|History of the Basque people|
|Prehistory and Antiquity|
|Basque people in Antiquity|
|Duchy of Cantabria|
|Duchy of Vasconia|
|County of Vasconia|
|Battle of Roncevaux Pass|
|Kingdom of Navarre|
|Basque party wars|
|The Basque Country in the Early Modern Age|
|Basque witch trials|
|The Basque Country in the Late Modern Age|
|Dukes of Vasconia and Gascony|
|Kings of Pamplona and Navarre|
|Lords of Biscay|
|Counts of Araba|
|Counts of Lapurdi|
|Viscounts of Zuberoa|
|Politics of the Basque Country|
|Timeline of Basque history|
The Duchy of Vasconia (also Wasconia, later the Duchy of Gascony) was originally a Frankish march formed in the seventh century to protect the Aquitanian frontier from the Basques (Vascones). The Basque people (Euskaldunak are a group of people inhabiting adjacent areas of Spain and France. This article deals with the prehistory of the modern Basque Country. The Duchy of Cantabria was a march created by the Visigoths in northern Spain to watch their border with the Cantabrians and Basques The County of Vasconia was a small medieval Realm segregated c The Battle of Roncevaux Pass ( French and English spelling Roncesvalles in Spanish, Orreaga in Basque) was a The Kingdom of Navarre (Reino de Navarra Nafarroako Erresuma Royaume de Navarre originally the Kingdom of Pamplona, was a European kingdom which occupied lands on either Banu Qasi ( Arabic: بنو قاسي ( Banū Qāsī) meaning "sons" or "heirs of Cassius" was the name of a Basque The Basque witch trials of the 17th century represent the most ambitious attempt at rooting out Witchcraft ever undertaken by the Spanish Inquisition. The Carlist Wars in Spain were the last major European Civil wars in which pretenders fought to establish their claim to a throne Basque nationalism is a movement with roots in the Carlism and the loss by the laws of 1839 and 1876 of the Ancien Régime relationship between the Basque provinces eu '''Euskadi Ta Askatasuna''' or ETA ( Basque for "Basque Homeland and Freedom" ˈɛːta is an illegal armed Basque nationalist Separatist The Duchy of Vasconia (sometimes Wasconia) later known as Gascony, was a Merovingian creation a frontier duchy on the This is a list of the kings of Pamplona ( Iruña in Basque), later Navarre. Lord of Biscay ( Basque: Bizkaiko Jauna, Spanish: Señor de Vizcaya) is a historical title of the head of state of the autonomous territory Álava (Araba is a province of northern Spain in the southern part of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. Fuero ( Spanish) is a Spanish legal term and conceptThe word comes from Latin forum, an open space used as market tribunal The Basques (Euskaldunak are a people who inhabit a region spanning over parts of north-central Spain and southwestern France. The Duchy of Vasconia (also Wasconia, later the Duchy of Gascony) was originally a Frankish march formed in the seventh century to protect the Aquitanian The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group The Basques (Euskaldunak are a people who inhabit a region spanning over parts of north-central Spain and southwestern France. It comprised the former Roman province of Novempopulania and, at least in some periods, also the lands south of the Pyrenees centred on Pamplona. In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin provincia, pl provinciae) was the basic and until the Tetrarchy (circa Novempopulania ( Latin for "country of the nine peoples" was one of the provinces created by Diocletian out of Gallia Aquitania, being also For other meanings see Pamplona (disambiguation. Pamplona ( Basque: Iruñea or Iruña) is the capital city of Navarre 
In the ninth century, civil war within the Frankish realm led to the permanent loss of control over the transpyrenean territories and several competing claimants to legal authority in Vasconia. The settling of these political matters ended with the creation of a largely Basque (Gascon) state, de facto independent, known as Gascony.
