and include languages such as English Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appealing to universal The art and culture of the Dutch encompasses various forms of traditional music, dances, architectural styles and clothing, some of which are virtually globally recognisable. Traditional music is the term now used in the terminology of Grammy Awards for what used to be called " folk music " Dance (from French danser, perhaps from Frankish) is an Art form that generally refers to movement of the body usually rhythmic Architectural styles classify Architecture in terms of Form, techniques, Materials, time period region etc
The Dutch are mainly the descendants (both geneticallyand linguistically) of the ancients Franks, a Germanic tribe emerging during the Classical Age and experiencing a Golden age during Late European Antiquity. History See also History of genetics The existence of genes was first suggested by Gregor Mendel (1822-1884 who in the 1860s studied inheritance Linguistics is the scientific study of Language, encompassing a number of sub-fields The Germanic peoples are a historical group of Indo-European -speaking peoples originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic Late Antiquity (c 300-600 is a Periodization used by historians to describe the transitional centuries from Classical Antiquity to the Middle Ages, in
In the course of their history the Dutch grew from a largely rural society to one of the most urbanized in the world, with 50% of the total population already living in cities by 1500 AD.
Though always being relatively autonomous within the system of European Feudalism the Dutch regions did not gain full sovereignty until the late 16th century, when after the Dutch Revolt, the first truly independent Dutch state was formed: the Dutch Republic. Autonomy ( Greek: Auto- Nomos - nomos meaning "law" one who gives oneself his/her own Law) is the right to Self-government Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed The Dutch Revolt, Eighty Years' War or the Revolt of the Netherlands (1568—1648 was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Low Countries "United Netherlands" redirects here For the "Kingdom of the United Netherlands" see United Kingdom of the Netherlands.
The Republic would soon manifest itself as a major power and the Dutch entered a period of immense wealth and artistic development now known as the Dutch Golden Age. This article focuses on social and cultural history For political events see History of the Netherlands and Dutch Revolt (1568–1648 It was this period in Dutch history that also saw the first large scale settlement of territories outside of their traditional homeland. Today, Dutchmen and their descendants can be found all over the world, most notably in Europe, the Americas, Southern Africa and Oceania, ranging from (near) completely assimilated to isolated communities. The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the Continents of North America and South America Southern Africa is the Southernmost Region of the African Continent, variably defined by Geography or Geopolitics.
The origins of the word Dutch go back to Proto-Germanic, the ancestor of all Germanic languages, *theudo (meaning "national/popular"); akin to Old Dutch dietsc, Old High German diutsch, Old English þeodisc and Gothic þiuda all meaning "(of) the common (Germanic) people". An exonym (from Greek el ἔξω exo = out el ὄνομα onoma = name is a name for a place that is not used within that place by the local Dietsch ( "Diets" in modern Dutch) is a colloquial word for the Middle Dutch language. Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. The Germanic peoples are a historical group of Indo-European -speaking peoples originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic As the tribes among the Germanic peoples began to differentiate its meaning began to change. The Anglo-Saxons of England for example gradually stopped referring to themselves as þeodisc and instead started to use Englisc, after their tribe. For their language see Anglo-Saxon language. Anglo-Saxon is the term usually used to describe the invading Tribes in the south England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland On the continent the situation was different, and *theudo evolved into two main forms: Diets (Dutch meaning "Dutch (people)", alongside Nederlanders) and Deutsch (German, meaning "German (people)"). Dietsch ( "Diets" in modern Dutch) is a colloquial word for the Middle Dutch language. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. At first the English language used (the contemporary form of) Dutch to refer to any or all of the Germanic speakers on the European mainland. Gradually its meaning shifted to the closest Germanic people near them: the Dutch. In diachronic (or historical linguistics, semantic change is a change in one of the meanings of a word. 
In the Dutch language itself however, Nederlanders is the endonym the Dutch use to refer to themselves. Dutch ( is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people 22 million of which are from the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname An exonym (from Greek el ἔξω exo = out el ὄνομα onoma = name is a name for a place that is not used within that place by the local Until the Second World War it was used alongside Diets, when the latter was dropped due to extensive use of the word by the German Nazi occupiers and Dutch fascists, who used it because of its ancient Germanic origins. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The German people (Deutsche are an Ethnic group, in the sense of sharing a common German culture, descent and speaking the German language as Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology Nederlanders derives from the Dutch word "Neder", a cognate of English "Nether" both meaning "low", and "land" (same meaning in both English and Dutch) and thus literally means "Lowlanders", a reference to the geographical texture of the Dutch homeland; the western portion of the Northern European plain. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States  Although not as old as Diets, the term Nederlands has been in continuous use since 1250. 
Dutch is a West Germanic language spoken by around 22 million people, mainly in the Netherlands, Belgium and Surinam. Dutch ( is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people 22 million of which are from the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three traditional branches of the Germanic family of Languages and include languages such as English The language was first attested around 470 AD, and is an official language of the Netherlands, Belgium, Suriname, Aruba, and the Netherlands Antilles. An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory Suriname ( Dutch: Suriname; Sranan Tongo: Sranan) officially the Republic of Suriname (traditionally spelled Surinam by Aruba is a -long island of the Lesser Antilles in the southern Caribbean Sea, north of the Paraguaná Peninsula, Falcón State, Venezuela The Netherlands Antilles ( Dutch:) previously known as the Netherlands West Indies or Dutch Antilles/West Indies, is part of the Lesser Antilles Today the Dutch, Flemish and Surinamese governments coordinate their language activities in the Nederlandse Taalunie (Dutch Language Union). See also Dutch orthography List of language academies
Dutch was an official language in former countries of the Dutch Empire and in South Africa up until 1961, having fallen into disuse since Afrikaans (itself a direct descendant of Dutch) became an official language in 1925.
Linguistically it can be said that Dutch occupies a central position within the West Germanic languages due to the absence of soundshifts such as the Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law, Anglo-Frisian brightening and the Second Germanic consonant shift, which resulted in certain early Germanic languages evolving into English and German. The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three traditional branches of the Germanic family of Languages and include languages such as English In Historical linguistics, the Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law (also called the Anglo-Frisian or North Sea Germanic nasal spirant law) is a description The Phonology of Old English is necessarily somewhat speculative since it is preserved purely as a Written language. In Historical linguistics, the High German consonant shift or second Germanic consonant shift was a phonological development ( Sound change) which took place The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages.
The Dutch immigrants of the 20th century often quickly began to speak the language of their new country. For example, of the inhabitants of New Zealand, 0. 7% say their home language is Dutch, despite the percentage of Dutch heritage being considerably higher. 
Algemeen Nederlands ("Common Dutch", abbreviated to AN) is the standard language as taught in schools and used by authorities in the Netherlands, Flanders, Suriname, Aruba and the Netherlands Antilles. A standard language (also standard dialect, standardized dialect, or standardised dialect) is a particular variety of a Language that The Dutch Language Union defines what AN is and is not, for example, in matters of orthography.
Dutch surnames (and names of Dutch origin) are generally easily recognisable, mainly because of tussenvoegsels such as van, van der or de. Dutch names consist of one or several Given names and a Surname. A tussenvoegsel, in Dutch linguistics, is a word that is positioned between someone's first name and Last name. In the United States, partly due to the fame of rich industrials such as Cornelius Vanderbilt, Dutch surnames are often associated with the upperclass of society even though when translated the surnames are often very simplistic. Cornelius Vanderbilt ( May 27 1794 &ndash January 4 1877) also known by the Sobriquets The Commodore or For example, Vanderbilt means "(coming) from De Bilt", De Bilt being a small village in the province of Utrecht. De Bilt is a municipality and a town in the Netherlands, in the province of Utrecht. Utrecht ( ˈyːtrɛxt is the smallest province of the Netherlands, and is located in the center of the country  Unlike what is sometimes thought, and unlike the German von, the Dutch van does not denote any aristocratic status. In German, von is a Preposition which approximately means of or from. 
