Dupont Circle is a traffic circle in the northwest quadrant of Washington, D.C., at the intersection of Massachusetts Avenue, Connecticut Avenue, New Hampshire Avenue, P Street and 19th Street. A traffic circle is an intersection with a circular shape and usually a central island Northwest (also written as NW or NW) is the northwestern quadrant of Washington D Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Massachusetts Avenue, abbreviated Mass Ave, is a major diagonal transverse road in Washington D Connecticut Avenue is a major route in the Northwest quadrant of Washington D New Hampshire Avenue is a diagonal street in Washington DC, beginning at the Kennedy Center and extending northeast for about 5 miles (8 km and then continuing The name is also given to the public park within the circle, as well as the surrounding neighborhood, which is bounded approximately by 15th Street to the east, 22nd Street to the west, M Street to the south, and Florida Avenue to the north. A neighbourhood or neighborhood (see spelling differences) is a geographically localised Community within a larger City, Town or The name M Street refers to two major thoroughfares in the United States capital of Washington D Florida Avenue is a major street in Washington DC It was originally named Boundary Street, because it formed the northern boundary of Pierre L'Enfant
Dupont Circle is served by a subway station of the same name on the Washington Metro Red Line; the entrances are north (Q Street) and south (19th Street) of the circle. Dupont Circle is a Washington Metro station in Washington DC, on the Red Line. The Red Line of the Washington Metro is a rail Rapid transit service operating between 27 stations in Montgomery County, Maryland
The area was a rural backwater until after the Civil War, when it first became a fashionable residential neighborhood. Some of Washington's wealthiest residents constructed houses here in the late 19th century and early 20th century, leaving a legacy of two types of housing in the historic district. Many of the grid streets are lined with three- and four-story rowhouses built primarily before the end of the 19th century, often variations on the Queen Anne and Richardsonian Romanesque revival styles. In Architecture and City planning, a terrace(d or row house or townhouse (though the latter term can also refer to Patio houses The Queen Anne Style is a style of architecture, furniture and decoration that reached its greatest popularity in the last quarter of the 19th century manifesting itself in Richardsonian Romanesque is a style of American Architecture named after Architect Henry Hobson Richardson, whose masterpiece is Trinity Rarer are the palatial mansions and large freestanding houses that line the broad, tree-lined diagonal avenues that intersect the circle. Many of these larger dwellings were built in the styles popular between 1895 and 1910.
One such grand residence is the marble and terra cotta Patterson house at 15 Dupont Circle (currently the Washington Club). Terra cotta ( Italian: "baked earth" is a Ceramic. Its uses include vessels water & waste water pipes and surface embellishment in Building construction This Italianate mansion, the only survivor of the many mansions that once ringed the circle, was built in 1901 by New York architect Stanford White for Robert Patterson, editor of the Chicago Tribune, and his wife Nellie, heiress to the Chicago Tribune fortune. In the course of the history of Classical architecture, an Italianate style of architecture was a distinct nineteenth-century phase in which Italian sixteenth-century The City of New York An architect is a licensed individual who leads a design team in the Planning and Design of buildings and participates in oversight of Building Construction Stanford White ( November 9, 1853 – June 25, 1906) was an American Architect and partner in the architectural firm of Robert Wilson Patterson (1850 was an American newspaper editor and publisher. The Chicago Tribune is a major daily Newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois, United States, and owned by the Tribune Company Upon Mrs. Patterson's incapacitation in the early 1920s, the house passed into the hands of her daughter, Cissy Patterson, who made it a hub of Washington social life. Eleanor Josephine Medill "Cissy" Patterson ( November 7, 1881 - July 24, 1948) was an American Journalist and Newspaper The house served as temporary quarters for President and Mrs. The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by Calvin Coolidge in 1927 while the White House underwent renovation. John Calvin Coolidge Jr (July 4 1872 January 5 1933 was the thirtieth President of the United States (1923–1929 See also Executive Office of the President of the United States The White House, formerly known as the Executive Mansion, is the Official residence The Coolidges welcomed Charles Lindbergh as a houseguest after his historic transatlantic flight. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The Orteig Prize was a $25000 reward offered on May 19, 1919, by New York hotel owner Raymond Orteig to the first allied aviator(s to fly non-stop Lindbergh made several public appearances at the house, waving to roaring crowds from the second-story balcony, and befriended the Patterson Family, with whom he increasingly came to share isolationist and pro-German views. Isolationism is a Foreign policy which combines a non-interventionist military policy and a political policy of Economic nationalism ( Protectionism Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Cissy Patterson later acquired the Washington Times-Herald (sold to The Washington Post in 1954) and declared journalistic warfare on Franklin D. Roosevelt from 15 Dupont Circle, continuing throughout World War II to push her policies, which were echoed in the New York Daily News, run by her brother Joseph Medill Patterson, and the Chicago Tribune, run by their first cousin, Colonel Robert R. McCormick. The Washington Times-Herald was an American daily Newspaper once published in Washington D The Washington Post is the largest and most circulated Newspaper in Washington D World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Daily News of New York City is the fifth most-widely circulated daily Newspaper in the United States with a daily circulation of 703137 Joseph Medill Patterson ( January 6, 1879 &ndash May 26, 1946) was an American Journalist and Publisher, grandson of publisher Robert Rutherford McCormick ( July 30, 1880 &ndash April 1, 1955) was a Chicago newspaper baron and owner of the Chicago
The current boundaries of Dupont Circle include a small residential section that was once an overlap between Dupont and the Shaw neighborhood. Shaw is a neighborhood in Northwest, Washington DC It is roughly bounded by N Street NW to the south New Jersey Avenue NW to the east Florida This section, west of 16th Street roughly between Swann Street and Florida Avenue, is today a historic district called the Strivers' Section. 