The western Pyrenean hill country was the refuge of the Basques in the period of barbarian invasions. The Migration Period, also called Barbarian Invasions, or sometimes Völkerwanderung ( German for "wandering of peoples" is the English name Both the Visigoths of Spain and the Franks of Gaul sought to subdue them, but neither power ever fully brought them into the orbit of their realms. The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, or Wisi were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western The Merovingians created, in 602, a frontier duchy on their southwest during the tripartite wars the Franks, Visigoths, and Basques. The Merovingians (also Merovings) were a Salian Frankish dynasty that came to rule the Franks in a region (known as Francia in Latin At the same time, the Visigoths created the Duchy of Cantabria as a defence against the Basques of the Navarre. The Duchy of Cantabria was a march created by the Visigoths in northern Spain to watch their border with the Cantabrians and Basques
Around the year 580, both Germanic kingdoms had launched respective major campaigns against the Basques. Chilperic I sent his duke Bladastes, who was clearly defeated in Zuberoa, while Leovigild also attacked, from the south, founding a fortress called Victoriacum (dubiously Vitoria-Gasteiz). Chilperic I (c 539 &ndash September 584 was the king of Neustria (or Soissons) from 561 to his death Bladast or Bladastes was a Frankish Dux during the reigns of Chilperic I and Chlothar II. Soule ( Zuberoa, Xiberu or Xüberoa in Basque, Sola in Gascon is a former viscounty and French province and Liuvigild, Leuvigild, Leovigild, or Leogild was Visigothic King of Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula) from 569 The brief mentions of these campaigns in the Frankish and Visigothics chronicles clearly use the term Vasconia or Wasconia for the territory extending at both sides of the Pyrenees.
By the year 602, the duchy of Vasconia, under Frankish overlordship, was consolidated in the areas around the Garonne river but does not seem to have extended to the southern regions around the Adour. The Garonne (Garonne in Occitan, Catalan and Spanish: Garona; Garumna is a River in southwest France and northern The Adour (Aturri is a River in southwestern France. It rises in High- Bigorre ( Pyrenees) at the Col du Tourmalet, and flows into In the years 610 and 612 respectively, the Gothic kings Gundemar and Sisebut launched attacks against the Basques. Gundemar was Visigothic King of Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula) (610-612 Sisebut (also Sisebuth Sisebuto Sisebur or Sisebod died 620 or 621 was Visigothic King of Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula) from 612 until After a Basque attack in the Ebro valley in the year 621, Chintila defeated them, razing the fortress of Olite. The Ebro ( Ebre) is Spain 's most voluminous river Its source is in Fontibre ( Cantabria) Chintila was Visigothic King of Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula) (636-639/640 Olite ( Erriberri in Basque language) is a town and Municipality located in the province and autonomous community of Navarre, northern Spain
In 626, the Basques rebelled against the Franks and in 635 they launched an attack on Toulouse. Toulouse ( pronounced in standard French, and in the local accent ( Occitan: Tolosa, pronounced) is a city in southwest In 643, there was another rebellion in the north and in 648 battles with the Visigoths in the south. In the year 633, the Bishop of Pamplona was absent from the Fourth Council of Toledo, which is interpreted by some as the result of his city being under Basque control. The Fourth Council of Toledo occurred in 633. It was held at the church of Saint Leocadia in Toledo. In 626, the bishop of Eauze was exiled on the accusation of being in connivance with Basque rebels. The former Catholic archdiocese of Eauze, in south-west France was suppressed in 879 
In the year 660, Felix received the ducal title of both Vasconia and Aquitaine (located between the Garonne and Loire rivers). Felix (died circa 676 was the Patrician of Toulouse, and then Duke of Aquitaine from 660 until his death The Duke of Aquitaine ( French: Duc d'Aquitaine) ruled the historical region of Aquitaine under the supremacy of the Frankish and later the Loire ( Arpitan: Lêre, Occitan: Léger) is an administrative department in the east-central part of France occupying the Under Felix and his successors, Frankish overlordship became merely nominal. It did become a most important regional power.
