Baile Átha Cliath
|Obedientia Civium Urbis Felicitas|
Latin: literally, "The citizens' obedience is the city's happiness" (rendered more loosely as "Happy the city where citizens obey" by the council itself)
WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates:
|Dáil Éireann:||Dublin Central, Dublin North Central, Dublin North East, Dublin North West, Dublin South Central, Dublin South East, Dún Laoghaire and Rathdown|
|Dialling code:||+353 1|
|Postal district(s):||D1-24, D6W|
|Area:||114. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Basic concept of GPS operation A GPS receiver calculates its position by carefully timing the signals sent by the constellation of GPS Satellites high above the Earth Poetic description This dinnseanchas poem named Ard Ruide (Ruide Headland poetically describes the kingdoms of Ireland Leinster (ˈlɛnstər Irish: Laighin, lainʲ one of the Provinces of Ireland, lies in the east of Ireland and comprises the counties of Since the late 16th century the Island of Ireland has been divided into 32 counties ( Irish language contae or condae County Dublin (Contae Bhaile Átha Cliath or more correctly today the Dublin Region ( Réigiúin Átha Cliath) is the area that contains the city of Dublin ga '''Dáil Éireann''' ( English House of Representatives of Ireland) is the principal chamber of the Oireachtas (Irish parliament Dublin Central (Baile Atha Cliath Lár is a parliamentary Constituency represented in Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Irish parliament or Oireachtas Dublin North Central is a Constituency represented in Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Irish parliament or Oireachtas, located in the capital city Dublin North-East is a Constituency represented in Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Irish parliament or Oireachtas. Dublin North West is a Constituency represented in Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Irish parliament or Oireachtas. Dublin South Central is a Constituency represented in Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Irish parliament or Oireachtas. Dublin South East is a Constituency represented in Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Irish parliament or Oireachtas. Dún Laoghaire-Rathdown is a former parliamentary Constituency in Ireland, which was represented in Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Irish parliament The European Parliament ( Europarl or EP) is the only directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU Dublin is a Constituency of the European Parliament. It currently elects 4 MEPs using the Single Transferable Vote system Subscriber trunk dialling ( STD, also known as subscriber toll dialling) is a term for the UK Telephone system allowing subscribers to dial trunk Postal addresses in Ireland are similar to those in many other parts of the world Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. 99 km² (44 sq mi)|
|Population (2006)||Dublin City:|
Dublin Urban Area:
Greater Dublin Area:
Dublin (pronounced /ˈdʌblɨn/, /ˈdʊblɨn/, or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, Irish: Baile Átha Cliath, meaning Town of the Hurdled Ford, pronounced [bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh] or [bˠɫaː cliə(ɸ)]) is both the largest city and the capital of Ireland. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology County Dublin (Contae Bhaile Átha Cliath or more correctly today the Dublin Region ( Réigiúin Átha Cliath) is the area that contains the city of Dublin Introduction The term is described in the Planning and Development Act 2000 (Section 21 and a number of other statutory instruments for the purposes of Planning Irish (ga ''Gaeilge'' is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish. Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. It is located near the midpoint of Ireland's east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey and at the centre of the Dublin Region. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world The Liffey ( An Life in Irish) is a River in Ireland, which flows through the centre of Dublin. County Dublin (Contae Bhaile Átha Cliath or more correctly today the Dublin Region ( Réigiúin Átha Cliath) is the area that contains the city of Dublin Founded as a Viking settlement, the city has been Ireland's primary city for most of the island's history since medieval times. A Viking is one of the Norse ( Scandinavian Explorers Warriors Merchants, and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas Today, it is an economic, administrative and cultural centre for the island of Ireland and has one of the fastest growing populations of any European capital city. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world 
Dublin is one of the constituent cities in the Dublin-Belfast corridor region which has a population of just under 3 million. The Dublin-Belfast corridor is a term used to loosely describe a geographical area that encompasses the cities of Dublin and Belfast and the area between
The name Dublin is a Hiberno-English derivative of 'Dubh Linn' (Irish, dubh -> black, and linn -> pool). Hiberno-English also known as Anglo-Irish and Irish English is English as spoken in Ireland, partly the result of the interaction of the English Historically, in the traditional Gaelic script used for the Irish language, 'bh' was written with a dot over the 'b', viz 'Duḃ Linn' or 'Duḃlinn'. The term Gaelic script, a translation of the Irish phrase cló Gaelach ( pronounced /kɫ̪oː ˈgeːɫ̪əx/ refers to a family of insular The French-speaking Normans omitted the dot and spelled the name variously as 'Develyn' or 'Dublin'. The Anglo-Norman language is a term traditionally used to refer to the variety of French used in England and to some extent elsewhere in the British Isles following the
The common name for the city in Modern Irish is 'Baile Átha Cliath' ('The Settlement of the Ford of the Reed Hurdles'). 'Áth Cliath' is a place-name referring to a fording point of the Liffey in the vicinity of Heuston Station. 'Baile Átha Cliath' was later applied to an early Christian monastery which is believed to have been situated in the area of Aungier Street currently occupied by St Valentine's (R. C. ) church. Due to its length, it is sometimes abbreviated as BÁC.
The subsequent Scandinavian settlement was on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey, to the East of Christchurch, in the area known as Wood Quay. The River Poddle, one of the fifty or so rivers of Dublin and the source from a pool on its course of the name "Dublin" rises in Fettercairn today part of Tallaght Christ Church Cathedral ( The Cathedral of the Holy Trinity commonly known as Christ Church, Cathedral of the United Dioceses of Dublin and Glendalough and Metropolitical The Dubh Linn was a lake used by the Scandinavians to moor their ships and was connected to the Liffey by the Poddle. The Dubh Linn and Poddle were covered during the early 1800s, and as the city expanded they were largely forgotten about. The Dubh Linn was situated in the area of the park of the Chester-Beaty Library in Dublin Castle.
The writings of the Greek astronomer and cartographer Ptolemy provide perhaps the earliest reference to human habitat in the area now known as Dublin. Claudius Ptolemaeus ( Greek: Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; after 83 &ndash ca In around A. D. 140 he referred to a settlement he called Eblana Civitas. Eblana is the name of an ancient Irish settlement believed by some to have occupied the same site as the modern city of Dublin. The settlement 'Dubh Linn' dates perhaps as far back as the first century BC and later a monastery was built there, though the town was established in about 841 by the Norse. Norsemen is used to refer to the group of people as a whole who speak one of the North Germanic languages as their native language The modern city retains the Anglicised Irish name of the former and the original Irish name of the latter. After the Norman invasion of Ireland, Dublin became the key centre of military and judicial power, with much of the power centering on Dublin Castle until independence. The later medieval period in Ireland (" Norman Ireland " was dominated by the Cambro-Norman invasion of the country in 1171. Dublin Castle (Caisleán Bhaile Átha Cliath off Dame Street, Dublin, Ireland, is a major Irish governmental complex formerly the fortified From the 14th to late 16th centuries Dublin and the surrounding area, known as the Pale, formed the largest area of Ireland under government control. The Pale ( An Pháil in Irish) or the English Pale ( An Pháil Sasanach) was the English-controlled part of Ireland that had reduced by the late The Parliament was located in Drogheda for several centuries, but was switched permanently to Dublin after Henry VII conquered the County Kildare in 1504. Earl of Kildare is a title in the Peerage of Ireland. John FitzThomas FitzGerald the eldest son of Thomas Lord Offaly, was created Earl of Kildare
Dublin also had local city administration via its Corporation from the Middle Ages. Dublin Corporation (Bardas Bhaile Átha Cliath known by generations of Dubliners simply as The Corpo, is the former name given to the city government and its administrative This represented the city's guild-based oligarchy until it was reformed in the 1840s on increasingly democratic lines. Oligarchy' ( Greek, Oligarkhía) is a Form of government where Political power effectively rests with a small elite segment