The Dutch make up about 0. 4% of the world population, and 1. 9% of the European population.  (2. 8% of the European Union is ethnically Dutch). The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in 
In the narrowest sense the total number of ethnic Dutch is about 14 to 15 million people. In this sense only people with full Dutch ancestry are counted. The number of people outside the Netherlands, mostly post 1950 emigrants and their children, with full Dutch ancestry is roughly 1,600,000 to 2,000,000. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands 
In a broader sense the number of Dutch people is much higher. This is when for example people with partial Dutch ancestry are included. An ancestor is a Parent or ( recursively) the parent of an ancestor (i This way the number of Dutch totals at around 25 million people.
|Countries with more than 1,000,000 ethnic Dutchmen:||Countries with 500,000 to 1,000,000 ethnic Dutchmen:||Countries with 50,000 to 500,000 ethnic Dutchmen:||Countries with less than 50,000 ethnic Dutchmen:|
The Dutch are the eventual result of a cultural exchange between the Franks and the Roman Empire and the aforementioneds subsequent (and permanent) settlement of the Low Countries. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. The Germanic peoples are a historical group of Indo-European -speaking peoples originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic 
– D. P Blok, Dutch historian. See also History An historian is an individual who studies and writes about History, and is regarded as an Authority on it
The Franks are first recorded in 260 AD, and were an aliance of a group of neighbouring Germanic tribes (the Salii, Sicambri, Chamavi, Bructeri, Chatti, and Chattuarii) in which the Sallii (Sallian Franks) were most dominant. The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group The Salii were the "leaping priests" of Mars in Ancient Rome: twelve aristocratic young men dressed in ancient outfits worn by ancient warriors outlandish The Sicambri (var Sicambers Sicambres Sigambrer Sugumbrer or Sugambri) were a Germanic people living in what is now called the Netherlands The Chamavi were a Germanic tribe of Late Antiquity and the European Dark Age. The Bructeri were a Germanic tribe located in northwestern Germany (Soester Börde between the Lippe and Ems rivers south of the Teutoburg The Chatti (also Chatthi or Catti) were an ancient Germanic tribe whose homeland was near the upper Weser. The Chattuarii ot Attoarii are a tribe of the Franks. They lived originally east of the northern Rhine and west of the Chatti, that later were  Prior to extensive Roman contact, the Franks were a rural tribal community. At the start of the migration period, the Franks moved into the Roman Empire and were accepted as Foederati by Julian the apostate in 358. The Migration Period, also called Barbarian Invasions, or sometimes Völkerwanderung ( German for "wandering of peoples" is the English name Flavius Claudius Julianus, known also as Julian or Julian the Apostate (331 or 332 to 26 June 363) was Roman Emperor (Caesar By the end of the fifth century, the Salian Franks extended their footprint on Roman soil to a territory including the Netherlands south of the Rhine, Belgium and Northern France. 
It was during this time that the Franks adopted Christianity (first as Arianism, then as Catholicism) as their religion instead of their version of polytheistic Germanic paganism, learned new building techniques as well as the advantages of civic and urban life. Arianism is the theological teaching of Arius (c AD 250-336 who was ruled a heretic by the Christian church at the Council of Nicea. As a Christian Ecclesiastical term Catholic —from the Greek adjective, meaning "general" or "universal"—is described Frankish mythology comprises the mythology of the Franks, from its roots in polytheistic Germanic paganism through the inclusion of Greco - Roman Germanic paganism refers to the religious beliefs of the Germanic peoples preceding Christianization. This, together with loss of traditional Germanic tribalism, in which almost every village had its personal chieftain or even king, and the evolution of the Dutch language (which diverged itself greatly from other Germanic dialects in this period) made it possible for a new people to emerge.
The following unity and strength allowed the Franks to conquer Gaul, however this also meant the assimilation of other peoples within the newly formed Frankish Empire. Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Francia or Frankia, later also called the Frankish Empire (imperium Francorum Frankish Kingdom (Latin regnum Francorum, "Kingdom of the In time the term "Frank" was no longer a purely ethnic term and was used for and by all inhabitants of the Frankish Empire, most of which had little to no relation to either the Frankish people or their culture, leading to a loss of identification among the original Franks. The Treaty of Verdun of 843 marked the end of the Frankish Realm by dividing it into three separate realms, thus also ending the feeling of Frankish supremacy. In the Treaty of Verdun of 843 the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious, Charlemagne 's grandsons divided his territories the Carolingian
Because of centuries of central rule, the old Germanic tribal society was now a thing of the past, and this lead to a subsequent "re-invention" of the ethnic group. By the late 10th/early 11th century, a group emerges which not only is culturally Dutch, but also identifies itself as such. 
The popular view of Dutch ancestry is that the Batavians, a Germanic tribe living in the centre of the modern Low Countries, are the epic ancestors of the Dutch people. Gaius Julius Civilis was the leader of the Batavian rebellion against the Romans in 69. Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (July 15 1606 &ndash October 4 1669 was a Dutch painter and etcher. The Batavians ( Latin Batavi) were a Germanic tribe originally part of the Chatti, reported by Tacitus to The Low Countries, the historical region of de Nederlanden, are the countries on low-lying land around the delta of the Rhine, Scheldt A creation myth is a supernatural mytho-[[religion religious]] story or explanation that describes the beginnings of humanity, Earth, life, and The Batavians were allied to the Roman Empire and romanized, but who rebelled against Rome between 69 and 70 AD. The Batavians ( Latin Batavi) were a Germanic tribe originally part of the Chatti, reported by Tacitus to The Batavians, led by Gaius Julius Civilis, managed to destroy four legions and inflict humiliating defeats on the Roman army. Gaius Julius Civilis was the leader of the Batavian rebellion against the Romans in 69. During the Dutch revolt in the 16th century Dutch intellectuals and scolars saw a parallel between the Dutch revolt against Spain and the Batavian revolt against the Roman Empire and incorporated the Batavians, even though they were eventually defeated by a massive Roman army led by Quintus Petillius Cerialis, in what was essentially early modern propaganda, to strengthen the resolve of the men and women rebellion by giving them a linkage to a fierce and heroic tribe. The Dutch Revolt, Eighty Years' War or the Revolt of the Netherlands (1568—1648 was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Low Countries The Revolt of the Batavi took place in the Roman province of Germania Inferior (S Quintus Petilius Cerialis Caesius Rufus (born ca 30 was a Roman general The early modern period is a term used by historians to refer to the period in Western '''Europe''' and its first colonies which spans the three centuries between
As a result a number of things related to the Dutch are and were named after this tribe. Examples include:
Modern historians view the Batavians as a minor contributor and historical sources indicate the Batavians were greatly reduced both in numbers as well as influence after their reconquest. They were assimilated by the Sallic Franks, the true Dutch ancestors, at the beginning of the migration period. The Migration Period, also called Barbarian Invasions, or sometimes Völkerwanderung ( German for "wandering of peoples" is the English name
The Dutch descend from groups of people who settled in Europe during the Paleolithic and Neolithic eras. The term Paleolithic (or Palaeolithic) (from Greek παλαιός palaios, " Old " and λίθος Lithos, "stone" These people originated in what is now the Middle East and brought with them a distinct set of Y chromosomal and mitochondrial haplotypes as well as Indo-European languages, agriculture and pottery. Hence, the Dutch share a lot of their genetics with other European people; nevertheless, there are some mutations that arose among the Dutch.  The percentages of hair colour for the Dutch population are 43% brown, 40% blond and 17% other (note that this includes non-western ethnic minorities, so the actual percentages of blond or brown hair for the Dutch ethnic group are likely to be higher) Generally the Dutch are described as being very tall, and they are indeed among the tallest people on earth, but this is a relatively recent development. Hair color is the pigmentation of hair follicles due to the two types of melanin Eumelanin and Phaeomelanin. 
The relation between the Dutch and Flemings is a complicated one. The existence of Flemings as an ethnic group is itself debated, and the idea of a Flemish nation or ethnic group is itself fairly recent. 
The Flemish identity is the result of Belgium. It's a reaction by the Belgian Dutch against the politics in favour of frenchification of the unitary state and contempory fear of the Calvinism believed to reign the Northern Dutch. 
– E. Roosens, Belgian anthropologist. Anthropology (/ˌænθɹəˈpɒlədʒi/ from Greek grc ἄνθρωπος anthrōpos, "human" -λογία -logia) is the study of
The people who are today called Flemish, that is to say the Dutch-speakers of Belgium, are not the same group as the historical Flemish, who were a regional Dutch group positioned in the North-West France, West of modern Belgium, and the Dutch region of Zeelandic Flanders. A legend ( Latin, legenda, "things to be read" is a Narrative of human actions that are perceived both by teller and listeners to The Kingdom of Belgium has three official languages which are in order from the greatest speaker population to the smallest Dutch (in a Belgian context often Zeelandic Flanders (Nl-Zeeuws-Vlaanderenogg|Zeeuws-Vlaanderen]] is the southernmost region of the province of Zeeland in southwestern Netherlands. This area was politically dominant and the most culturaly advanced during the Dutch Middle Ages. This latter group was undeniably a part of the Dutch ethnicity, though linguistically and religiously part of the Southern Dutch (below the Rhine river) subgrouping. The Rhine (Rhein Rijn Rhin Reno Rain Rhenus is one of the longest and most important Rivers in Europe at 1320 kilometres (820 mi with an average discharge
The people incorporated into the modern concept of Flemings, only partly descend from this group. Instead they are essentially descendants of the Southern Dutch. Though it should be noted that through the Belgian Revolution the Southern Dutch-grouping was effectively split, and as a result 3. The Belgian Revolution was a conflict in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands that began with a riot in Brussels in August 1830 and eventually led to the 5 million Dutchmen living in the Netherlands also have this Southern background, with effect forming an inter-cultural bridge between Dutch and the Flemings.