Strivers' Section was historically an enclave of upper-middle-class African Americans — often community leaders — in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including a row of houses on 17th Street that were owned by Frederick Douglass and occupied by his son. African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa Frederick Douglass (born Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey, February 14 1818 February 20 1895 was an American abolitionist, editor, Orator It takes its name from a turn-of-the-century writer who described the district as "the Striver's section, a community of Negro aristocracy. "
Today, the Strivers' Section is still largely occupied by the Edwardian residences that have populated the area since its historical roots, along with a number of apartment and condominium buildings and a few small businesses. Class and society Socially the Edwardian era was a period during which the British Class system was very rigid
Construction of the traffic circle, originally called Pacific Circle, began in 1871. In 1882, Congress authorized a memorial statue of Samuel Francis Du Pont in recognition of his service as a rear admiral during the Civil War; this was part of the efforts made by his family and others to rehabilitate his reputation after he was made a scapegoat for the failure of the assaults on Fort Wagner in South Carolina. The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses A statue is a Sculpture in the round representing a person or persons an animal or an event normally full-length as opposed to a bust, and at least close to life-size Samuel Francis Du Pont ( September 27, 1803 &ndash June 23, 1865) was an American naval officer who achieved the rank of Rear Rear admiral is a Naval Commissioned officer rank above that of a Commodore and Captain, and below that of a Vice Admiral. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South Fort Wagner (also called Battery Wagner) was a Fortification on Morris Island, South Carolina, that covered the southern approach to Charleston A bronze statue was erected in 1884 in a park at the center of the circle. Bronze is any of a broad range of Copper alloys, usually with Tin as the main additive but sometimes with other elements such as Phosphorus A park is a protected area of Land and Water, usually in its natural or semi-natural (landscaped state and set aside for some purpose often to do with human The Du Pont family moved the sculpture to Wilmington, Delaware in 1920, and commissioned the current double-tiered, white marble fountain from sculptor Daniel Chester French and architect Henry Bacon (the co-creators of the Lincoln Memorial). The Du Pont family is an American family descended from Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours (1739-1817 Wilmington is the largest city in the state of Delaware, United States and is located at the confluence of the Christina River and Brandywine Marble is a nonfoliated Metamorphic rock resulting from the Metamorphism of Limestone, composed mostly of Calcite (a crystalline form of A traditional fountain is an arrangement where water issues from a source ( Latin fons) fills a basin of some kind and is drained away Daniel Chester French ( April 20 1850 &ndash October 7 1931) was an American sculptor. Henry Bacon ( November 28 1866 &ndash February 17 1924) an American Beaux-Arts Architect, is best remembered The Lincoln Memorial is a United States Presidential memorial built to honor the 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln. The fountain was installed in 1921. Three classical nude figures symbolizing the sea, the stars and the wind are carved on the fountain's shaft. This article is about the body of water For other uses see SEA and Seas. A star is a massive luminous ball of plasma. The nearest star to Earth is the Sun, which is the source of most of the Energy on Earth Wind is the flow of Air or other Gases that compose an Atmosphere (including but not limited to the Earth's)
The present Connecticut Avenue traffic tunnel was built in 1949 as part of the now-defunct Capital Transit project. just under 100 years between 1862 and 1962 streetcars in Washington D Many incorrectly think the traffic tunnel is where the streetcars operated. However, the streetcar tunnels were built in addition to the traffic tunnel and started a block north and south of the traffic tunnels. The tracks followed the outer perimeter of the circle and paralleled the traffic tunnel north of the circle underneath the Connecticut Avenue service roads. The purpose of the streetcar tunnels was to alleviate the traffic congestion created when the streetcars traveled (in both directions) around the circle's western side. After the demise of streetcar operation in January 1962, the tunnel entrances were filled in and paved over in August 1964, leaving only the traffic tunnel. The tunnel entrances were located where the tree-filled medians now stand north of N Street and between R and S Streets.