From the 17th century the city expanded rapidly, helped by the Wide Streets Commission. The Wide Streets Commission was established by Act of Parliament at the request of Dublin Corporation, in 1757, as a body to govern standards on the layout of streets Georgian Dublin was, for a short time, the second city of the British Empire after London and the fifth largest European city. Georgian Dublin is a phrase used in the History of Dublin that has two interwoven meanings to describe a historic period in the development of the city of Much of Dublin's most notable architecture dates from this time and is considered a golden era for the city. The famous Guinness brewery was also established at this time too. Guinness (ˈɡɪnɪs is a popular Dry stout that originated in Arthur Guinness ' brewery at St The 1800s were a period of decline relative to the industrial growth of Belfast; by 1900 the population of Belfast was nearly twice as large. Belfast ( is the capital city of Northern Ireland and the seat of government in Northern Ireland. Whereas Belfast was prosperous and industrial, Dublin had become a city of squalor and class division, built on the remains of lost grandeur, as best described in the novel Strumpet City, by James Plunkett, and in the works of Sean O'Casey. Strumpet City (1969 is a historical novel by James Plunkett set in Dublin, Ireland, at the time of the Dublin Lockout. James Plunkett was the pen-name adopted by James Plunkett Kelly (born Dublin 21 May, 1920, died Dublin 28 May, 2003) an Seán O'Casey ( Irish Seán Ó Cathasaigh (30 March 1880 &ndash 18 September 1964 was a major Irish dramatist and Memoirist A committed irish Dublin was still the primary centre of administration and transport for much of Ireland, though completely bypassed by the Industrial revolution. The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the The Easter Rising of 1916 occurred in the city centre, bringing much physical destruction. The Easter Rising (Éirí Amach na Cásca was a rebellion staged in Ireland in Easter Week, 1916 The Anglo-Irish War and Irish Civil War contributed even more destruction, leaving many of its finest buildings in ruins. The Irish War of Independence (or Tan War, or Anglo-Irish War, Irish: Cogadh na Saoirse) from January 1919 to July 1921 was a guerrilla The Irish Civil War ( June 28 1922 &ndash May 24 1923) pitted supporters of the Anglo-Irish Treaty against its opponents The Irish Free State rebuilt many of the buildings and moved parliament to Leinster House. The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann (1922&ndash1937 was the state established as a Dominion on 6 December 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, signed by Leinster House (Teach Laighean is the name of the building housing the national parliament of the Republic of Ireland (Oireachtas Éireann Through The Emergency (World War II), until the 1960s, Dublin remained a capital out of time: the city centre in particular remained at an architectural standstill. The Emergency (Ré na Práinne was an official Euphemism used by the Irish Government during the 1940s to refer to its position during World War II. This made the city ideal for historical film production, with many productions including The Blue Max, and My Left Foot capturing the cityscape in this period. The Blue Max is a 1966 British film about a German Fighter pilot on the Western Front during World War I. My Left Foot The Story of Christy Brown is a 1989 Drama film directed by Jim Sheridan and starring Daniel Day-Lewis. This became the foundation of later successes in cinematography and film-making. With increasing prosperity, modern architecture was introduced to the city, though a vigorous campaign started in parallel to restore the Georgian greatness of Dublin's streets, rather than lose the grandeur forever. Georgian Dublin is a phrase used in the History of Dublin that has two interwoven meanings to describe a historic period in the development of the city of Since 1997, the landscape of Dublin has changed immensely, with enormous private and state development of housing, transport, and business. (See also Development and Preservation in Dublin). Dublin is one of the oldest capital cities in Europe &mdash dating back over a thousand years Some well-known Dublin street corners are still named for the pub or business which used to occupy the site before closure or redevelopment. Several well-known junctions in Dublin city still carry the name of the Pub or business which used to occupy the corner
From 1922, following the partition of Ireland, it became the capital of the Irish Free State (1922–1949) and now is the capital of the Republic of Ireland. The Anglo-Normans were mainly the descendants of the Normans who ruled England following the conquest by William of Normandy in 1066, although Geopolitics is the study that analyzes Geography, History and Social science with reference to Spatial politics and patterns at various scales The Lordship of Ireland ( 1171 - 1541) was the nominally all-island Irish state created in the wake of the Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169-71 The Kingdom of Ireland (Ríocht na hÉireann was the name given to the Irish state from 1541 by the Crown of Ireland Act 1542 of the Parliament of Ireland. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927 The Irish Republic ( Irish: Poblacht na hÉireann or Saorstát Éireann) was a unilaterally declared independent state of Ireland proclaimed The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann (1922&ndash1937 was the state established as a Dominion on 6 December 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, signed by Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. (Many of these states co-existed or competed within the same timeframe as rivals within either British or Irish constitutional theory. ) One of the memorials to commemorate that time is the Garden of Remembrance. The Garden of Remembrance (An Gairdín Cuimhneacháin is an Irish Memorial Garden, created in Dublin dedicated to the memory of all those who
The city has a world-famous literary history, having produced many prominent literary figures, including Nobel laureates William Butler Yeats, George Bernard Shaw and Samuel Beckett. The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur is awarded annually since 1901 to an author from any country who has in the words from the will of Alfred George Bernard Shaw ( (26 July 1856 &ndash 2 November 1950 was an Irish Playwright. Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989 was an Irish Writer, Dramatist and poet Other influential writers and playwrights from Dublin include Oscar Wilde, Jonathan Swift and the creator of Dracula, Bram Stoker. Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 1854 – 30 November 1900 was an Irish Playwright, Novelist, poet and Author of Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 Dracula is an 1897 novel by Irish author Bram Stoker, featuring as its primary Antagonist the vampire Count Dracula. Abraham "Bram" Stoker (8 November 1847 – 20 April 1912 was an Irish writer of novels and short stories who is best known today for his 1897 horror It is arguably most famous, however, as the location of the greatest works of James Joyce. James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 &ndash 13 January 1941 was an Irish expatriate writer widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the Dubliners is a collection of short stories by Joyce about incidents and characters typical of residents of the city in the early part of the 20th century. Dubliners is a collection of 15 short stories by James Joyce, first published in 1914 His most celebrated work, Ulysses, is also set in Dublin and full of topographical detail. Ulysses is a novel by James Joyce, first serialized in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920 Additional widely celebrated writers from the city include J.M. Synge, Seán O'Casey, Brendan Behan, Maeve Binchy, and Roddy Doyle. Edmund John Millington Synge ( (16 April 1871 – 24 March 1909 was an Irish Playwright, Poet, Prose writer and collector of Folklore. Seán O'Casey ( Irish Seán Ó Cathasaigh (30 March 1880 &ndash 18 September 1964 was a major Irish dramatist and Memoirist A committed irish Brendan Francis Behan (ˈbiːən) (Breandán Ó Beacháin ( February 9, 1923 – March 20, 1964) was an Irish poet short story Maeve Binchy (born 28 May 1940 Dalkey) is an Irish Novelist newspaper columnist and speaker. Roddy Doyle (Ruaidhrí Ó Dúill born 8 May 1958 in Dublin) is an Irish Novelist Dramatist and Screenwriter. Ireland's biggest libraries and literary museums are found in Dublin, including the National Print Museum of Ireland and National Library of Ireland. The National Print Museum of Ireland is based in a soldiers' chapel in the Beggars Bush area of Dublin, Republic of Ireland. The National Library of Ireland (Leabharlann Náisiúnta na hÉireann is a National library located in Dublin, Ireland, in a building designed by