The Flemish people are generally not regarded as identical nowadays, and most Dutch people see them as a separate group. The terms Fleming and Flemings ( Vlaming and Vlamingen in Dutch) denote respectively a person and people and the Flemings or At the same time however, the Dutch and Flemish see themselves as the most similar people, and some institutions see "Fleming" as an alternative term for "Dutch".
The situation in Belgium itself was/is very vague. Until 1980, for example, the Flemish community was called the Nederlandse Cultuurgemeenschap (Dutch for "Dutch cultural community") and there are people who deny the existence of the Flemish as an ethnic group, and refer to them as Dutch-speaking Belgians instead. The term Flemish Community has two distinct though related meanings Culturally and sociologically it refers to Flemish organizations media social and cultural
Walloons, the French-speaking Belgians, generally do not speak Dutch today, but in many cases (some) heritage can be linked to the (historical) Dutch. Walloons (Wallons Walons are a Romance people living in Belgium principally in Wallonia. Wallonia, or Wallonie, (Wallonie Wallonien Wallonië Waloneye is the Meridional part of Belgium belonging to the Romance linguistic field Many Walloon surnames for example are of Dutch origin and some of the most well-known Walloons, such as Jacques Brel, Goswin de Stassart and Paul Émile de Puydt were (often partly) of Dutch(-speaking) heritage. Jacques Romain Georges Brel (ʒak bʀɛl in French (8 April 1929 &ndash 9 October 1978 was a Belgian Singer-songwriter. Goswin Joseph Augustin Baron de Stassart ( Mechelen, 2 September 1780 - Brussels, 16 October 1854) was a Dutch Paul Émile de Puydt (1810&ndash1891 was a many-talented character In Northern France Dutch has been the traditional language for over 1,400 years. As a result of this, as well as migration of other Dutch towards the south, over 1,250,000 French people (out of a population of roughly 60 million) have Dutch surnames.  The position of these people is somewhat vague as they, although relatively close to the Dutch-culture area, are often frenchified if not entirely French. For example, in the now French city of Calais one can still find people singing traditional Dutch songs, even though the people who sing them have no idea what they mean. Calais (kaˈlɛ in English often kæˈleɪ traditional English pronunciation /ˈkælɨs/ Kales is a town in northern France. 
The Afrikaners are a relatively young ethnic group native to South Africa and Namibia. The term Afrikaner people refers to white Afrikaans -speaking people who have been established in Southern Africa since the 17th century and are mainly of northwestern The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia, is a country in Southern Africa on the Atlantic coast They are largely the dencendants of Dutch emigrants augmented by smaller numbers of Rhinelandic Germans and French Huguenots. The Rhineland ( Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. The Huguenots were members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France (or French Calvinists) from the sixteenth to the eighteenth
In term of ancestry they differ little from Dutch Americans, Dutch Australians or Dutch Canadians. A Dutch American is an inhabitant of the United States of whole or partial Dutch ancestry Current Demographic data Much of the data that follows has been derived from the CIA World Factbook and the Australian Bureau of Statistics, through According to the Canada 2006 Census, there are 1035965 Canadians of Dutch descent, including those of full or partial ancestry The major difference between Afrikaners and the aforementioned is that the Afrikaners did not adopt English as their new native tongue, but continued to speak (a creolized version of) Dutch. A creole language, or simply a creole, is a stable Language that originates seemingly as a nativized Pidgin. This form of Dutch eventually evolved into Afrikaans; the native language of about 6,5 million people. Afrikaans is an Indo-European language, derived from 17th century Dutch and classified as Low Franconian Germanic, mainly spoken in
Until the early 20th century, the times of the First and Second Boer Wars, there was a strong sense of unity between the European Dutch and the Dutch living in South Africa, this has gradually faded. See also Second Boer War,, South African Wars (1879-1915 The First Boer War ( Dutch: Eerste Boerenoorlog, Afrikaans: See also First Boer War,, South African Wars (1879-1915 The Second Boer War ( Dutch: Tweede Boerenoorlog, Afrikaans: Most Afrikaners acknowledge that they descend from the Dutch and are a closely related people, but they generally do not consider themselves to be ethnic Dutch. This is largely due to Afrikaner nationalism following the oppression of the Cape Dutch and Boers by the British Empire, which somewhat estranged the South African Dutch from their European counterparts. See other meanings of Volkstaat. Volkstaat ( Afrikaans for "People's state" is a proposal for the establishment of The term Cape Dutch was used to describe the inhabitants of the Western Cape of South Africa, descended primarily from Dutch and Flemish as well Boer (ˈbuːr in Dutch ˈbʊɚ/ /boʊɚ or /ˈbɔr/ in English is the Dutch word for Farmer which came to denote the descendants of the proto Afrikaans The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power.
Frisian may refer to an ethnic group, a regional or cultural identity, to inhabitants of the Province of Friesland, or to speakers of the West Frisian language. The Frisians are an ethnic group of Germanic people living in coastal parts of The Netherlands and Germany. Friesland ( West Frisian: Fryslân, Dutch Friesland) is a province in the north of the Netherlands and part of the bigger region known West Frisian ( Frysk) is a Language spoken mostly in the province of Friesland ( Fryslân) in the north of the Netherlands. Friesland ( West Frisian: Fryslân, Dutch Friesland) is a province in the north of the Netherlands and part of the bigger region known West Frisian ( Frysk) is a Language spoken mostly in the province of Friesland ( Fryslân) in the north of the Netherlands.
Originally the Frisians (or Frisii) were a clearly separate people, but following migration period lost much of their initial power and came to be dominated by surrounding tribes. The Frisians are an ethnic group of Germanic people living in coastal parts of The Netherlands and Germany. This eventually lead to an effective tripartite of the original Frisians; namely the North Frisians, East Frisians and West Frisians. This is about the direction for other uses see North (disambiguation. The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST internal designation HT-7U is an experimental Superconducting Tokamak Magnetic fusion energy Though already under their cultural influence, the West Frisians did not become politically dominated by the Dutch until the 1400s. 
Though culturally, and genetically, very similar the Frisians have their own customs (to a certain extent) as well as their own language: West Frisian, which is a language closely related to Dutch, but even more so to English. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States
Because of the centuries of cohabitation and active participation in Dutch society, the Frisians are not treated as a separate group in Dutch official statistics and Dutch Frisians in the general do not feel or see themselves as part of a larger group of Frisians, namely the East and North Frisians of Germany and Denmark, but, according to a 1970 inquiry, identify themselves more with the Dutch than with other Frisians. Statistics is a mathematical science pertaining to the collection analysis interpretation or explanation and presentation of Data. 
Emigrants from the Netherlands since the Second World War went mainly to the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, (until the 1970s) to South Africa, and Dutch immigrants can be found in most developed countries. Emigration from the Netherlands has been happening for at least the last eight centuries "Emigrant" redirects here For the Butterflies, see Catopsilia. In several former Dutch colonies and trading settlements, there are isolated ethnic groups of full or partial Dutch ancestry.
The Dutch have had a profound effect on the history of South East Asia, Taiwan and Japan; the Dutch settlement on Deshima provided for centuries the only means of cultural exchange between Japan and European civilization, and indeed most of the outside world. was a fan-shaped Artificial island in the bay of Nagasaki that was a Dutch Trading port during Japan 's self-imposed isolation ( Sakoku In many cases the Dutch were the first Europeans the natives would encounter. As a result there has been some considerable ethnic stereotyping. The Japanese described the Dutch as red-haired barbarians and in Malay, the language of the former Dutch East Indies, the name for the Long-nosed Monkey literally translates as "Dutchman", as in Eastern Asian eyes the noses of Europeans were exceedingly large. The Malay language ( ISO 639-1 code MS is an Austronesian language spoken by the Malay people and people of other ethnic groups who reside in the The Proboscis Monkey ( Nasalis larvatus) also known as the Monyet Belanda (in Malay) the Bangkatan (in Indonesian) or simply
After the Indonesian Revolution, most Dutch were either evacuated or evicted from Indonesia. Indo or Indo-European or Eurasian people is a term used to describe people of mixed European and Indonesian and/or Chinese Indonesian ancestry Ever since the earliest days of the VOC several waves of mainly Dutch males decided to stay in the islands now known as Indonesia. The Dutch East India Company ( Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie or VOC in old-spelling Dutch, literally "United East Indian The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. Through the centuries there developed a relatively large Dutch-speaking population of mixed Dutch and Indonesian descent, known as Indos or Dutch-Indonesians. Indo or Indo-European or Eurasian people is a term used to describe people of mixed European and Indonesian and/or Chinese Indonesian ancestry Nowadays the majority of this group lives in the Netherlands.