But the Muslim invasion of 711 effected a complete shift in trends. The Umayyad conquest of Hispania ( 711 – 718) began as an army of the Umayyad Caliphate consisting largely of Berbers inhabitants Thitherto the Frankish duke, Odo the Great, had been independent, refusing to recognise the authority of either the Merovingian king or his mayor of the palace. For the later duke of Aquitaine and also Gascony with the same name see Odo of Gascony. Mayor of the Palace was an early medieval Title and Office, also called Majordomo, from the Latin title Maior domus ("superior In 719, Pamplona was captured by the Moors. In 721, Odo defeated the Moors at the Battle of Toulouse. In 732, however, he was utterly routed at the Battle of the River Garonne near Bordeaux, after which the Muslim troops under Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi plundered the country and captured Narbonne. The Battle of the River Garonne was fought in 732 between an Umayyad army led by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, governor of Al-Andalus, and Frankish ( Gascon: Bordèu) is a port city in southwest France, with one million inhabitants in its metropolitan area at a 2008 estimate Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi (died 732 Arabic: عبد الرحمن الغافقي) also known as Abd er Rahman, Abdderrahman, Abderame Narbonne ( Narbona in Catalan and in Occitan, the Roman Narbo) is a commune in southwestern France in the Only by submitting to the suzerainty of his Frankish archrival, the mayor Charles Martel, could they decisively defeat the Muslim invaders at Battle of Tours. Charles "The Hammer" Martel (Carolus Martellus Charles "the Hammer" (ca The Battle of Tours (October 10 732 also called the Battle of Poitiers and in معركة بلاط الشهداء (ma‘arakat Balâṭ ash-Shuhadâ’ Battle of Court Aquitaine and its attendant marches were united then to Francia. It has been said that had Odo been victorious at Bordeaux, he would have usurped the eminence eventually to go to Martel as the defender and preserver of Christendom. 
In 735, Odo died, leaving his realm to his son Hunald, who, desiring the former independence which had been his father's, attacked Martel's successors, commencing a war which was to last two generations. Hunald (also known as Hunoald, Hunuald, Chunoald, Chunold, Hunold, or Hunaud) Duke of Aquitaine (735-744 or In 743, the situation was further complicated by the arrival of Asturian forces attacking Vasconia by the west. The Kingdom of Asturias was the first Christian political entity to be established in the Iberian peninsula after the collapse of the Visigothic In 744, Hunald abdicated to his son Waifer, who repeatedly challenged Frankish overlordship, being defeated thrice by Pepin the Short in 760, 762, and 766. Waifer (aka Waifar, Waiofar, Waifre, Guyver or Gaifier) was the Duke of Aquitaine from 748 to 767 succeeding his newly-monastic Pepin or Pippin (714 &ndash 24 September 768) called the Short, and often known as Pepin the Younger or Pepin III, was He was eventually murdered by his desperate followers, who pledged loyalty to Pepin.
Carolingians and Muslims were a great challenge for Basques still in this period but, at least, they enjoyed certain safety by the West, as Asturias was inmersed in continuous dynastic conflicts. The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolings, or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family with its origins in the
The time of Charlemagne is full of struggles against Franks and Muslims, who also fought each other. Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his Most famous is the Battle of Roncevaux in 778, where, after Frankish destruction of the walls of Pamplona, Basques ambushed and massacred Charles' rearguard. The Battle of Roncevaux Pass ( French and English spelling Roncesvalles in Spanish, Orreaga in Basque) was a
Muslims attacked the country as well, being in possession of Pamplona for some time, but then expelled by a rebellion in 798-801, that helped to create the Basque Muslim realm of the Banu Qasi around Tudela. Banu Qasi ( Arabic: بنو قاسي ( Banū Qāsī) meaning "sons" or "heirs of Cassius" was the name of a Basque
In 812 there was a second Battle of Roncevaux that ended in stalemate due to the greater precautions taken by the Franks.