There are several theatres within the city centre, and various world-famous actors have emerged from the Dublin theatrical scene, including Noel Purcell, Brendan Gleeson, Stephen Rea, Colin Farrell and Gabriel Byrne. Noel Purcell (born 23 December, 1900 &mdash March 3, 1985) was an Irish film and television actor Brendan Gleeson (born 29 March 1955 is an Irish Actor who has starred in many high profile Irish American and British films Stephen Rea (born Graham Rea on October 31, 1946) is an Irish Actor, who was nominated for an Academy Award for his Colin James Farrell (born May 31, 1976) is an Irish Actor, who has appeared in several high-profile Hollywood films including Gabriel James Byrne ( Irish: Gabriel Séamas Ó Broin; born 12 May, 1950) is an Emmy - and Tony -nominated Irish The best known theatres include the Gaiety, the Abbey, the Olympia and the Gate. The Gaiety Theatre is a theatre on South King Street in Dublin, Ireland, off Grafton Street and close to St The Abbey Theatre (Amharclann na Mainistreach also known as the National Theatre of Ireland (Amharclann Náisiúnta na hÉireann is a Theatre located in Dublin The Olympia Theatre is a concert hall in Dublin Ireland, located in Dame Street The Gate Theatre, in Dublin, was founded in 1928 by Hilton Edwards and Micheál MacLiammoir, initially using the Abbey Theatre 's Peacock studio The Gaiety specialises in musical and operatic productions, and is popular for opening its doors after the evening theatre production to host a variety of live music, dancing, and films. The Gaiety Theatre is a theatre on South King Street in Dublin, Ireland, off Grafton Street and close to St The Abbey was founded in 1904 by a group that included Yeats with the aim of promoting indigenous literary talent. The Abbey Theatre (Amharclann na Mainistreach also known as the National Theatre of Ireland (Amharclann Náisiúnta na hÉireann is a Theatre located in Dublin It went on to provide a breakthrough for some of the city's most famous writers, such as Synge, Yeats himself and George Bernard Shaw. Edmund John Millington Synge ( (16 April 1871 – 24 March 1909 was an Irish Playwright, Poet, Prose writer and collector of Folklore. George Bernard Shaw ( (26 July 1856 &ndash 2 November 1950 was an Irish Playwright. The Gate was founded in 1928 to promote European and American Avante Guarde works. The Gate Theatre, in Dublin, was founded in 1928 by Hilton Edwards and Micheál MacLiammoir, initially using the Abbey Theatre 's Peacock studio The largest theatre is the Mahony Hall in The Helix at Dublin City University in Glasnevin. For the Seattle underground newspaper see Helix (newspaper The Helix is a building on the Dublin City University campus between Glasnevin Dublin City University ( DCU) (Ollscoil Chathair Bhaile Átha Cliath is a University situated between Glasnevin, Ballymun and Whitehall Glasnevin ( Glas Naíon, Glas Na’on - Stream of the Infants; also known as Glas Naedhe - O'Naeidhe’s Stream (after an ancient Chieftain
Dublin is also the focal point for much of Irish Art and the Irish artistic scene. The Book of Kells, a world-famous manuscript produced by Celtic Monks in A. The Book of Kells (Leabhar Cheanannais (Dublin Trinity College Library MS A D. 800 and an example of Insular art, is on display in Trinity College. Insular art, also known as the Hiberno-Saxon style is the style of art produced in the post-Roman history of the British Isles and the term is also used in Trinity College Dublin ( TCD; Irish Coláiste na Tríonóide Baile Átha Cliath; Latin: Collegium Sacrosanctae et Individuae Trinitatis Reginae The Chester Beatty Library houses the famous collection of manuscripts, miniature paintings, prints, drawings, rare books and decorative arts assembled by American mining millionaire (and honorary Irish citizen) Sir Alfred Chester Beatty (1875-1968). ChesterBeattyLibaryInside1jpg|right|thumb|Atrium]]The Chester Beatty Library was established in Dublin, Ireland in 1950 to house the collections of mining magnate Sir Alfred Chester Beatty (1875 – 19 January 1968) was a mining magnate and millionaire often called the "King of Copper " The collections date from 2700 B. C. onwards and are drawn from Asia, the Middle East, North Africa and Europe. Work by local artists is often put on public display around St. Stephen's Green, the main public park in the city centre. St Stephen's Green ( is an inner-city Public park in Dublin, Ireland. In addition large art galleries are found across the city, including the Irish Museum of Modern Art, the National Gallery, the Hugh Lane Municipal Gallery, The City Arts Centre, The Douglas Hyde Gallery, The Project Arts Centre and The Royal Hibernian Academy. The Irish Museum of Modern Art (Músaem Nua-Ealaíne na hÉireann also known as IMMA, is Ireland 's leading national institution exhibiting and collecting modern and The National Gallery of Ireland (Ghailearaí Náisiúnta na hÉireann houses the Irish national collection of Irish and European art. The City Arts in Dublin, Ireland, is a local Community arts organization founded in 1973 Since its opening in 1978 the Douglas Hyde Gallery, funded by the Arts Council and Trinity College, has been a significant presence on the Dublin art scene The Project Arts Centre is a venue for cutting-edge visual art and performance located in Dublin 's Temple Bar. The Royal Hibernian Academy (RHA is an artist based and artist oriented institution in Ireland.
Three centres of the National Museum of Ireland are in Dublin. The National Museum of Ireland (Ard-Mhúsaem na hÉireann is the National museum in Ireland.
There is a vibrant nightlife in Dublin and it is reputedly one of the most youthful cities in Europe - with estimates of 50% of inhabitants being younger than 25.  Furthermore in 2007, it was voted the friendliest city in Europe.  Like the rest of Ireland, there are pubs right across the city centre. The area around St. Stephen's Green - especially Harcourt Street, Camden Street, Wexford Street and Leeson Street - is a centre for some of the most popular nightclubs and pubs in Dublin. St Stephen's Green ( is an inner-city Public park in Dublin, Ireland.
The most internationally notorious area for nightlife is the Temple Bar area just south of the River Liffey. Temple Bar (Barra an Teampaill is an area on the south bank of the River Liffey in central Dublin, Ireland. To some extent, the area has become a hot spot for tourists, including stag and hen parties from Britain. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located It was developed as Dublin's cultural quarter (an idea proposed by local politician Charlie Haughey), and does retain this spirit as a centre for small arts productions, in the form of street performers and intimate small music venues. Gay pubs and clubs such as The Dragon, The George are centred on South Great George's Street and The Front Lounge is on Parliament street , and Pantibar on Capel Street.
Live music is popularly played on streets and at venues throughout Dublin in general and the city has produced several rock bands of international success, including U2, Hothouse Flowers, Horslips, The Boomtown Rats, Thin Lizzy, and Boyzone. The Hothouse Flowers are an Irish rock group that combines traditional Irish Music with influences from soul, gospel and Horslips were a 1970s Irish rock band that composed arranged and performed their music based on traditional Irish Jigs and reels. The Boomtown Rats were a new wave group led by Bob Geldof. All six members were originally from Dún Laoghaire, Republic of Ireland. Thin Lizzy are an Irish Hard rock band who formed in Dublin, Ireland in 1969 Boyzone are an Irish boy band who had popular mainstream success during the 1990s The two best known cinemas in the city centre are the Savoy Cinema and the Cineworld Cinema, both north of the Liffey. The Savoy Cinema is Dublin 's oldest operational cinema and is the cinema of choice in Ireland for film premieres Cineworld Cinemas is a multiplex cinema chain in the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland and Jersey. Alternative and special-interest cinema can be found in the Irish Film Institute in Temple Bar, and in the Screen Cinema on d'Olier Street. The Irish Film Institute is a national body dedicated to supporting Irish Film heritage Across suburban Dublin are located large modern multiscreen cinemas. Situated on the Liffey at the Eastlink tollbridge, the The Point Theatre is currently under renovation, but has housed performers including Madonna, Aerosmith and is noted for being the final performance of iconic popstar Britney Spears before her decline in publicity, and the final performance of American Pop-Punk band Blink 182
The headquarters of almost all of Ireland's sporting organisations are in Dublin, and the most popular sports in Dublin are those that are most popular throughout Ireland: Gaelic football, soccer, rugby union and hurling. Gaelic football ( Irish: Peil, Peil Ghaelach, or Caid) commonly referred to as " football " is a form of Football Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered Overview See also Playing rugby union A rugby union match lasts for 80 minutes (plus stoppage time with a short Hurling (in Irish, iománaíocht or iomáint) is an outdoor team Sport of ancient Gaelic origin administered by the Gaelic
The city is host to the 4th largest stadium in Europe, Croke Park, the 83,700-capacity headquarters of the Gaelic Athletic Association. Croke Park (Páirc an Chrócaigh in Dublin, Ireland is the largest sports Stadium in Ireland (fifth largest in Europe) and the principal stadium The Gaelic Athletic Association ( GAA) ( Irish: Cumann Lúthchleas Gael /'kʊmˠən̪ˠ 'l̪ˠuh It traditionally hosts Gaelic football and hurling games during the summer months, as well as international rules football in alternating years. Gaelic football ( Irish: Peil, Peil Ghaelach, or Caid) commonly referred to as " football " is a form of Football Hurling (in Irish, iománaíocht or iomáint) is an outdoor team Sport of ancient Gaelic origin administered by the Gaelic International rules football (Peil na rialacha idirnáisiunta also known as inter rules in Australia and compromise rules in Ireland is a hybrid It also hosts concerts, with acts such as U2 and Robbie Williams having played there in recent years. Robert Peter Maximilian Williams (born 13 February 1974) is an English singer The Dublin board of the Gaelic Athletic Association play their league games at Parnell Park. The Dublin County Board of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA (Cummann Luthchleas Gael Coiste Contae Ath Cliath or Dublin GAA is one of the 32 county boards of Parnell Park is a Gaelic Athletic Association stadium in Donnycarney, Dublin, Ireland with a capacity for about 13500 people