I really accuse my fellow Dutch people of being too quiet and too polite here. The term New Zealand European refers to New Zealand residents of European descent who identify as New Zealand Europeans rather than some more specific European We should have made waves, because other groups did and got something for it!
– A Dutch New Zealander.
Perhaps the most successful integration of Dutch people took place in Australia and New Zealand. After the second World War thousands of Dutch people emigrated to Australia, peaking in the late 1950s and early 1960s. There are 24 Dutch language programmes around Australia and weekly and monthly Dutch news papers plus many social, community and religious clubs. A newspaper is a written Publication containing News, information and Advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called Newsprint. Despite these figures, in both Australia and New Zealand Dutch people are highly integrated. Apart from the typical Dutch surnames many descendants bear, they are largely indistinguishable from the largest ethnic groups, the Anglo-Celtic Australians (85% ) in Australia and other New Zealand Europeans in New Zealand. Anglo-Celtic Australian is an Ethnic or cultural category used to describe Australians with British and/or Irish ancestral origins The term New Zealand European refers to New Zealand residents of European descent who identify as New Zealand Europeans rather than some more specific European One major exception exists though. and this concerns senior citizens of Dutch decent, many of whom (because of old age or dementia) have lost the ability to speak English and fall back on their mother tongue; Dutch. Dementia (from Latin de- "apart away" + Mens ( genitive mentis) "mind" is the progressive decline A major social problem as they largely lack a way to communicate. Their children generally do not speak Dutch natively or sufficiently.
The Dutch had settled in America long before the establishment of the United States of America.  For a long time the Dutch lived in Dutch colonies, owned and regulated by the Dutch Republic, which later became part of the Thirteen Colonies. The Thirteen Colonies were part of what became known as British America, a name that was used by Great Britain until the Treaty of Paris (1783 recognized the Nevertheless, many Dutch communities remained virtually isolated towards the rest of America up until the American Civil War, in which the Dutch fought for the North and adopted many American ways. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South 
Most future waves of Dutch immigrants were quickly assimilated. There have been three American presidents of Dutch descent: Martin van Buren (8th, first president who was not of British descent, first language was Dutch), Franklin D. Roosevelt (32nd, elected to four terms in office, he served from 1933 to 1945, the only U. Martin Van Buren (December 5 1782 July 24 1862 was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841 S. president to have served more than two terms) and Theodore Roosevelt (26th). Theodore Roosevelt (ˈroʊzəvɛlt October 27 1858 January 6 1919 also known as T
It's hard to get close to Canadians because they are reserved. According to the Canada 2006 Census, there are 1035965 Canadians of Dutch descent, including those of full or partial ancestry They are always helpful in emergencies, but then they go back in their shell and want to be private. We Dutch are very open and always ready with comments, criticism and advice. We're not afraid to come out straight and ask, "How much money do you make?" The Canadians think we are rude for this. 
– A Dutch Canadian.
According to the 2001 Canadian census 923,310 Canadians claim full or partial Dutch ancestry.
The first Dutch people to come to Canada were Dutch Americans among the United Empire Loyalists. A Dutch American is an inhabitant of the United States of whole or partial Dutch ancestry The name United Empire Loyalists is a honorific name which has been given after the fact to those American Loyalists who resettled in British North America and other The largest wave was in the late 19th and early 20th century, when large numbers of Dutch helped settle the Canadian west. During this period significant numbers also settled in major cities like Toronto. Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario While interrupted by the First World War this migration returned in the 1920s, but again halted during the Great Depression and Second World War. After the war a large number of Dutch immigrants moved to Canada, including a number of war brides of the Canadian soldiers who liberated the Netherlands. War bride is a term used in reference to wartime marriages especially - but not exclusively - during World War I and World War II.
Dutch Canadians, like Dutch Australians, have a reputation of being highly, if not perfectly, integrated ethnic groups. According to the Canada 2006 Census, there are 1035965 Canadians of Dutch descent, including those of full or partial ancestry Nevertheless many Canadians of Dutch descent and recent Dutch expatriates still judge Canadian society by their own, Dutch, standards and morals. Canadian culture is a term that encompasses the artistic musical literary culinary political and social elements that are representative of Canada not only to its own population Generally they view other Canadians to be slow, laid back and passive, traits that the Dutch find to be irritating. 
Some examples of people of Dutch descent among other nations/peoples:
The history of the Dutch, as of most European peoples, is complex and intertwined through migrations and shifting empires. In this section, a short overview of these issues in relation to the approximate area of the current Netherlands is sketched.
In the Roman Empire, the imperial boundary ran east-west through the present Netherlands, along the Rhine. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Within the empire, tribal groups included the Belgae (whose name was adopted in 1830 for the new Kingdom of Belgium), and the Batavi (whose name was adopted for the Dutch Batavian Republic). The Belgae were a group of tribes living in northern Gaul in the 1st century BC and later also attested in Britain. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those The Batavians ( Latin Batavi) were a Germanic tribe originally part of the Chatti, reported by Tacitus to The Batavian Republic (Bataafse Republiek was the successor of the Republic of the United Netherlands. After the Fall of the Roman Empire, by the end of the Migration Period, the Low Countries were inhabited by Frisians, Saxons and the Franks. The Decline of the Roman Empire, leading to the Fall of the Roman Empire, or the Fall of Rome, was the end of the Western Roman Empire. The Migration Period, also called Barbarian Invasions, or sometimes Völkerwanderung ( German for "wandering of peoples" is the English name The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group Of these three groups, the Franks were most dominant, and would in fact conquer large areas of Europe in the subsequent centuries. In 843, the Treaty of Verdun divided the (Frankish) Carolingian Empire into three kingdoms for the three sons of Louis the Pious. In the Treaty of Verdun of 843 the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious, Charlemagne 's grandsons divided his territories the Carolingian Louis the Pious (778 &ndash 20 June 840) also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was the King of Aquitaine from 781 and co-Emperor The Low Countries became part of Middle Francia under Emperor Lothair I. Lothair I ( German: Lothar, French: Lothaire, Italian: Lotario) (795 &ndash 29 September 855)
In 962, the Holy Roman Empire was established with the coronation of Otto the Great, extending from the Low Countries to Italy. The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in Otto I the Great ( 23 November 912 &ndash 7 May 973) son of Henry I the Fowler and Matilda of Ringelheim, was Duke The Holy Roman empire was a largely decentralised state and its authority within the low countries was never very strong. Later, semi-independent fiefdoms formed in the Low Countries; the most powerful being Brabant, Flanders, Guelders, Holland and Luxembourg. The first steps towards political unification of the Low Countries took place under the dukes of Burgundy (until 1473). The Pragmatic Sanction of 1549, issued by Charles V, established the Low Countries as an independent entity, the Seventeen Provinces, with boundaries approximating to the present Benelux, as an entity separate from the Holy Roman Empire and France. The Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 was an Edict, promulgated by Charles V Holy Roman Emperor, reorganizing the Seventeen Provinces. Charles V (24 February 1500 &ndash 21 September 1558 was The Benelux is an economic union in Western Europe that includes three neighboring monarchies, '''Be'''lgium, the '''Ne'''therlands, and
Although the Seventeen Provinces had become a political unity, there were still great regional differences. The eastern (e. g. , Guelders and Liege) and southern provinces (Artois) were less densely populated and agrarian. These provinces were also partially oriented towards their (German or French) neighbours. A division between North and South was not foreseeable at the time. The primary contrast was between the rich urbanised coastal provinces (Flanders, Zealand and Holland), and the less developed peripheral domains. 