The tunnels (one northbound, one southbound) each contained an underground station (different from the present Dupont Circle Metro station). A metro station is a railway station for a Rapid transit system often known by names such as "metro" "underground" and "subway" These stations are no longer used, and their entrances on the east and west sides of the circle are boarded up. An attempt in 1995 to redevelop the old southbound station as a food court called Dupont Down Under failed. In 2003 the owner of a 20 year lease to the space investigated possible uses without any significant progress. 
The neighborhood's fortunes and importance began to decline after World War II, and reached a nadir after the race riots of the late 1960s. The Washington DC riots of April 4 – 8, 1968 erupted with the April 4, 1968 assassination of Civil Rights Movement leader Its residential character was threatened by encroachment of commercial development from downtown, and many fine buildings were demolished.
Beginning in the 1970s, however, Dupont Circle began to enjoy a resurgence fueled by urban pioneers seeking an alternative lifestyle. The neighborhood took on a bohemian feel and became a gay area. The term bohemian, of French origin was first used in the English language in the nineteenth century to describe the untraditional lifestyles of marginalized and impoverished Artists A gay village (also known as a gay neighborhood or by the slang gayborhood) is an urban geographic location with generally recognized boundaries Along with The Castro in San Francisco, Hillcrest in San Diego, Greenwich Village in New York City, Boystown in Chicago, and West Hollywood in Los Angeles, it is considered a historic locale in the development of American gay identity. The Castro District better known as The Castro is a neighborhood within Eureka Valley in San Francisco California. Hillcrest is a neighborhood in San Diego northwest of Balboa Park. Greenwich Village (ˌgrɛnɪtʃ ˈvɪlɪdʒ often simply called the Village, is a largely residential area on the west side of downtown (southern Manhattan Boystown is the popular name of a locally recognized neighborhood enclave within Chicago, Illinois. Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. West Hollywood, a city in Los Angeles County California, was incorporated on November 29, 1984. Pioneering gay bars on P Street in Dupont Circle included P Street Station (since renamed the Fireplace), Mr. gay bar (also known as a boy bar if the clientele is predominantly male or conversely a girl bar) is a drinking establishment that caters exclusively P's (of John Paulk fame, since closed), Badlands (a multilevel gay dance bar, since renamed Apex), and the Frat House (since renamed Omega D. John Paulk (born 1963) is a former leader of Focus on the Family 's Love Won Out conference and was chairman of the board of Exodus International North America C. ). A newer cluster of gay bars exist on 17th Street a couple blocks east of the circle, including JR's, The Dupont Italian Kitchen (also known as "Windows"), and Cobalt. gay bar (also known as a boy bar if the clientele is predominantly male or conversely a girl bar) is a drinking establishment that caters exclusively
Gentrification accelerated in the 1980s and 1990s, and the area is now a more mainstream and trendy location with coffeehouses, restaurants, bars, and upscale retail stores. Gentrification, or urban gentrification, is the change in an Urban area associated with the movement of more affluent individuals into a lower-class A coffeehouse ( French / Portuguese: café; Spanish: cafetería; Italian: caffè Notable stores include a 24-hour bookstore and restaurant, Kramerbooks & Afterwords, and D. Kramerbooks & Afterwords is an Independent bookstore and café in Washington D C. 's first gay bookstore, Lambda Rising. Lambda Rising is the oldest LGBT bookstore in Washington DC, and has long been recognized as one of the world's leading LGBT bookstores The Brickskeller opened in 1957, across from Rock Creek Park, in the Marifex Hotel building and became renowned for its very large selection of beer, which has it listed in Guinness World Records. The Brickskeller (officially The Brickskeller Dining House and Down Home Saloon) is a tavern in Washington D Guinness World Records, known until 2000 as The Guinness Book of Records (and in previous U 
|Dupont Circle Historic District and Boundary Increases|
|(U.S. Registered Historic District)|
|Location:||Roughly bounded by Florida and Rhode Island Aves. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A historic district in the United States is a group of buildings properties or sites that have been designated by one of several entities on different levels as historically or architecturally , T, 17th, 21st, and 22nd Sts. ; Roughly bounded by Florida Ave. , 16th, 22nd, and T Sts. , Rhode Island Ave. and N St. ; Various areas within an area roughly bounded by 16th St. , T St. , Florida, 23rd and M St. NW|
|Added to NRHP:||July 21, 1978; February 6, 1985; June 10, 2005|
|NRHP Reference#:||78003056; 85000238; 05000539|