Lansdowne Road stadium (previously owned by the Irish Rugby Football Union) was the venue for home games of both the Irish Rugby Team and the Republic's national soccer team. Location The stadium is situated in the neighbourhood of Ballsbridge in the city's Dublin 4 area The Irish Rugby Football Union ( IRFU) (Cumann Rugbaí na hÉireann is the body managing Rugby union in Ireland. The Ireland rugby union team represents the island of Ireland in Rugby union, which is a popular sport throughout both the Republic of Ireland and The Republic of Ireland national football team represents Ireland in international football. Until recently, it had a mixed standing and seating capacity of 49,000. However, as part of a joint venture between the IRFU and the FAI, it is currently being demolished and is expected to be replaced with a 50,000 all-seated stadium by 2009. The Irish Rugby Football Union ( IRFU) (Cumann Rugbaí na hÉireann is the body managing Rugby union in Ireland. The Football Association of Ireland ( FAI; Irish: Cumann Peile na h-Éireann) is the governing body for the sport of association football (soccer  Accordingly, rugby union and soccer home internationals have been temporarily moved to Croke Park. Overview See also Playing rugby union A rugby union match lasts for 80 minutes (plus stoppage time with a short Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered Croke Park (Páirc an Chrócaigh in Dublin, Ireland is the largest sports Stadium in Ireland (fifth largest in Europe) and the principal stadium
Donnybrook Rugby Ground is the home of the Leinster Rugby team, which plays in the Magners League. Donnybrook Rugby Ground is a multi-use Stadium in Donnybrook, Dublin 4, Ireland. The Irish Rugby Football Union Leinster Branch (also known as Leinster Rugby) is one of four branches of the IRFU, and is responsible for Rugby union in They also play some important league and Heineken Cup matches at Lansdowne Road and have recently played these matches in the RDS. The European Rugby Cup (known as the Heineken Cup because of the tournament's sponsorship by Heineken) is an annual Rugby union competition involving leading
Dalymount Park, in Phibsboro and the traditional Home of Irish Soccer, is now used only for home games of local club Bohemian F.C.. Dalymount Park is a football Stadium situated in north Dublin. Phibsborough ( Baile Phib in Irish) often spelled Phibsboro, is a district of Dublin in Ireland. Bohemian FC ( An Cumann Peile Bóithéimeach) more commonly referred to as Bohemians, is an Irish Football (soccer club playing in the Rivals Shelbourne play at Tolka Park, in Drumcondra, while St Patrick's Athletic play in Richmond Park in Inchicore on the south west edge of the city. Shelbourne Football Club ( Irish: Cumann Peile Shelbourne) is an Irish football club playing in the FAI First Division after having Tolka Park ( is a football ground located in the north Dublin suburb of Drumcondra, on the northern banks of the River Tolka. Drumcondra ( is a residential area and inner suburb on the Northside of Dublin, Ireland. St Patrick's Athletic Football Club ( Irish: Cumann Peile Lúthchleas Phádraig Naofa) is an Irish football club playing in the Richmond Park is a football Stadium in Dublin, Ireland. It is the home ground for Irish football team Inchicore ( is a southern inner suburb of Dublin, Ireland, south of the River Liffey and west of the city centre in the Dublin 8 postal district Shamrock Rovers, Ireland's most successful club, are originally from Milltown but have spent the last two decades in search of a home, and hope to complete a new stadium in Tallaght for the start of the 2009 season. Shamrock Rovers Football Club (Cumann Peile Ruagairí na Seamróige are a football club from Dublin, Ireland. Milltown ( Baile an Mhuilinn in Irish) Dublin 6, Ireland, is a suburb on the southside of Dublin. Tallaght Stadium is a Stadium currently under construction in Tallaght in South Dublin County, Ireland. Tallaght (pronounced /'tælæ/ Tamhlacht is the largest town and county seat, of South Dublin County, Ireland. The other senior soccer clubs are University College Dublin, based in Belfield and newly formed Sporting Fingal. University College Dublin Association Football Club ( Irish: Cumann Peile Coláiste na hOllscoile Áth Cliath) is an Irish football Belfield may refer to Belfield Dublin, a suburban area in Ireland's capital Sporting Fingal ( Irish: Cumann Peile Fhine Gall) is a Semi-professional, Dublin based football team competing in the FAI
The National Aquatic Centre in Blanchardstown is the first building to open in the Sports Campus Ireland. The National Aquatic Centre ( NAC) (Sportlann Uisce Éireann is a water-sports facility located in Abbotstown Blanchardstown, Ireland. There are several race courses in the Dublin area including Shelbourne Park (Greyhound racing) and Leopardstown (Horse racing). Greyhound racing is the Sport of Racing Greyhounds The Dogs chase a lure (traditionally an artificial Hare or Rabbit This article is about the sport For other uses see Horserace (drinking game or Horse race (politics. The world famous Dublin Horse Show takes place at the RDS, Ballsbridge, which hosted the Show Jumping World Championships in 1982. The RDS (also known as the Royal Dublin Society but now rarely expanded or Cumann Ríoga Bhaile Átha Cliath ( CRBÁC) in Irish, was founded Ballsbridge ( Droichead na Dothra in Irish) is a suburb of Dublin, Ireland, named for the bridge spanning the River Dodder on The Show Jumping World Championships, or the Show jumping competition at the FEI World Equestrian Games, was started in 1953 with individual competition The national boxing arena is located in on the South Circular Road, though larger fights take place in the Point Depot in the docklands area. There are also Basketball, Handball, Hockey and Athletics stadia — most notably Morton Stadium in Santry, which held the athletics events of the 2003 Special Olympics. Basketball is a team Sport in which two teams of five active players each try to score points against one another by propelling a ball through a 10 feet (3 m For more information on this topic see Senior Hardball Singles or Senior Softball Singles. Field hockey is a Team sport in which players attempt to score goals by hitting the Ball across the pitch with a stick Morton Stadium, or the National Athletics Stadium, is an athletics Stadium in Santry, in the north of Dublin City. Santry ( is a suburb on the Northside of Dublin, bordering Coolock, Glasnevin and Ballymun. Special Olympics is an international organization created to help people with Intellectual disabilities develop self-confidence social skills and a sense of personal accomplishment
The Dublin Marathon has been run since 1980, and the Women's Mini Marathon has been run since 1983 and is said to be the largest all female event of its kind in the world. The Dublin Marathon is a Marathon run every year in Dublin, Ireland, normally on the last Monday in October which is a public holiday in Ireland The Flora Women's Mini Marathon, is a 10km road race ran each June Bank Holiday Monday in Dublin Ireland. 
In recent years rugby league as a sport in Dublin has attained limited popularity. Two Dublin teams, the Dublin Blues and the North Dublin Eagles, play in Ireland's Lucozade elite League. Recent popularity has been increased with the Irish National Team's success in their qualifiers for the Rugby League World Cup to be held in Australia in 2008.
Dublin is a popular shopping spot for both Irish people and tourists. Dublin city centre has several shopping districts, including Grafton Street, Henry Street, Stephen's Green Shopping Centre, Jervis Shopping Centre, and newly refurbished Ilac Shopping Centre (all popular meet-up spots for decades). Grafton Street redirects here For the street in London England see Grafton Street London, for the one in Milton Keynes England see V6 Grafton Street. Henry Street ( Sráid Anraí in Irish) is located on Dublin's Northside and is one of the two principal shopping streets of Dublin (the Stephen's Green Shopping Centre is a large indoor Shopping centre located at the top of Grafton Street in the Southside of Dublin City. The Jervis Shopping Centre is a major shopping centre in Dublin, Ireland. Ilac Shopping Centre (foremerly "ILAC Centre" ILAC standing for Irish Life Assurance Corporation the firm that built it is one of the two shopping malls on On Grafton street, the most famous shops include Brown Thomas and its sister shop BT2, being akin to Bloomingdales in New York City, for example. Brown Thomas & Company Limited is a chain of four Irish department stores located in Dublin, Cork, Galway and Limerick. The Dragon Ball Z Budokai Tenkaichi series originally published as in Japan, is a series of Fighting games based on the Anime and Manga Bloomingdale's (or Bloomie's) is a chain of upscale American Department stores owned by Macy's Inc Brown Thomas also contains "mini-stores" such as Hermès and Chanel on its Wicklow Street frontage. Hermès International SA, or simply Hermès ( IPA: French, American English, typical British English) is a French Chanel SA ʃəˈnɛɫ) is a Parisian fashion house created by Coco Chanel. This is Dublin's nearest equivalent to a Designer shopping street such as Bond Street in London or 5th Avenue in New York City. Bond Street is a major shopping street in London which runs through Mayfair from Piccadilly in the south to Oxford Street in the north
Dublin city is the location of large department stores, such as Clerys on O'Connell Street, Arnotts on Henry Street, Brown Thomas on Grafton Street and Debenhams (formerly Roches Stores) on Henry Street. Clerysjpg|right|250px|thumb|Clerys on O'Connell Street]] Clerys is a department store on O'Connell Street in Dublin, Republic of Ireland. Arnotts is the oldest and largest department store in Dublin, Ireland. Brown Thomas & Company Limited is a chain of four Irish department stores located in Dublin, Cork, Galway and Limerick.