As the Reformation gained influence in Europe, Calvinism became very influential in the Seventeen Provinces, including Artesia and Flanders, the base of the Spanish governors. The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the When Catholic Habsburg Spain turned to repressive policies, this added to general dissatisfaction in the Seventeen Provinces. In 1566, a wave of iconoclastic attacks on Catholic churches began what is now known as the Dutch Revolt. Iconoclasm, Greek for "image-breaking" is the deliberate destruction within a culture of the culture's own religious Icons and other symbols or monuments The Dutch Revolt, Eighty Years' War or the Revolt of the Netherlands (1568—1648 was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Low Countries During the succeeding rebellion, the Spanish forces managed to re-establish their power in the southern provinces. In the north, the Dutch Republic emerged, defining for the first time an independent Dutch nation. "United Netherlands" redirects here For the "Kingdom of the United Netherlands" see United Kingdom of the Netherlands. The economic golden age, and spread of Calvinism, redefined the Dutchman across Europe as a Hollander rather than a Fleming, as had previously been the case. 
As the Spanish forces reconquered the Southern cities (in present-day Belgium), of which the fall of Antwerp in 1585 was most notable, many Calvinists, including much of the local economic and cultural elites, fled north. The Southern Netherlands remained under Spanish rule, and remained almost entirely Catholic. The Southern Netherlands (Zuidelijke Nederlanden Países Bajos del Sur Pays-Bas du sud were a part of the Low Countries controlled by Spain ( Spanish In 1648, the Peace of Westphalia recognised the de facto geopolitical division of the former Seventeen provinces. The term Peace of Westphalia refers to the two peace treaties of Osnabrück and Münster, signed on May 15 and October 24 of The Dutch Republic prospered and created the trade-based Dutch Empire overseas, while the Southern Netherlands had lost their leading economic role in Europe. "United Netherlands" redirects here For the "Kingdom of the United Netherlands" see United Kingdom of the Netherlands. In the 18th century, the power of the Dutch republic started to diminish.
After a short lived existence as the Batavian Republic supported by French revolutionaries, and as the vassal state Kingdom of Holland, the Low Countries were for a short time (1810–1813), annexed by the French Empire. Not to be confused with the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The Kingdom of Holland 1806 - 1810 (Koningrijk Holland Royaume At this time, the English occupied the Dutch colonial possessions. Except for the Cape Colony (South Africa) and Ceylon (Sri Lanka), the colonial possessions were returned after Napoleon had been defeated. Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island The lasting division between the Dutch and the Boers (who were Dutch settlers in South Africa) started here. Boer (ˈbuːr in Dutch ˈbʊɚ/ /boʊɚ or /ˈbɔr/ in English is the Dutch word for Farmer which came to denote the descendants of the proto Afrikaans When France was defeated in 1814 and again after the Hundred Days Campaign in 1815, the winning coalition, created the United Kingdom of the Netherlands comprising of the Northern and the Southern Netherlands at the Congress of Vienna. The Hundred Days was the period between Napoleon Bonaparte 's return from exile on Elba to Paris on 20 March 1815 and the restoration The Congress of Vienna was a conference of ambassadors of the major powers of Europe, chaired by the Austrian statesman Clemens Wenzel von Metternich The new state, intended to act as a semi-buffer state between France and Prussia, proved to be unworkable; not only did it include different ethnic and linguistic groups (Walloons, Germans and Dutch), the state was also divided by cultural, religious, and internal economic differences. A buffer state is a Country lying between two rival or potentially hostile greater powers, which by its sheer existence is thought to prevent conflict between them In 1830, the southern provinces declared their independence in the Belgian revolution. In 1839, the independence of Belgium was recognised by the northern Kingdom of the Netherlands. The Netherlands and The Kingdom of the Netherlands are two distinct geographical and administrative entities With the resolution of the status of Luxembourg in 1890, the three states acquired most of their present boundaries. Luxembourg (Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg Grand-Duché de Luxembourg Großherzogtum Luxemburg is a small Landlocked country in Western Europe, bordered by The Netherlands are a constitutional monarchy. A constitutional monarchy, or a limited monarchy, is a form of Constitutional Government, wherein either an elected or hereditary Monarch is
Although comparatively small in numbers, the Dutch have definitely made their mark on the world, as we know it today. The Dutch Republic was an economic and military power during much of the 17th century, and involved in many conflicts of the time, such as the Anglo-Dutch Wars. The Anglo-Dutch Wars ( Dutch: Engels-Nederlandse Oorlogen or Engelse Zeeoorlogen) were fought in the 17th and 18th centuries between England The economy was carried by private enterprises, for the first time on that scale and the Dutch East India Company issued the first freely tradable stock, one of the cornerstones of modern economy. Software for Fixed assets management and Stock control developed in 2004.
Dutch colonialism still influences the lives of many today. Beginning in the 16th century, Europeans such as the Dutch began to establish trading posts and forts along the coasts of western and southern Africa. Eventually, a large number of Dutch, augmented by French Huguenots and Germans, settled in the Cape Colony. The Cape Colony, part of modern South Africa, was established by the Dutch East India Company in 1652 with the founding of Cape Town. Their descendants in South Africa, the Afrikaners and the Coloureds, are the largest European-descended groups in Africa today, see Demographics of Africa. The term Afrikaner people refers to white Afrikaans -speaking people who have been established in Southern Africa since the 17th century and are mainly of northwestern The Dutch also controlled what is now known as Indonesia, and waged various wars against its native inhabitants in a series conflicts raging from the early 16th to the late 20th century. The area surrounding New York was a Dutch colony and in fact many street names and geographical locations still bear Dutch (though Anglicised) names, see Legacy of the Dutch in New York for more information. Anglicisation or anglicization (see -ise vs -ize) is a process of conversion of verbal or written elements of any other language into a more comprehensible English New Netherland (Dutch Nieuw-Nederland, Latin Novum Belgium or Nova Belgica) 1614–1674 is the name of the former Dutch territory on the eastern coast
A significant number of painters and philosophers are Dutch, despite its small population. This is a list of Dutch people who are famous and/or have an article Art Architecture See also List of Dutch architects Remarkable persons include painters like Van Gogh, Rembrandt and Vermeer, and philosophers like Spinoza (though not of Dutch heritage), Erasmus of Rotterdam and Hugo Grotius as well as various poets and writers such as Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft, Joost van den Vondel and Anne Frank and scientists like Christiaan Huygens also made their mark on how we today view the world. Painting (pān'tīng in Art, is the practice of applying Color to a Surface (support base such as e Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (July 15 1606 &ndash October 4 1669 was a Dutch painter and etcher. Johannes or Jan Vermeer (baptized in Delft with the name Joannis on October 31 1632, and buried in the same city under the name Jan Baruch or Benedict de Spinoza (ברוך שפינוזה Bento de Espinosa Benedictus de Spinoza ( November 24, 1632 – February 21, Hugo Grotius or Huig de Groot, or Hugo de Groot; ( Delft, 10 April 1583 Rostock, 28 August 1645 Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft ( March 16, 1581 - May 21, 1647) was a Dutch Historian, Poet and Playwright Joost van den Vondel ( November 17, 1587 - February 5, 1679) was a Dutch writer and playwright Annelies Marie "Anne" Frank ( (12 June 1929 – early March 1945 was a Jewish girl born in the city of Frankfurt am Main in Weimar Germany Christiaan Huygens (ˈhaɪgənz in English ˈhœyɣəns in Dutch) ( April 14, 1629 &ndash July 8, 1695) was a Dutch The Netherlands were arguably the first nation state of the world and the first republic in modern Europe. For the online game see Jennifer Government NationStates. The nation-state is a certain form of State that derives its legitimacy During the early 17th century, the economic reforms, empire and ideas made the Netherlands one of the world's richest countries and the first thoroughly capitalist country. Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where 
Dutch culture is diverse, reflecting regional differences as well as foreign influences owing to the merchant and exploring spirit of the Dutch. Dutch culture or culture of the Netherlands is diverse reflecting regional differences as well as the foreign influences thanks to the merchant and exploring spirit  The Netherlands and Dutch people have played an important role for centuries as a cultural center, with the Dutch Golden Age regarded as the zenith. This article focuses on social and cultural history For political events see History of the Netherlands and Dutch Revolt (1568–1648 During the 20th century Dutch architects played a leading role in the development of modern architecture, and Dutch painters like Rembrandt and Van Gogh are world renowned. This is a list of painters who were born and/or were primarily active in the Netherlands. 
The Dutch people and their culture were historically influenced by the culture of neighbouring regions. France played a substantial role in the history of the Netherlands in the 17th, 18th and early 19th centuries, and there are resulting cultural influences. Cultural contacts with Scandinavia were, and are, much less influential. Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well English-speaking cultural influences have been predominant since the Second World War. The Dutch were also influenced by their colonies, most notably Indonesia.
