Dunhuang (Chinese: 敦煌, also written as 燉煌 till early Qing Dynasty; pinyin: Dūnhuáng) is a city in Jiuquan, Gansu province, China. Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use A city is an Urban area with a large Population and a particular Administrative, Legal, or Historical status Jiuquan ( is a " Prefecture-level city " in the westernmost part of the Gansu province in China. ( is a province located in the northwest of the People's Republic of China. A province, in the context of China, is a translation of sheng ( which is an administrative division China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National It is sited in an oasis. In Geography, an oasis (plural oases) or Cienega ( Southwestern United States) is an isolated area of vegetation in a Desert, typically A crater on Mars was named after the city.
Dunhuang was made a prefecture in 117 BCE by Emperor Han Wudi, and was a major point of interchange between China and the outside world during the Han and Tang dynasties. Background birth and years as crown prince Emperor Wu was the tenth child of Emperor Jing, and was born to one of Emperor Jing's favorite Concubines, The Han Dynasty ( 206 BC–220 AD followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by Located near the historic junction of the Northern and Southern Silk Roads, it was a town of military importance. The Northern Silk Road is a Prehistoric Trackway in northern China originating in the early capital of Xi'an and extending north of the The Silk Road, or Silk Routes, are an extensive interconnected network of Trade routes across the Asian continent connecting East South and Western Asia with the Its name is mentioned as part of the homeland of the Yuezhi or "Rouzhi" (月氏) in the Shiji (史記), but this mention has also been identified with an unrelated toponym, Dunhong. The Yuezhi or Rouzhi ( Chinese: 月支 Pinyin: yuè zhī or ròu zhī; also 月氏 Pinyin: yuè shì The Records of the Grand Historian, also known in English by the Chinese name 史記 or Shiji, written from 109 BC to 91 BC The Dunhong ( mountain according to the Shanhaijing is a mountain of the Tian Shan range Edges of the city are threatened with being engulfed by the expansion of the Kumtag Desert, which is resulting from longstanding overgrazing of surrounding lands. The Kumtag Desert (Sand Mountain Desert is an arid landform in northern China, which has been proclaimed as a National park in the year 2002 Overgrazing occurs when plants are exposed to Livestock Grazing for extended periods of time or without sufficient recovery periods 
Early buddhist monks accessed Dunhuang via the ancient Northern Silk Road, the northernmost route of about 2600 kilometres in length, which connected the ancient Chinese capital of Xi'an to the west over the Wushao Ling Pass to Wuwei and emerging in Kashgar. Wuwei is located in northwest central Gansu province In the north it borders Inner Mongolia, in the southwest Qinghai. Kashgar or Kashi (officially transliterated as Kaxgar in Uyghur; قەشقەر/K̡ǝxk̡ǝr, is an Oasis  For centuries Buddhist monks at Dunhuang collected scriptures from the west, and many pilgrims passed through the area, painting murals inside the Mogao Caves or "Caves of a Thousand Buddhas. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices The Mogao Caves, or Mogao Grottoes ( (also known as the Caves of the Thousand Buddhas and Dunhuang Caves) form a system of 492 temples 25km (15 " A small number of Christian artifacts have also been found in the caves (see Jesus Sutras), testimony to the wide variety of people who made their way along the silk road. The Jesus Sutras or the Lost Sutras of Jesus are early Chinese language manuscripts of Christian teachings brought to China during the 7th century Today, the site is an important tourist attraction and the subject of an ongoing archaeological project. A large number of manuscripts and artifacts retrieved at Dunhuang have been digitized and made publicly available via the International Dunhuang Project.
Rocked by waves of invasion, Dunhuang has once been independent, as well as being ruled by Chinese, Tibetan, Mongols, and other ethnic groups.
Dunhuang's city centre is relatively highly developed, including much commercial activity and many hotels. Bookshops and other souvenir shops sell materials relating to the Caves and the history of the region. The Mogao Caves, or Mogao Grottoes ( (also known as the Caves of the Thousand Buddhas and Dunhuang Caves) form a system of 492 temples 25km (15
A night market is held in the city centre, popular with tourists. Night markets or night bazaars are Street markets operating at night mainly in urban or Suburban areas that are generally dedicated to more leisurely Many souvenir items are sold, including such typical items as jade, jewelry, scrolls, hangings, small sculptures, and the like. A sizable number of members of China's ethnic minorities engage in business at these markets. Ethnic minorities in China refer to the non- Han Chinese population in Mainland China and Taiwan. A Central Asian dessert or sweet is also sold, consisting of a large, sweet confection made with nuts and dried fruit, sliced into the portion desired by the customer. Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east and from southern Russia in the north to northern Pakistan in the south Confectionery is a set of Food items that are rich in Sugar; modern usage may include substances rich in artificial sweeteners as well Nut is a general term for the large dry oily Seeds or Fruit of some Plants. Dried fruit is fruit that has been dried, either naturally or through use of a machine such as a Food dehydrator.
Other neighboring attractions include:
These attractions are essentially part of the same area. Yueyaquan ( is a crescent-shaped Lake in the Oasis, 5 km southwest of the city Dunhuang of Gansu province, China. The Crescent Lake is within the Sand-Mountain. This lake is apparently an oasis surrounded by the highly sandy area composed of high dunes. The Mingsha Shan is so named for the sound of the wind whipping off the dunes. The area is very popular with tourists, the great majority of them Chinese. A street lined with souvenir stalls leads up to the entrance to the complex. Most tourists ride camels, organized by the complex operators, to reach the sand dunes. Typically the camels are guided by a local camel guide, who include both women and men. At the dunes, a popular activity for tourists is to ride sleds down the sand slopes, much like snow-sledding during winter in temperate zones. A sled, sledge or sleigh is a Vehicle with runners for sliding instead of wheels for rolling "Snowfall" redirects here For other uses see Snow (disambiguation or Snowfall (disambiguation. Sledding is a common activity in wintry areas similar to sliding but in a prone or seated position requiring a device or Vehicle generically known as a "sled" Along the side of the Crescent Lake is a pagoda in traditional Han Chinese architecture. A pagoda is the general term in the English language for a tiered Tower with multiple Eaves common in China, Japan, Korea Han Chinese ( are an Ethnic group native to China and by most modern definitions the largest single Ethnic group in the world. Chinese architecture refers to a style of Architecture that has taken shape in Asia over the centuries
East of the city, with rides to Urumqi, Lanzhou, Xian, and Beijing. Taxis are available into town. The nearest train station is at Liuyuan, about 2 miles to the North.