A major €750m development for Dublin city centre has been given the green light. The development of the so-called Northern Quarter will see the construction of 47 new shops, 175 apartments and a four-star hotel. Dublin City Council gave Arnotts planning permission for the plans to change the area bounded by Henry Street, O'Connell Street, Abbey Street and Liffey Street. Dublin City Council (Comhairle Cathrach Bhaile Átha Cliath refers to two different entities O'Connell Street (Sráid Uí Chonaill is Dublin 's main thoroughfare Abbey Street ( Sráid na Mainistreach in Irish) is located on Dublin's Northside and is one of the principal shopping streets of Dublin, running The redevelopment will also include 14 new cafes along with a 149-bed hotel. It is expected that work on the new area will start in the second half of 2008. Prince's Street, which runs off O'Connell Street, will become a full urban street and pedestrian thoroughfare. O'Connell Street (Sráid Uí Chonaill is Dublin 's main thoroughfare
Since the mid 1990s, suburban Dublin has seen the completion of several modern retail centres. These include Dundrum Town Centre (on the Luas Green Line), Blanchardstown Centre, The Square in Tallaght (on the Luas Red Line), Liffey Valley Shopping Centre in Clondalkin, Northside Shopping Centre in Coolock, and Pavilions Shopping Centre in Swords. Dundrum Town Centre is a shopping centre located in Dundrum, Dublin, Ireland on the site of the defunct Pye television factory Luas /ɫ̪uəsˠ/ ( Irish for 'speed' also promoted in the development stage as the Dublin Light Rail System, is a Light rail or Tram Blanchardstown ( Baile Bhlainséir in Irish) is a growing outer suburb of Dublin, Ireland. The Square is a Shopping centre in Tallaght in south-west Dublin. Tallaght (pronounced /'tælæ/ Tamhlacht is the largest town and county seat, of South Dublin County, Ireland. Luas /ɫ̪uəsˠ/ ( Irish for 'speed' also promoted in the development stage as the Dublin Light Rail System, is a Light rail or Tram Clondalkin ( is a village and suburb 10 km west of Dublin City, Ireland, situated in the administrative County of South Dublin. Coolock ( is a large suburban area on Dublin city's Northside in Ireland.
Dublin has a long history of emigration that continued into the early 1990s. Since then there has been net immigration and Dublin now has a significant population of immigrants. Foreign nationals in the city are primarily young and single and the greatest numbers come from the European Union, especially The United Kingdom, Poland and Lithuania. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika is a Country in Eastern often referred to as Northern Europe or in the There is also a considerable number from outside Europe, particularly China, Nigeria, Brazil, Australia, New Zealand and Russia. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Nigeria, officially named the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal Constitutional republic comprising thirty-six states and one Federal |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending 10% of the Republic of Ireland's population is now made up of foreign nationals, and Dublin is home to a greater proportion of new arrivals than other parts of the country - for example, 60% of Ireland's Asian population lives in Dublin even though less than 40% of the overall population live in the Greater Dublin Area. Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. Introduction The term is described in the Planning and Development Act 2000 (Section 21 and a number of other statutory instruments for the purposes of Planning 
A north-south division has traditionally existed in Dublin for some time, with the dividing line being the River Liffey. The Liffey ( An Life in Irish) is a River in Ireland, which flows through the centre of Dublin. The Northside is seen by some as working-class, while the Southside is seen as middle and upper middle class. The Northside ( Taobh Ó Thuaidh in Irish) is the area in County Dublin, Ireland bounded to the south by the River Liffey to the east The Southside ( Taobh Ó Dheas in Irish) is not an official administrative area but a Colloquial term referring to the area of County Dublin But this is not a clear divide in reality by any means. Dublin postal districts have odd numbers for districts on the Northside — for example, Phibsboro is in Dublin 7 — and even numbers for the Southside — for example, Sandymount is in Dublin 4. Dublin postal districts are used by Ireland 's postal service known as An Post, to sort mail in Dublin. Phibsborough ( Baile Phib in Irish) often spelled Phibsboro, is a district of Dublin in Ireland. Sandymount ( Dumhach Thrá in Irish) is a coastal suburb of South Dublin in the Dublin 4 postal district in Ireland. An exception to the rule is Dublin 8, which straddles the river.
This division dates back some centuries, certainly to the point when the Earl of Kildare built his residence on the then less-regarded Southside. Earl of Kildare is a title in the Peerage of Ireland. John FitzThomas FitzGerald the eldest son of Thomas Lord Offaly, was created Earl of Kildare When asked why he was building on the Southside, he replied "Where I go, fashion follows me", and he was promptly followed by most other Irish peers. The Peerage of Ireland is the term used for those peers created by British monarchs in their capacity as Lord or King of Ireland.
Dublin is the primary centre of education in Ireland, with three universities and several other higher education institutions. There are 20 third-level institutes in the city.  The University of Dublin is the oldest university in Ireland dating from the 16th century. The University of Dublin, corporately designated the Chancellor Doctors and Masters of the University of Dublin (since the 19th century located in Dublin, Its sole constituent college, Trinity College, was established by Royal Charter under Elizabeth I and was closed to Roman Catholics until Catholic Emancipation; the Catholic hierarchy then banned Roman Catholics from attending it until 1970. Trinity College Dublin ( TCD; Irish Coláiste na Tríonóide Baile Átha Cliath; Latin: Collegium Sacrosanctae et Individuae Trinitatis Reginae A Royal Charter is a Charter granted by the Sovereign on the advice of the Privy council to legitimize an incorporated body such as a city company Catholic Emancipation (Fuascailt na gCaitliceach or Catholic Relief, was a process in Great Britain and Ireland in the late 18th century and early 19th It is situated in the city centre, on College Green, and has 15,000 students, the majority of whom are Catholics. The National University of Ireland (NUI) has its seat in Dublin, which is also the location of the associated constituent university of University College Dublin (UCD), the largest university in Ireland; although it is located in Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown, just outside the city boundary. The National University of Ireland ( NUI) (Ollscoil na hÉireann is a federal University system of constituent universities, previously called University College Dublin (UCD (An Coláiste Ollscoile Baile Átha Cliath - formally known as University College Dublin - National University of Ireland Dublin (An The County of Dun Laoghaire&ndashRathdown (Contae Dhún Laoghaire&ndashRáth an Dúin is a county in Ireland formed from part of the old county of Dublin Dublin City University (DCU) is the most recent university and specialises in business, engineering, and science courses, particularly with relevance to industry. Dublin City University ( DCU) (Ollscoil Chathair Bhaile Átha Cliath is a University situated between Glasnevin, Ballymun and Whitehall The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) is a medical school which is a recognised college of the NUI, it is situated at St. Stephen's Green in the city centre. The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland ( RCSI) (Coláiste Ríoga na Máinleá in Éirinn is a Dublin -based private medical institution situated on St St Stephen's Green ( is an inner-city Public park in Dublin, Ireland. The National University of Ireland, Maynooth, another constituent university of the NUI, is in neighbouring Co. Kildare, about 25 km (16 mi) from the city centre. The National University of Ireland Maynooth ( NUIM) was founded in 1997 by the Universities Act 1997 as a constituent university of the National County Kildare (Contae Chill Dara is an Irish County located to the southwest of Dublin in the province of Leinster.
Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT) is a modern technical college and is the country's largest non-university third-level institution; it specialises in technical subjects but also offers many arts and humanities courses. Dublin Institute of Technology ( DIT) ( Irish: Institiúid Teicneolaíochta Bhaile Atha Cliath) was established officially in 1992 under the Dublin Institute It is soon to move to a new campus at Grangegorman. Grangegorman ( is on the Northside of Dublin, Ireland. Currently part of Grangegorman is being developed as the Grangegorman Campus. Two suburbs of Dublin, Tallaght and Blanchardstown have Institutes of Technology: Institute of Technology, Tallaght, and Institute of Technology, Blanchardstown. Tallaght (pronounced /'tælæ/ Tamhlacht is the largest town and county seat, of South Dublin County, Ireland. Blanchardstown ( Baile Bhlainséir in Irish) is a growing outer suburb of Dublin, Ireland. Institute of Technology Tallaght ( ITT) formerly Regional Technical College Tallaght, located in Tallaght, County Dublin, Ireland The Institute of Technology Blanchardstown ( ITB) established in 1999 is (as of 2008 the last-founded Institute of Technology in Ireland. Portobello College Dublin has its degrees conferred through the University of Wales. The University of Wales ( Prifysgol Cymru in Welsh) is a confederal University founded in 1893. 