Dutch traditional music, of Dutch Folk, is characterized by simple straightforward bass motives heavily supplemented with fast, often happy, melody. Dutch folk dance are the Traditional dances that were performed for the Folk. Traditional garment refers to the garments which are peculiar to or characteristic of a certain district country or Ethnic group. Traditional music is the term now used in the terminology of Grammy Awards for what used to be called " folk music " (Click here for an example. ) Uncommon among other European folk, in Dutch music the bass line, not the melody, is the musical line that is danced to. A bassline (also spelled bass line) is the term used in many styles of Popular music, such as jazz blues funk and electronic Music for the low-pitched In Music, a melody (from Greek μελῳδία - melōidía, "singing chanting" also tune, voice, or This means that though the music itself may sound fast, the dances are usually quite moderate to slow in tempo. 2266-Tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl or TEMPO is the Chemical compound with the formula (CH23(CMe22NO The dances themselves are mainly group dances rather than individual or dual dances.  Clogs are often worn during dances; however, Dutch clog dancing is very different from its more modern counterpart. Clogging is a type of Folk dance rooted in traditional European dancing from the British Isles, in which the dancer's footwear is used musically by striking the heel It is virtually impossible to perform highly active dances with Dutch clogs (which are entirely made from wood, not just the sole) and hence the clogs function as additional percussion, by stamping rhythmically. Instruments commonly found in Dutch folk are the accordion, flute, fiddle, hurdy gurdy, small (mobile) organs, and the rommelpot. The accordion is a portable box-shaped Musical instrument of the hand-held Bellows -driven free-reed aerophone family sometimes referred to as a Squeezebox The flute is a Musical instrument of the Woodwind family Unlike other woodwind instruments a flute is a Reedless wind instrument that produces its A hurdy gurdy (also known as a wheel fiddle) is a stringed Musical instrument in which the strings are sounded by means of a Rosined wheel which the strings The organ (from Greek όργανον – organon "organ instrument tool" is a Keyboard instrument of one or more divisions each A friction drum is a Musical instrument found in various forms in Africa, Asia, Europe and South America. 
The Dutch population can be separated into two main religious groups: Roman Catholics and Protestants. The history of Religion in the Netherlands has been characterized by considerable diversity of religious thought and practice Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. During and after the Dutch revolt against Spain, Protestantism became the dominant religion in most of the country. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. The provinces of North Brabant and Limburg and the region of Twente, however, remained predominantly Catholic. North Brabant ( Dutch: Noord-Brabant,) is a province of the Netherlands, located in the south of the country bordered by Belgium Limburg ( Dutch: (Nederlands Limburg is the southern-most of the twelve provinces of the Netherlands. Twente (or Twenthe is a non-administrative region in the eastern Netherlands, probably named after the Tuihanti a tribe that settled in that region in the beginning of our
At 30 percent of the population, Catholics form the largest religious group today. Meanwhile, the Dutch belong to many separate Protestant churches, the largest of which are the Dutch Reformed Church (Nederlands Hervormd) and the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands (Gereformeerd), although in 2004 these merged to form the Protestant Church in the Netherlands. Dutch Reformed Church (in Dutch: Nederlandse Hervormde Kerk or NHK was one of many branches of churches coming out of the Protestant Reformation in Europe The Reformed Churches in the Netherlands (Gereformeerde Kerken in Nederland abbreviated Gereformeerde kerk) was the second largest Protestant church in the Netherlands The Protestant Church in the Netherlands ( Dutch: Protestantse Kerk in Nederland, abbreviated PKN) came into being on 1 May 2004
During the late 19th and early 20th centuries the different religious groups were living completely separately from each other, and from the newly emerging socialist labour movement. These sub-societies were a form of horizontal stratification: people lived and married within their own communities, and the pillars had their own schools and universities, media (newspapers, magazines and radio broadcasting associations), sport clubs, shops, hospitals, unions and political parties. This intense social fragmentation was called verzuiling and led to significant tension within Dutch political life. Pillarisation ( verzuiling in Dutch, pilarisation in French) is a term used to describe the denominational segregation of Dutch Pillarisation is described in detail in Arend Lijphart's seminal work on consociationalism, The Politics of Accommodation. Arend d'Angremond Lijphart (born 17 August 1936, Apeldoorn, The Netherlands) is a world renowned Political scientist specializing Consociationalism is a form of government involving guaranteed group representation and is often suggested for managing conflict in deeply divided societies
After peaking in influence in the 1950s, the social system of pillarisation started to crumble in the early 1960s during the Dutch postmaterialist revolution, due to secularisation, individualism, consumerism, counter-culture, rising living standards, the emergence of mass media (especially television), increased social and geographical mobility, and agitation by movements such as Provo, D66 and Nieuw Links. Pillarisation ( verzuiling in Dutch, pilarisation in French) is a term used to describe the denominational segregation of Dutch The theory of Post-materialism assumes an ongoing transformation of individuals and society which liberates them gradually from the stress of basic acquisitive or materialistic needs Secularization or secularisation generally refers to the process of transformation by which a Society migrates from close identification with religious institutions Consumerism is the equation of personal Happiness with the purchase of material possessions and consumption. Counterculture (also " counter-culture " is a sociological term used to describe the values and norms of behavior of a Cultural group, or "Popular press" redirects here note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint "The Popular Press" Democrats 66 ( D66, Democraten 66 official name Politieke Partij Democraten 66) is a Dutch progressive, social-liberal and The New Left were the Left-wing movements in different countries in the 1960s and 1970s that unlike the earlier leftist focus on union activism instead adopted a
A 2004 study conducted by Statistics Netherlands shows that 50% of the population claim to belong to a Christian denomination, 9% to other denominations and 42% to none. In the same study 19% of the people claim go to church at least once a month, another 9% less than once a month, 72% hardly ever or never.  There is a small Jewish community of some 40,000 people, mostly in the larger cities.
People of Dutch ancestry in the United States are generally more religious than their European counterparts ; the numerous Dutch communities of western Michigan remain strongholds of the Reformed Church in America, and the Christian Reformed Church, both descendants of the Dutch Reformed Church. West Michigan, also known as Western Michigan, is a Region in the U The Reformed Church in America (RCA is a mainline Reformed Protestant denomination that was formerly a part of the Dutch Reformed
There are a number of sports which the Dutch possibly invented or Dutch claim to have invented, which then spread worldwide, examples include ice hockey and golf. Ice hockey, often referred to simply as hockey, is a team Sport played on Ice.  Apart from these worldwide sports there are also a number of local Dutch sports such as polsstokverspringen, kaatsen, klootschieten, kolven and korfbal. Fierljeppen (lit far-leaping) is a traditional Sport of the Frisians and of the Dutch, and one of the more complex athletic sports Frisian handball ( Dutch kaatsen Frisian Keatsen) is a traditional Frisian sport related to American handball and Fives, that is most commonly practiced Klootschieten ("Ball shooting" in English is a Sport in the Netherlands. This page refers to the sport of kolf. For the computer game see Kolf. Korfball (Korfbal is a team ball game similar to mixed Netball.
The most popular sports, both for active participation and audience, are football (soccer), cycling, speed skating, field (not ice) hockey and tennis. Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered Cycling is the use of Bicycles or - less commonly - Unicycles Tricycles Quadricycles and other similar wheeled Human powered vehicles Speed skating or speedskating is a competitive form of Skating in which the competitors race each other in travelling a certain distance Field hockey is a Team sport in which players attempt to score goals by hitting the Ball across the pitch with a stick Tennis is a sport played between two players ( singles) or between two teams of two players each ( doubles)
He builds your confidence, makes you feel special and gives the clear impression you are getting a fair deal, all while creating the atmosphere of comfort and caring. In truth, he couldn't care less. The only YES he really understands is the ¥€$ you'll bring to him and his company. Money is anything that is generally accepted as Payment for Goods and services and repayment of Debts. 
– The Undutchables, Work vs. Welfare; Commercial cunning.
Like many other peoples, the Dutch have an 'international image'. This image however, is often subjected to stereotyping, whether positive or negative, and rarely is entirely accurate. A stereotype (from Greek: stereo + týpos = "solid impression" is a generalized perception of first impressions behaviors presumed by a group The sections below will try to explore the image of the Dutch.