The neighborhood is centered around the traffic circle, which is divided between two counterclockwise roads. The National Register of Historic Places (NRHP is the United States government's official list of districts sites buildings structures and objects deemed worthy of Events 356 BC - Herostratus sets fire to the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World Year 1978 ( MCMLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar) Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar defeats the combined army of Pompeian followers and Numidians under Metellus Scipio Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) Events 1190 - Third Crusade: Frederick I Barbarossa drowns in the Sally River while leading an army to Jerusalem Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The maypole is a tall wooden pole (traditionally of Maple ( Acer) hawthorn or Birch) sometimes erected with several long coloured A clockwise motion is one that proceeds 'like the Clock 's hands' from the top to the right then down and then to the left and back to the top The outer road serves all the intersecting streets, while access to the inner road is limited to Massachusetts Avenue traffic. Connecticut Avenue passes under the circle via a tunnel; vehicles on Connecticut Avenue can access the circle via service roads that branch from Connecticut near N Street and R Street. A tunnel is an underground passageway The definition of what constitutes a tunnel is not universally agreed upon A frontage road (also access road, feeder, service drive, service road, outer road, and especially surface road) is
The park within the circle is a gathering place for those wishing to play chess on the permanent stone chessboards. Chess is a recreational and competitive Game played between two players. A chessboard is the type of Checkerboard used in the Game of Chess, and consists of 64 squares (eight rows and eight columns arranged in two alternating Tom Murphy, a homeless championship chess player, is a resident. Tom Murphy is a black Homeless Chess player who sleeps and gives chess lessons in Dupont Circle, Washington D 
The park has also been the location of political rallies, such as those supporting gay rights and those protesting the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund. The LGBT rights movement in the United States seeks to achieve equality for all Americans regardless of their Sexual orientation or Gender identity Protest expresses relatively overt reaction to events or situations sometimes in favor though more often opposed The 2003 invasion of Iraq, from March 20 to May 1 2003 was spearheaded by the United States, backed by British forces and smaller contingents from Australia The World Bank Group (WBG is a family of five International organizations responsible for providing Finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic The International Monetary Fund ( IMF) is an International organization that oversees the Global financial system by following the Macroeconomic The park is maintained by the National Park Service. The National Park Service ( NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation
The Dupont Circle neighborhood, as a whole, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The National Register of Historic Places (NRHP is the United States government's official list of districts sites buildings structures and objects deemed worthy of The neighborhood is home to numerous embassies, many of which are located in historic residences. A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one State or an international Inter-governmental organization (such as the United Nations) present in Located nearby on Massachusetts Avenue in Embassy Row are the Christian Hauge House, which houses the Embassy of Cameroon, the Thomas T. Gaff House, home to the Colombian ambassador, the Joseph Beale House, which houses the Egyptian embassy, and the Walsh-McLean House which is home to the Indonesian embassy. This article is about Embassy Row in Washington DC See Embassy Row (disambiguation for additional uses The Embassy of Cameroon in Washington DC, also known as the Christian Hauge House, is the Diplomatic mission of the Republic of Cameroon to the The Republic of Cameroon is a unitary republic of central and western Africa. The Thomas T Gaff House is the residence of the Colombian Ambassador to the United States, a post currently held by Carolina Barco Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. Nearby, on R Street, the Charles Evans Hughes House now is occupied by the Chancery of Burma. Charles Evans Hughes House is a house in NW area of Washington D Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar ( pjìdàunzṵ mjàmmà nàinŋàndɔ̀ is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia.  Located east of Dupont Circle on Massachusetts Avenue is the Clarence Moore House, which used to house the Canadian embassy, and the Emily J. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Wilkins House which formerly housed the Australian embassy and now is occupied by the Peruvian Chancery. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. The Chancery of Iraq is located in the William J. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Boardman House on P Street. 