The National College of Art and Design (NCAD) and Dun Laoghaire Institute of Art, Design and Technology (DLIADT) support training and research in art, design and media technology. The National College of Art and Design is an Art school in Dublin, Ireland. Dún Laoghaire Institute of Art Design and Technology ( IADT) ( is located at Dún Laoghaire, Ireland and was created in the 1960s as an arts school of
Dublin Business School (DBS) is Ireland's Largest Private Third Level Institution with over 9,000 students. Dublin Business School (DBS incorporating Portobello College is the largest independent college in Ireland. The college is located on Aungier Street.
There are also various other smaller specialised colleges, including private ones:
The Economic and Social Research Institute, a social science research institute, is based on Sir John Rogerson's Quay, Dublin 2. The Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI is a Think tank in Dublin, Ireland. Institute of European Affairs is also in Dublin.
The City of Dublin is the area administered by Dublin City Council, but the term normally refers to the contiguous urban area which includes the adjacent local authority areas of Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown, Fingal and South Dublin. Dublin City Council (Comhairle Cathrach Bhaile Átha Cliath refers to two different entities The County of Dun Laoghaire&ndashRathdown (Contae Dhún Laoghaire&ndashRáth an Dúin is a county in Ireland formed from part of the old county of Dublin The County of Fingal ( is a county in Ireland. It was formed from part of the historic County Dublin. The County of South Dublin (Contae Átha Cliath Theas is a county in Ireland, with its county seat located in Tallaght. Together the four areas form the traditional County Dublin. County Dublin (Contae Bhaile Átha Cliath or more correctly today the Dublin Region ( Réigiúin Átha Cliath) is the area that contains the city of Dublin This area is sometimes known as 'Urban Dublin' or the 'Dublin Metropolitan Area'. Dublin Metropolitan Area is a term used by various bodies to describe the area of Dublin and its surrounding counties which have an urban designation between these bodies its
The population of the administrative area controlled by the City Council was 505,739 at the census of 2006. At the same census, the County Dublin population was 1,186,159, and that of the Greater Dublin Area 1,661,185. County Dublin (Contae Bhaile Átha Cliath or more correctly today the Dublin Region ( Réigiúin Átha Cliath) is the area that contains the city of Dublin Introduction The term is described in the Planning and Development Act 2000 (Section 21 and a number of other statutory instruments for the purposes of Planning The city's population is expanding rapidly, and it is estimated by the CSO that it will reach 2. The Central Statistics Office ( CSO) or in Irish An Phríomh-Oifig Staidrimh ( POS) is the Statistical agency responsible for the gathering of 1 million by 2021. Today, approximately 40% of the population of the Republic of Ireland live within a 100 km (62 mi) radius of the city centre. 
Dublin has been at the centre of Ireland's phenomenal economic growth over the last 10-15 years, a period (often of double-digit growth) referred to as the Celtic Tiger years. Dublin Docklands ( Ceantar Dugaí Átha Cliath) is the area of the city of Dublin, Ireland, on both sides of the River Liffey, roughly from Matt The International Financial Services Centre ( IFSC) or An Lárionad Seirbhísí Airgeadais Idirnáisiúnta ( LSAI) in Irish is a major financial services GDP & Rankings Greater Dublin 's GDP is 696 billion euro (2004 Celtic Tiger (Tíogar Ceilteach is a name for the period of rapid Economic growth in the Republic of Ireland that began in the 1990s and slowed in 2001 Living standards in the city have risen dramatically, although the cost of living has also soared. Dublin is now the planet's 16th most expensive city (8th most expensive city in Europe, excluding Russian cities).  However, it has the second highest wages for a city in the world, ahead of both New York City and London, though behind Zürich. The City of New York London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Zürich (, Zürich German: Züri, Zurich, Zurigo; in English generally Zurich) is the largest city in Switzerland and capital of the 
Historically, brewing has probably been the industry most often associated with the city: Guinness has been brewed at the St. James's Gate Brewery since 1759. Brewing is the production of Alcoholic beverage and Alcohol fuel through fermentation. Guinness (ˈɡɪnɪs is a popular Dry stout that originated in Arthur Guinness ' brewery at St St James's Gate Brewery is a brewery in Dublin, known as the home of Guinness. Since the advent of the Celtic Tiger years, however, a large number of global pharmaceutical, information and communications technology companies have located in Dublin and the Greater Dublin Area. Introduction The term is described in the Planning and Development Act 2000 (Section 21 and a number of other statutory instruments for the purposes of Planning For example, Microsoft, Google, Amazon, PayPal, Yahoo! and Pfizer (among others) now have European headquarters and/or operational bases in the city and its suburbs. Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational Computer technology Corporation, which rose to dominate the Home computer Google Inc is an American public corporation, earning revenue from advertising related to its Internet search, e-mail, online Amazoncom Inc ( is an American electronic commerce ( E-commerce) company in Seattle Washington. PayPal is an E-commerce business allowing payments and Money transfers to be made through the Internet. Pfizer Incorporated ( is a major Pharmaceutical company, which ranks number one in the world in sales Intel and Hewlett-Packard have large manufacturing plants in Leixlip, County Kildare, 15 km (9 mi) to the west. Leixlip (/'likslɪp/ Léim an Bhradáin in Irish) is a town in north-east County Kildare, Ireland, east of the midlands of Ireland County Kildare (Contae Chill Dara is an Irish County located to the southwest of Dublin in the province of Leinster.
Banking, finance and commerce are also important in the city — the IFSC alone handles over €1 trillion a year. The International Financial Services Centre ( IFSC) or An Lárionad Seirbhísí Airgeadais Idirnáisiúnta ( LSAI) in Irish is a major financial services Many international firms have established major headquarters in the city (eg. Citibank, Commerzbank). Citibank is a major international Bank, founded in 1812 as the City Bank of New York, later First National City Bank of New York. Commerzbank AG ( is the second-largest Bank in Germany (after Deutsche Bank) headquartered in Frankfurt am Main. Also located in Dublin is the Irish Stock Exchange (ISEQ), Internet Neutral Exchange (INEX) and Irish Enterprise Exchange (IEX). The Irish Stock Exchange ( ISE) (Stocmhalartán na hÉireann is Ireland 's Stock exchange, formed through the merger of the Cork and Dublin exchanges both Internet Neutral Exchange ( INEX) is an Internet exchange located in the Republic of Ireland, with points of presence in Dublin at The Irish Enterprise Exchange (IEX is a Stock exchange that was launched on 12 April 2005 to replace the Irish Stock Exchange 's Exploration
The economic boom years have led to a sharp increase in construction, which is now also a major employer, though, as of 2007, unemployment is on the rise as the housing market has begun to see supply outstrip demand. Redevelopment is taking place in large projects such as Dublin Docklands, Spencer Dock and others, transforming once run-down industrial areas in the city centre. Dublin City Council seems to now have loosened the former limits on "high-rise" structures. The tallest building, Liberty Hall, is only 59. Liberty Halljpg|thumb|Liberty Hall at night]] Liberty Hall ( Irish Halla na Saoirse) in Dublin, Ireland is the headquarters of the Services 4 m (194. 9 ft) tall; already under construction in the city is Heuston Gate, a 117 m (384 ft) building (134 m including spire). The 120 m (394 ft) Britain Quay Tower and the 120 m (394 ft) Point Village Watchtower have been approved. The Point Village (Sráidbhaile an Phointe is a planned new 'city quarter' in the North Wall area of Dublin, Ireland. Construction has started on the latter. Also the U2 Tower will be the tallest building on the Island of Ireland when it is finished. The U2 Tower is a proposed Landmark Skyscraper due to be constructed in Dublin. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world
In 2005, around 800,000 people were employed in the Greater Dublin Area, of whom around 600,000 were employed in the services sector and 200,000 in the industrial sector. 
Economic growth is expected to slow in the coming years, with the Irish central bank predicting medium-term growth rates of around 3–5%.  While this represents a slowdown relative to the early Celtic Tiger years, it is still stronger than growth in most other wealthy countries.