Many nations regard the Dutch as being organized and efficient, but harmless at the same time due to the stereotypical mental picture of "a nation of rosy-cheeked farmers who live in windmills, wear clogs, have a garden full of tulips and sit on piles of yellow cheese". A stereotype (from Greek: stereo + týpos = "solid impression" is a generalized perception of first impressions behaviors presumed by a group  Apart from the more or less touristy image described above, the Dutch also have a reputation for being opinionated, stubborn and incurably mean. Belgians even consider them to be downright devious in business affairs. Dutch frankness completely overwhelms more reticent peoples such as the Japanese, who consider the Dutch to be the most arrogant of all the Europeans they do business with, but at the same time are impressed by their reputation as formidable merchants. The are the dominant Ethnic group of Japan. Worldwide approximately 130 million people are of Japanese descent of these approximately 127 million are residents of Japan The European peoples are the various Nations and Ethnic groups of Europe. A Japanese saying goes, "Where a Dutchman has passed, not even the grass grows anymore. "
Not just the Japanese may experience the Dutch as being (what they consider) blunt or insulting.  The author of "Dealing with the Dutch" illustrates this with a story he got from an American businessman whose Dutch colleague had stayed over for the night and for the first time got American pancakes for breakfast. Pancakes are a type of Flatbread prepared from a sweet batter that is cooked on a hot Griddle or in a Frying pan. After the Dutchman ate the pancakes the businessman's wife asked him if he'd enjoyed them. The Dutchman allegedly responded: "Sharon, after tasting these, I understand why your husband is so fat. " The author explains that he was just making a compliment and meant nothing by it, however in many other cultures, this would be a grave insult towards the host and could very well be the end of a cordial relationship. 
The Dutch negotiator is the commercial equivalent of the Venus flytrap. The Venus Flytrap Dionaea muscipula, is a Carnivorous plant that catches and digests animal prey&mdashmostly Insects and Arachnids His true nature is camouflaged -- then he strikes and consumes his prey before the victim realizes he is financial fodder. 
– The Undutchables, Work vs. Welfare; Commercial cunning.
English people survey the Dutch with guarded approval. It wasn't always like this, at the time of the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 17th century these two nations were at each other's throats. An English pamphlet raged: "A Dutchman is a Lusty, Fat, Two-legged Cheese worm. A Creature that is so addicted to eating butter, drinking fat, and sliding (skating) that all the world knows him for a slippery fellow". Ice skating is Traveling on Ice with skates, narrow (and sometimes parabolic) blade-like devices moulded into special Boots A study At this time the English language gained a whole array of new insults such as "Dutch courage" (booze-induced bravery), "Dutch comfort" ("Things could be worse") and "Dutch gold" (alloy resembling gold). The modern Phrase Dutch courage is a Slang term for Courage gained from Intoxication by Alcohol. For the metal alloy see Tombac. Dutch Gold is a low-cost imported pilsner Lager Beer sold in the Republic  Others include:
These terms also gained prominence in 17th century New England during their rivalry with New Holland, which was captured (and later recaptured by the Dutch) during the Second Anglo-Dutch War. The diaphragm is a cervical barrier type of Birth control. It is a soft Latex or Silicone dome with a spring molded into the rim Dutch uncle is a term for a person who issues frank harsh and severe comments and criticism to educate encourage or admonish someone Dutch roll is a type of Aircraft motion consisting of an out-of- phase combination of "tail-wagging" and rocking from side to side Going Dutch is a Slang term that means that each person eating at a restaurant or paying admission for entertainment pays for himself or herself rather than one person History See also History of New England New England's earliest inhabitants were Algonquian -speaking Native Americans including the The Second Anglo-Dutch War was fought between England and the United Provinces from 4 March, 1665 until 31 July, 1667. See also Dutch#Colloquial usage.
Stereotypical Dutch symbols such as wooden shoes, Dutch bonnets and braided hairstyles typically accented with ribbons (for the girls), blonde hair, tulips, cheese and windmills, are not considered symbols of the Dutch by the Dutch themselves, but actually reflect a foreign popular image of the Netherlands and the Dutch. The word clog, as applied to footwear has these meanings A type of Shoe or sandal made predominantly out of wood A Dutch cap or Dutch bonnet is a style of woman's hat associated with the traditional Dutch woman's costume A French braid, or French plait is a popular Hairstyle. Unlike a regular three-strand braid a French braid starts with small sections of hair at the crown of a person's head A ribbon or riband is a thin band of flexible material typically Cloth but also Plastic or sometimes Metal, used primarily for binding and tying Blond (also spelled blonde, see below) or fair-haired is a Hair color characterized by low levels of the dark Pigment eumelanin Tulipa, commonly called tulip, is a Genus of about 150 species of bulbous Flowering plants in the family Liliaceae. Cheese is a Food made from Milk, usually the milk of cows, Buffalo, Goats or sheep, by coagulation. A windmill is a machine that is powered by the energy of the wind The Dutch national symbols mainly include the Dutch flag and the "national colour" orange (used for the national team in sports). A national symbol is a Symbol of any entity considering itself and manifesting itself to the world as a national community – namely sovereign states, but also The Flag of the Netherlands is a horizontal Tricolour of Red, White, and Blue. National colours are frequently part of a country's set of National symbols. Sport is an Activity that is governed by a set of rules or Customs and often engaged in competitively The red, white and blue flag is the oldest tricolour in continuous use. A flag is a piece of Cloth, often flown from a pole or mast, generally used Symbolically for signaling or identification Orange is also the symbolic colour of the Dutch royal family, the House of Orange-Nassau, through the principality of Orange. The House of Orange-Nassau (in Dutch: Huis van Oranje-Nassau) a branch of the German House of Nassau, has played a central role in the political life The Principality of Orange was formed in 1163 when Emperor Frederick I granted the former County of Orange full independence within the Holy Roman Empire Another symbol of the Dutch is Het Wilhelmus, the Dutch national anthem, which is considered the world's oldest anthem in use. Het Wilhelmus ( ( English Translation: The William) is the National anthem of the Netherlands and is the oldest national anthem in  The form of the song is that of an apologetic statement by William I of Orange-Nassau, leader of the Dutch revolt against Spain. William I Prince of Orange ( April 24 1533 — July 10 1584) also widely known as William the Silent (Willem de Zwijger or simply
Popular culture depicts Dutch people in two completely distinct ways. Popular culture (or pop culture) is the Culture — patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activities significance and importance —  The traditional Dutch image displays people in national dress, wearing clogs, having blond hair and blue eyes, standing in front of wide, flat landscapes covered with tulips and windmills in the background. The word tradition comes from the Latin traditionem acc of traditio which means "a giving up delivering up surrendering" and is used in a number of National costume, also known as national dress, regional costume or folk dress, expresses an identity through Costume which usually The word clog, as applied to footwear has these meanings A type of Shoe or sandal made predominantly out of wood Blond (also spelled blonde, see below) or fair-haired is a Hair color characterized by low levels of the dark Pigment eumelanin The more recent image (usually intended to be seen as negative) is one of non-religious drug addicts, who legalized prostitution, marijuana, abortion, euthanasia and gay marriage. Prostitution is the act of performing Sexual activity in exchange for Money. Cannabis, also known as marijuana or marihuana, or ganja (from Hindi / Sanskrit: गांजा gānjā hemp) is a An Euthanasia (literally "good death" in Ancient Greek) refers to the practice of ending a life in a painless manner Same-sex marriage (also referred to as gay marriage) is a term for a legally or Socially recognized Marriage between two people of the same
Neither of these stereotypical images is correct. Only a small minority of the Dutch people wears traditional costumes on occasion in certain parts of the country or to entertain tourists. Tourism is Travel for Recreational or Leisure purposes The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel  Clogs, or wooden shoes, are not usually worn in public life. Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions However, they are quite practical for gardening and farming. The drug and value related stereotypes of the Dutch are relatively recent, from around 1985. The Dutch laws no longer establish drug use and small scale sales of some drugs as a criminal act, which created the widespread stereotype that the Netherlands are a drug-based society, especially in the Western Hemisphere. The Western Hemisphere, also Western hemisphere or western hemisphere, is a geographical term for the half of the Earth that lies West 
The Dutch, and people of Dutch decent, regularly appear in fiction. Fiction is the telling of stories which are not real More specifically fiction is an imaginative form of Narrative, one of the four basic Rhetorical modes. Their roles greatly vary, ranging from (primary) antagonists Goldmember (from the Austin Powers series) and Jason Voorhees (Friday the 13th) to ghosts (Hendrik van der Decken, better known as the Flying Dutchman) and heroes like Hansje Brinker and Abraham Van Helsing. Austin Powers in Goldmember is the third Film of the Austin Powers series starring Mike Myers in the title role. The Austin Powers series is a series of Comedy films written and produced by and stars Mike Myers as the title character, directed by Jay Appearances Friday the 13th is an American horror franchise that consists of eleven Slasher films a television show, Novels A ghost is said to be the apparition of a Deceased person frequently similar in appearance to that person and usually encountered in places she or he frequented The Flying Dutchman, according to Folklore, is a Ghost ship that can never go home and is doomed to sail the oceans forever The Flying Dutchman, according to Folklore, is a Ghost ship that can never go home and is doomed to sail the oceans forever Hans Brinker or The Silver Skates is a novel by American author Mary Mapes Dodge, first published in 1865.