Other historic places include the Friends Meeting House on Florida Avenue, the Codman-Davis House on Decatur Place, the Barney Studio House on Massachusetts Avenue. The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry (the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction in the United States often omits the and) commonly known as simply the Northwest (also written as NW or NW) is the northwestern quadrant of Washington D The Phillips Collection is located on 21st Street, between P Street and Massachusetts Avenue. The Phillips Collection is an Art museum founded by Duncan Phillips in 1921 as the Phillips Memorial Gallery located in the Dupont Circle The Textile Museum is located on S Street NW, in the Martha Tucker House and George Hewitt Myers House. The Textile Museum is located in the Kalorama neighborhood of Northwest Washington D The Woodrow Wilson House is also located on S Street. The Woodrow Wilson House was the residence of the Twenty-Eighth President of the United States, Woodrow Wilson. The Richard H. Townsend House on Massachusetts Avenue now houses the Cosmos Club. The Cosmos Club is a Social club founded in Washington DC by John Wesley Powell in 1878. The Embassy Gulf Service Station is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The Embassy Gulf Service Station is a service station in Washington D  A statue of General Phillip H. Sheridan is located in Sheridan Circle, which is located on Massachusetts Avenue, near the Dumbarton Bridge (also known as the Buffalo Bridge). Philip Henry Sheridan (March 6 1831 &ndash August 5 1888 was a career United States Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War Sheridan Circle is a Traffic circle in the Washington DC neighborhood of Embassy Row. The Dumbarton Bridge also known as the Q Street Bridge and the Buffalo Bridge is a Bridge in Washington D The bridge, constructed in 1883, carries Q Street over Rock Creek Park and into Georgetown. Rock Creek Park is a large urban natural area with Public park facilities that bisects Washington D Georgetown is a Neighborhood located in the Northwest quadrant of Washington D 
In addition to its residential components, comprised primarily of high-priced apartments and condominiums, Dupont Circle is home to some of the nation's most prestigious think tanks and research institutions, including the Brookings Institution, the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, The Eurasia Center, and the Peterson Institute. A think tank (also called a policy institute) is an organization institute corporation or group that conducts Research and engages in advocacy in areas such The Brookings Institution is a nonprofit public policy organization based in Washington D The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace is a formally private nonprofit organization in practice closely associated with the United States Department of State, The Eurasia Center is an association of specialists working on European and Asian (Eurasian affairs who have joined together to provide a forum for debate through The renowned Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) of The Johns Hopkins University is located less than two blocks from the circle. Dupont Circle is also home to the Founding Church of Scientology, the first such church established by the religion's founder, L. Ron Hubbard. The Church of Scientology is the largest organization devoted to the practice and the promotion of the Scientology belief system. Lafayette Ronald Hubbard (March 13 1911 &ndash January 24 1986 was a fiction writer who devised a self-help technique called Dianetics and philosophy known as Scientology  The Phillips Collection, the nation's first museum of modern art, is located near the circle; its most famous and popular work on display is Renoir's giant festive canvas Luncheon of the Boating Party. The Phillips Collection is an Art museum founded by Duncan Phillips in 1921 as the Phillips Memorial Gallery located in the Dupont Circle Pierre-Auguste Renoir ( February 25, 1841 &ndash December 3, 1919) was a French Artist who was a leading painter in Luncheon of the Boating Party ( 1881, French Le déjeuner des canotiers) is a Painting by French impressionist
Capital Pride is an annual LGBT pride festival held each June in Washington. Capital Pride is an annual LGBT pride festival held in early June each year in Washington D As of 2007, the festival is the fourth-largest gay pride event in the United States, with over 200,000 people in attendance. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the  The Capital Pride parade takes place annually on Saturday during the festival and travels through the streets of the neighborhood. 
The Dupont Circle High Heel Race takes place every year on the Tuesday before Halloween (October 31). Halloween, or Hallowe’en, is a Holiday celebrated on the night of October 31. Events 445 BC – Ezra reads the Book of the Law to the Israelites in Jerusalem (see Nehemiah 91 NLTse For several hours before 9 p. m. , more than 100 drag queens stroll up and down 17th Street, often referred to as "The Runway". A drag queen is a person usually a man who dresses (or "drags" in female clothes and make-up for special occasions and usually because they are performing and entertaining The race itself, which lasts about 15 minutes, begins at 9 p. m. First held in 1985, the event is sponsored by the Alpha (Washington, D. C. ) chapter of the Delta Lambda Phi fraternity and by JR's DC Bar and Grill. Delta Lambda Phi ( ΔΛΦ) is a national social fraternity for Gay, Bisexual, and progressive men