Dublin is also the main hub of the country's road network. The M50 motorway (the busiest road in Ireland), a semi-ring road runs around the south, west and north of the city, connecting the most important national primary routes in the state that fan out from the capital to the regions. The M50 motorway is a Motorway and National Primary Route ( N50) in Ireland running in a C-shaped ring around the north-eastern northern As of 2008, a toll of €2 applies on what is called the West-Link, two adjacent concrete bridges that tower high above the River Liffey near the village of Lucan. For other uses see Westlink The West-Link ( is a toll bridge (actually two twin bridges on the M50 motorway to the west of Dublin For other meanings of Lucan, see Lucan (disambiguation. For the Roman poet Lucan see Marcus Annaeus Lucanus.
To complete the ring road, an eastern bypass is also proposed for the city of Dublin. The first half of this project is the Dublin Port Tunnel which opened in late 2006 and mainly caters to heavy vehicles. The Dublin Port Tunnel ( Tollán Calafoirt Bhaile Átha Cliath in Irish is a road traffic Tunnel in Dublin, Ireland, that forms part of the
The capital is also surrounded by an inner and outer orbital route. The inner orbital route runs roughly around the heart of the Georgian city and the outer orbital route runs largely along the natural circle formed by Dublin's two canals, the Grand Canal and the Royal Canal, as well as the North and South Circular Roads. The Grand Canal (An Chanáil Mhór is the southernmost of a pair of Canals that connect Dublin, in the east of the country with the River Shannon in the The Royal Canal (An Chanáil Ríoga is a canal originally built for freight and passenger transportation from the River Liffey at Dublin to the River Shannon
Dublin is served by an extensive network of nearly 200 routes which serve all areas of the city and suburbs. The majority of these are controlled by Dublin Bus ( Bus Átha Cliath ) which was established in 1987 , but a number of smaller companies have began operating in recent years. Dublin Bus (Bus Átha Cliath ˈaːhə ˈclʲiə is a Public transport operator in the Republic of Ireland. Dublin Bus had 3408 staff and 1067 busses providing over half a million journeys per weekday in 2004. Fares are generally calculated on a stage system based on distance travelled. There are several different levels of fares, which apply on most services. Certain routes (particularly Xpresso) use a different fare system.
The Dublin Suburban Rail network is a system of five rail lines serving mainly commuters in the Greater Dublin Area, though some trains go even further to commuter towns such as Drogheda and Dundalk. The Dublin Suburban Rail (Irish Iarnród Bruachbhailteach Baile Átha Cliath) network (now branded DART / Commuter) is a railway network Introduction The term is described in the Planning and Development Act 2000 (Section 21 and a number of other statutory instruments for the purposes of Planning Drogheda (ˈdrɒhədə ˈdrɔːdə ( Droichead Átha in Irish, meaning "Bridge of the Ford" is an industrial and port town in County Louth on Dundalk (Dún Dealgan is the County town of County Louth in Ireland, situated close to the border with Northern Ireland. One of these is an electrified line that runs along Dublin Bay and is known as the Dublin Area Rapid Transit (DART) line. Dublin Bay ( Cuan Bhaile Átha Cliath) is a delta shaped Inlet of the Irish Sea off the east Coast of Ireland. The Dublin Area Rapid Transit ( DART) is part of the suburban railway network in Ireland, running mainly along the coastline of Dublin Bay on
A two-line light rail/tram network called the Luas opened in 2004 and has proved popular in the (limited) areas it serves, although the lack of a link between the two lines is widely criticised. For specific light rail systems many of which use the words "light rail" as part of their name see List of light-rail transit systems. A tram, tramcar, trolley, trolley car, or streetcar is a railborne vehicle, of lighter weight and construction than a Train Luas /ɫ̪uəsˠ/ ( Irish for 'speed' also promoted in the development stage as the Dublin Light Rail System, is a Light rail or Tram Five new luas lines are planned, the last of which will be opened in 2014, with the two existing lines set to be joined up by 2012. 
There are plans to begin building work on the Dublin Metro (subway / underground) system set out in the Irish government's 2005 Transport 21 plan within the next few years. The Dublin Metro (Metro Baile Átha Cliath is a planned metro system for the city of Dublin. Transport 21 is an Irish Infrastructure plan announced on 1 November 2005 in Dublin Castle by the then Irish Minister for Although not confirmed, it is believed that the metro will be fully segregated from all traffic which will mean it will not disrupt traffic when in operation, unlike an on-street Luas Tram or the DART. Luas /ɫ̪uəsˠ/ ( Irish for 'speed' also promoted in the development stage as the Dublin Light Rail System, is a Light rail or Tram The Dublin Area Rapid Transit ( DART) is part of the suburban railway network in Ireland, running mainly along the coastline of Dublin Bay on The Metro North will bring rail access to areas and institutions currently lacking it, such as the Mater Hospital, Drumcondra (Croke Park, inter-city and suburban rail stop), Dublin City University, Ballymun, Swords and Dublin Airport. Drumcondra ( is a residential area and inner suburb on the Northside of Dublin, Ireland. Croke Park (Páirc an Chrócaigh in Dublin, Ireland is the largest sports Stadium in Ireland (fifth largest in Europe) and the principal stadium Dublin City University ( DCU) (Ollscoil Chathair Bhaile Átha Cliath is a University situated between Glasnevin, Ballymun and Whitehall Ballymun ( Irish: Baile Munna) nicknamed "The Mun" is an area on Dublin 's Northside close to Dublin Airport, Ireland The Metro West will serve the large suburbs of Tallaght, Clondalkin and Blanchardstown. Tallaght (pronounced /'tælæ/ Tamhlacht is the largest town and county seat, of South Dublin County, Ireland. Clondalkin ( is a village and suburb 10 km west of Dublin City, Ireland, situated in the administrative County of South Dublin. Blanchardstown ( Baile Bhlainséir in Irish) is a growing outer suburb of Dublin, Ireland.
Dublin is at the centre of Ireland's transport system. Most of the transport system in Ireland is in public hands either side of the Irish border. Dublin Port is the country's busiest sea port and Dublin Airport is the busiest airport on the island. Dublin Port (Port Átha Cliath is Ireland 's biggest Sea port. ||-||-|-||-||-||-||-||-||-|} A port is a facility for receiving Ships and transferring cargo
Dublin is the centre of both media and communications in Ireland, with many newspapers, radio stations, television stations and telephone companies having their headquarters there. Radio Telefís Éireann (RTÉ) is Ireland's national state broadcaster, and has its main offices and studios in Donnybrook, Dublin. Fair City is the broadcaster's capital-based soap, located in the fictional Dublin suburb of Carraigstown. Fair City is an award-winning Television Soap opera, first broadcast in Ireland on September 18 1989 TV3, Channel 6, City Channel and Setanta Sports are also based in Dublin. TV3 Ireland was the first independent Television channel in Ireland, entirely funded by revenue from advertising Channel 6 (also marketed simply as Six) is an Irish entertainment station that began broadcasting on 30 March 2006 City Channel is an Irish media company who operate one Cable television channel City Channel (Dublin, and other variants in Galway Setanta Sports (sɛˈtantə is a sports broadcaster based in Ireland, operating 12 channels in 24 countries Dublin is home to national commercial radio networks Today FM and Newstalk, as well as local stations. For the similarly named Australian Radio station see 2Day FM Radio Ireland Ltd trading as 100-102 Today FM is an Irish Newstalk (formerly called NewsTalk 106) is an Independent Radio station in the Republic of Ireland. The main infrastructure and offices of An Post and telecommunications companies, such as the former state telephone company Eircom, as well as mobile/cellular operators Meteor, Vodafone and O2 are all located in the capital. An Post ( English literal translation 'The Post' eircom Group plc is the largest Telecommunications operator in the Republic of Ireland. Meteor Mobile Communications Limited is a mobile Telecommunications company in the Republic of Ireland. Vodafone Ireland Limited, part of the Vodafone Group, is currently the largest Mobile phone company in Ireland in terms of active subscribers and was previously Dublin is also the headquarters of important national newspapers such as The Irish Times and Irish Independent. The Irish Times is an Irish daily broadsheet news paper launched in the late 1850s. The Irish Independent is Ireland's largest selling daily newspaper
The City is governed by Dublin City Council (formerly called Dublin Corporation), which is presided over by the Lord Mayor of Dublin, who is elected for a yearly term and resides in the Mansion House. Dublin City Council (Comhairle Cathrach Bhaile Átha Cliath refers to two different entities Dublin Corporation (Bardas Bhaile Átha Cliath known by generations of Dubliners simply as The Corpo, is the former name given to the city government and its administrative The Lord Mayor of Dublin (Ardmhéara Bhaile Átha Cliath is the symbolic head of the city government of Dublin, the capital of Ireland. The Mansion House ( on Dawson Street Dublin, is the Official residence of the Lord Mayor of Dublin and has been since 1715 Dublin City Council is based in two major buildings. Council meetings take place in the headquarters at Dublin City Hall, the former Royal Exchange taken over for city government use in the 1850s. City Hall Dublin ( originally the Royal Exchange, is a civic building in Dublin, Ireland. Many of its administrative staff are based in the controversial Civic Offices on Wood Quay. Wood Quay ( An Ché Adhmaid in Irish) is a riverside area of Dublin that was a site of Viking settlement
The City Council is a unicameral assembly of 52 members, elected every five years from Local Election Areas. The party with the majority of seats decides who sits on what committee, what policies are followed, and who becomes Lord Mayor. Chaired by the Lord Mayor, the Council passes an annual budget for spending on housing, traffic management, refuse, drainage, planning, etc. The Dublin City Manager is responsible for the implementation of decisions of the City Council.