Northern Basques, organized in the Duchy of Vasconia, collaborated with Franks in efforts such as the capture of Barcelona in 799 but after the death of Charlemagne in 814 there are uprisings. Barcelona ( Catalan bəɾsəˈlonə Spanish baɾθeˈlona is the capital and most populous city of the Autonomous Community of Catalonia In 815 Louis the Pious deposed the Basque Duke Seguin, causing a widespread rebellion, led by Gartzia Semeno (who was brother or is otherwise confused with semi-legendary Eneko Aritza, first monarch of Pamplona). Louis the Pious (778 &ndash 20 June 840) also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was the King of Aquitaine from 781 and co-Emperor Seguin I Lupo was Duke of Gascony from 812 to 816, when Louis the Pious deposed him García I Jiménez ( Basque: Gartzia Semeno, Gascon: Gassia Semen, French: Garsias and Garsie Siguin) was the Íñigo Íñiguez Arista ( ونقه بن ونقه, Wannaqo ibn Wannaqo, Basque: Eneko Enekones Aritza / Haritza / Aiza
In 824 was the third Battle of Roncevaux, where counts Eblo and Aznar Sánchez, Frankish vassals and the latter Duke of Gascony, were captured by the joint Pamplonese and Banu Qasi forces, consolidating the independence of Pamplona. Aeblus, Ebalus, or Ebles was a Frankish count in Gascony early in the ninth century Aznar or Asnar Sánchez ( Basque: Aznar Antso, French: Aznard Sanche, Gascon: Aznar Sans; died 836 was the The Kingdom of Navarre (Reino de Navarra Nafarroako Erresuma Royaume de Navarre originally the Kingdom of Pamplona, was a European kingdom which occupied lands on either
In the early 9th century the lands around the Adur river are segregated from the Duchy under the name of County of Vasconia. Count Aznar's successor, Sans Sancion, fought against Charles the Bald, who didn't recognize him. Sancho II Sánchez or Sans II Sancion (died 864) succeeded his brother Aznar Sánchez as count of Vasconia Citerior ( Gascony) in Charles the Bald ( 13 June 823 – 6 October 877) Holy Roman Emperor (875–877 as Charles II) and King of West Francia
In 844, Vikings invaded Bordeaux and killed Duke Seguin II. A Viking is one of the Norse ( Scandinavian Explorers Warriors Merchants, and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas Seguin II (died 846 called Mostelanicus, was the Count of Bordeaux and Saintes from 840 and Duke of Gascony from 845 His heir William was killed trying to retake Bordeaux in 848, though some sources say he was only captured and later deposed by the king. William I ( French: Guillaume, Gascon: Guilhem, Spanish: Guillermo) was the Duke of Gascony, appointed in 846 What is certain is that by 853, Sans Sancion, the Basque leader, was recognised as duke by Charles the Bald. Sancho II Sánchez or Sans II Sancion (died 864) succeeded his brother Aznar Sánchez as count of Vasconia Citerior ( Gascony) in In that same year, Muza of Tudela, relative of the Basque princes, invaded Vasconia and made Sans prisoner. In 855 Sans died and was succeeded by Arnold, who died fighting against the Norse in 864. Arnold (also Arnaut or Arnaud, died 864 was the Count of Fézensac and briefly Duke of Gascony in 864 Norsemen is used to refer to the group of people as a whole who speak one of the North Germanic languages as their native language
After him, the Duchy of Vasconia, between the Adur and the Garonne, was to be known as Duchy of Gascony. Moving away from the history of the Basque Country as the romance language (Gascon) replaced Basque, that was confined to the mountains. Gascon (Gascon; French,) is a dialect of the Occitan language.
Still, the Duchy would be under Pamplonese influence in later periods, specially with Sancho the Great. Sancho III Garcés (late 10th century &ndash 18 October 1035) called the Great ( Spanish: el Mayor or el Grande) was