The Dutch self-image differs considerably from the images other people have of them (see section below). A person's self image is the mental picture generally of a kind that is quite resistant to change that depicts not only details that are potentially available to objective The Dutch often profess that they greatly value hygiene, are thrifty, have an excellent feel for business, are good at foreign languages and have an ability to coexist with others. A business (also called firm or an enterprise) is a legally recognized organizational entity designed to provide goods and/or services to A language is a dynamic set of visual auditory or tactile Symbols of Communication and the elements used to manipulate them The Dutch take pride in their tolerance and flexibility, and are generally modest people. According to the Xenophobe's Guide, perceived negative characteristics are a secret mistrust of foreigners and a distaste of alien cuisine. Cuisine (from French cuisine, "cooking culinary art kitchen" ultimately from Latin coquere, "to cook" is a specific set  Traditionally, the Dutch are also said to be preachers, and it is common to (deprecatingly) speak of "the preacher's wagging finger" (Dutch "het opgeheven vingertje van de dominee") as a typically Dutch trait, especially when referring to the moralising tone that is seen by many as characteristic of Dutch foreign politics. Preacher is a term the for someone who preaches Sermons or gives homilies 
As in other cultures, there exist among the Dutch certain stereotypes about foreign peoples. This section explores some of these stereotypes. It should be kept in mind that the views mentioned below are popular images rather than serious opinions.
The Dutch tend to judge foreign cultures using the standards and values they hold dear. Traditionally, the socio-political climate in the Netherlands has been one of collaboration and working towards compromises. Accordingly, cultures with different standards are often considered unsympathetic. 
When compared to other cultures, the Dutch are rather reserved, in public, and do not often touch each other or display anger or extreme exuberance. This is why people and cultures who display these "vices", for example those living around the Mediterranean Sea, are regarded by the Dutch as being too emotional. In Dutch society, extravagantly flaunting ones emotions (whether positive or negative) is easily seen as an 'act'.  It's neatly illustrated by the Dutch proverb "Doe maar gewoon, dan doe je al gek genoeg" (Act normal, than you'll be crazy enough).
After centuries of close commercial, military, cultural and religious relations between the Netherlands and Great Britain, the Dutch have a generally positive opinion of the British. See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands Anglophone television programmes and English literature are popular and held in high regard, and English is widely spoken. An Anglophone (or anglophone) is someone who speaks the English language. The term English literature refers to Literature written in the English language, including literature composed in English by Writers not necessarily from Americans are typically also thought to be principally "good" people, though somewhat uneducated, unsophisticated and badly guided by their politicians. A politician (from Greek " Polis " is an individual who is involved in influencing public decision making through the influence of Politics or a person
The Dutch have an entirely different stereotype of the Belgians. They feature prominently in Dutch jokes in which they were typically defamed as not sensible or well-educated. This is however commonly accepted to be a fictional image, originating at the time of the Belgian Revolution, in which the Southern provinces seceded from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. Most, if not all, Dutch people consider the Belgians to be the most similar to themselves. It should be noted that when the Dutch speak of any Belgian kinship, they nearly always mean the Flemish (the Dutch-speaking inhabitants of Belgium) rather than the Walloons. 
For centuries, and most recently since World War II, a (strong) feeling of animosity exists towards Germans. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including They are said to be rude, arrogant, noisy and intolerant. Rudeness (also called impudence or effrontery) is the disrespect and failure to behave within the context of a society or a group of people's social laws or Etiquette The Xenophobe's Guide to the Dutch warns people that, " . . . telling a Dutch person that their language seems very similar to German is unlikely to benefit your relationship. "
The Dutch possess a deep aversion to all things German, especially the people. Such hostilities, undoubtedly, are attributable to the German invasion and subsequent occupation of the Netherlands during the Second World War. The evils that World War II brought to the Dutch homeland are not forgotton to this day, and the perpetrators are not forgiven. 
– M. Resch, author of Only the Dutch.
Germans are generally aware of this atmosphere and attitude towards them and often tread carefully when in the Netherlands.
Even though many Dutchmen are able to converse in German. Germans will adress the Dutch in English because many Dutch won't even acknowledge German speakers. [. . . ] A German who asks a question in German without asking if the Dutch person speaks any German, should not expect any help. 
– M. Resch, author of Only the Dutch.
Next to the Second World War, another source of animosity is the 1974 FIFA World Cup final, in which Germany beat the Netherlands. The 1974 FIFA World Cup, the tenth staging of the World Cup was held in West Germany from June 13 to July 7.
The Dutch aversion towards the Germans is usually most internationally visible during the events surrounding the European and World Cup. The UEFA European Football Championship is the main football competition of the men's national football teams governed by UEFA (the Union of European The FIFA World Cup, occasionally called the Football World Cup, but usually referred to simply as the World Cup, is an international Association football Dutch-German football matches stir up excitement and patriotism in the Dutch perhaps more than anything else. When the Dutch beat the Germans 2-1 in a 1988 semi-final match in Hanover, Germany, the country exploded into festivities. Hanover (i ( haˈnoːfɐ on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony ( Niedersachsen Fireworks were shot off and the Dutch partied for several days celebrating the victory. Well-known separate incidents between the Dutch and German team include:
I didn't give a damn about the score. 1-0 was enough, as long as we could humiliate them. They murdered 80% of my family. My father, my sister, two of my brothers. I hate them.
– Willem van Hanegem, on the first football match between Germany and the Netherlands since WWII in 1974. Willem "Wim" van Hanegem (born 20 February 1944) is a Dutch football player and coach born in Breskens, Zeeland. Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar.
Dutch authorities are cognizant of such anti-German sentiment and have been trying to moderate such feelings over the past few years, and according to recent studies the attitude towards German people has become less antagonistic. Anti-German sentiment (or Germanophobia) is defined as a fear or hatred of Germany, its people, and the German language. 
Count Floris V of Holland and Zeeland (1254-1296)
Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam, humanist and theologian (1466/9-1536)
Pope Adrian VI, reigned 1522-1523
St. Petrus Canisius, Catholic apologetic (1521-1597)
Hugo Grotius, jurist, philosopher, playwright, and poet. Count Floris V of Holland and Zeeland ( June 24, 1254 &ndash June 27, 1296) "der Keerlen God" (God of the Peasants is one of Pope Adrian VI ( Utrecht, March 2, 1459 &ndash September 14, 1523) born Adriaan Florenszoon Boeyens, son of William I Prince of Orange ( April 24 1533 — July 10 1584) also widely known as William the Silent (Willem de Zwijger or simply A Stadtholder ( Dutch: stadhouder, " steward " or literally "place-keeper" or "stead-holder" in older Dutch in the Low Saint Petrus Canisius ( May 8, 1521 &ndash December 21, 1597) was an important Jesuit who fought against the spread of Protestantism Hugo Grotius or Huig de Groot, or Hugo de Groot; ( Delft, 10 April 1583 Rostock, 28 August 1645 (1583-1645)
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn, Dutch painter and etcher (1606-1669)
Michiel Adriaenszoon de Ruyter, admiral (1607-1676)
Christiaan Huygens, mathematician, astronomer and physicist (1629-1695)
Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek tradesman, scientist and father of microbiology (1632-1723)
Isabelle de Charrière, Writer of letters, novels, pamphlets and plays (1714-1805)
Johan Rudolf Thorbecke, politician (1798-1872)
Multatuli: Eduard Douwes Dekker, novellist (1820-1887)
Thomas Alva Edison, inventor and businessman (1847-1931)
Hendrik Antoon Lorentz, physicist and Nobel Prize winner (1853-1928)
Pieter Cornelis (Piet) Mondriaan, painter and publicist (1872-1944)
Frederik ("Frits") Jacques Philips, industrialist (1905-2005)
Hella Serafia Haasse, writer (1918-)
Hannie Schaft, resistance fighter during World War II (1920-1945)
Willem Frederik Duisenberg politician and banker (1935 - 2005)
Adrianus ("Ard") Schenk, olympic, european and world champion speed skating (1944-)
Hermannus Jantinus "Herman" van Veen, stage performer, actor, musician and singer/songwriter and author (1945-)