The national parliament of Ireland, the Oireachtas, consists of the President of Ireland and two houses, Dáil Éireann (Chamber of Deputies) and Seanad Éireann (Senate). The Oireachtas (ɛrʲaxt̪ˠasˠ is the "national parliament" or Legislature of Ireland, sometimes referred to as Oireachtas Éireann. ga '''Dáil Éireann''' ( English House of Representatives of Ireland) is the principal chamber of the Oireachtas (Irish parliament Seanad Éireann (ɕan̪ˠad̪ˠ erʲan̪ˠ English Senate of Ireland) also known unofficially as the Senate, is the Upper house of the Oireachtas All three are based in Dublin. The President of Ireland lives in Áras an Uachtaráin, the former residence of the Governor-General of the Irish Free State in the city's largest park, Phoenix Park. The President of Ireland (Uachtarán na hÉireann n̪ˠə ˈheːɾʲən̪ˠ is the Head of state of Ireland. Áras an Uachtaráin, formerly the Viceregal Lodge, is the official residence of the President of Ireland. The Governor-General (Seanascal was the representative of the King in the 1922&ndash1937 Irish Free State. The Phoenix Park (Páirc an Fhionn-Uisce is the largest enclosed urban public Park in Europe located 3 km to the north west of Dublin city centre in Ireland Both houses of the Oireachtas meet in Leinster House, a former ducal palace on the south side. Leinster House (Teach Laighean is the name of the building housing the national parliament of the Republic of Ireland (Oireachtas Éireann The building has been the home of Irish parliaments since the creation of the Irish Free State on December 6, 1922. The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann (1922&ndash1937 was the state established as a Dominion on 6 December 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, signed by Events 1060 - Béla I of Hungary is crowned king of Hungary 1240 - Mongol invasion of Rus: Kiev Year 1922 ( MCMXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
The Irish Government is based in the Government Buildings, a large building designed by Sir Aston Webb, the architect who created the Edwardian facade of Buckingham Palace, as the Royal College of Science. Government Buildings (Tithe an Rialtais is a large Edwardian Building enclosing a quadrangle on Merrion Street in Dublin, Ireland Sir Aston Webb, RA, FRIBA, ( May 22 1849 - August 21 1930) was an English Architect, active in Class and society Socially the Edwardian era was a period during which the British Class system was very rigid Buckingham Palace is the official London residence of the British monarch. The Royal College of Science for Ireland (Coláiste Ríoga Eolaíocht Éireann was created as a result of a decision of HM Treasury in 1865 to merge a number of science-oriented In 1921 the House of Commons of Southern Ireland met here. House of Commons of Southern Ireland was the lower house of the Irish parliament created by the Government of Ireland Act, passed in 1920 during the Irish War Given its location next to Leinster House, the Irish Free State government took over part of the building to serve as a temporary home for some ministries. Both it and Leinster House, meant to be a temporary home of parliament, became permanent homes.
The old Irish Houses of Parliament of the Kingdom of Ireland are in College Green. The Irish Houses of Parliament (Tithe na Parlaiminte also known as the Irish Parliament House, today called the Bank of Ireland, College Green The Kingdom of Ireland (Ríocht na hÉireann was the name given to the Irish state from 1541 by the Crown of Ireland Act 1542 of the Parliament of Ireland. College Green ( Faiche an Choláiste in Irish) previously called Hoggen Green, is a three sided 'square' in the centre of Dublin.
Dublin enjoys a maritime temperate climate characterised by mild winters, cool summers, and a lack of temperature extremes. Contrary to popular belief, Dublin does not experience as high rainfall as the West of Ireland, which receives twice that of the capital city. Dublin has fewer rainy days, on average, than London. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. The average maximum January temperature is 8 °C, the average maximum July temperature is 20 °C. The sunniest months, on average, are May and June. The wettest months, on average, are December and August, with 74 mm of rain. The driest month is April, with 45 mm. The total average annual rainfall (and other forms of precipitation) is 762 mm, lower than Sydney, New York City and even Dallas. Sydney (ˈsɪdniː is the most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 4 The City of New York Due to Dublin's high latitude, it experiences long summer days (around 19 hours of daylight) and short winter days (as short as nine hours). Like the rest of Ireland it is relatively safe from common natural disasters such as tornadoes, hurricanes, earthquakes and tsunamis. A natural disaster is the consequence of a Natural hazard (eg
Strong winds from Atlantic storm systems can affect Dublin, though usually less severe than other parts of Ireland. Severe winds are most likely during mid-winter, but can occur anytime, especially between October and February. During one of the stormiest periods of recent times, a gust of 151 km/h (94 mph) was recorded at Casement Aerodrome on 24 December 1997. Casement Aerodrome (Irish Aeradróm Mhic Easmainn) or Baldonnel Aerodrome is an Airfield to the south west of Dublin, Ireland Events 563 - The Byzantine church Hagia Sophia in Constantinople is dedicated for the second time after being destroyed by Earthquakes Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar
An urban heat island effect means Dublin is a few degrees warmer than surrounding areas. An urban heat island ( UHI) is a metropolitan area which is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas There is also a slight temperature difference between the city centre and the city's suburbs, with the city centre slightly warmer, as it is more built up. There are slight differences between the city centre and the Airport, just 12 km (7 mi) north.
The city is not noted for its temperature extremes due to its mild climate. Typically, the coldest months are December, January and February. Temperatures in summer in recent years have been rising to substantially above average figures, e. g. 31 °C in July 2006, over 11 °C higher than the average maximum. Recent heat waves include the European heat wave of 2003 and European heat wave of 2006. Country-by-country France In France, 14802 people&mdashmostly elderly&mdashdied from heat according to the country's largest funeral service Country-by-country Belgium Belgium experienced two heat waves in July 2006
The main precipitation in winter is rain. The city can experience some snow showers during the months from November to April, but lying snow is rare (on average, only 4/5 days). Hail occurs more often than snow, and is most likely during the winter and spring months. Hail is a form of precipitation which consists of balls or irregular lumps of ice (hailstones Another rare type of weather is thunder and lightning, most common in summer. Thunder is the sound made by Lightning. Depending on the nature of the lightning and distance of the listener it can range from a sharp Lightning is an atmospheric discharge of Electricity, which typically occurs during Thunderstorms and sometimes during volcanic eruptions or
|Total rainfall||67 mm (2. 6")||55 mm (2. 1")||51 mm (2")||45 mm (1. 7")||60 mm (2. 3")||57 mm (2. 2")||70 mm (2. 7")||74 mm (2. 9")||72 mm (2. 8")||70 mm (2. 7")||67 mm (2. 6")||74 mm (2. 9")||762 mm (29. 5")|
Official statistics from An Garda Síochána for 2001-2005 show that the overall headline crime rate for the metropolitan area per 1,000 of population is the highest in the country. ga '''''Garda Síochána na hÉireann''''' (ˈgaːrdə ʃiːˈxaːnə nə ˈheːɾʲən Irish for "Peace Guard of Ireland" often rendered During the 1980s and 1990s, a heroin epidemic swept through working class areas of the inner city and outlying suburbs. Dublin had 80 homicides from 2004 to the end of 2006. List of countries by homicide rate Homicide ( Latin homicidium, homo human being + caedere to cut kill refers to the act of killing another 32 were gang-related. In 2007, as of mid July, there have been 15 homicides, in which 4 were gangland shootings. Dublin also has the largest number of fatal stabbings in Ireland.