Dualism denotes a state of two parts. The word's origin is the Latin duo, "two" . Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The term 'dualism' was originally coined to denote co-eternal binary opposition, a meaning that is preserved in metaphysical and philosophical discourse but has been diluted in general usage. In Critical theory, a binary opposition (also binary system) is a pair of theoretical opposites
Moral dualism is the belief of the coexistence (in eastern and naturalistic religions) or conflict (in western religions) between the "benevolent" and the "malignant". Most religious systems have some form of moral dualism - in western religions, for instance, a conflict between good and evil. In Religion, Ethics, and Philosophy, the phrase good and evil refers to the location of objects desires and Behaviors on a two-way
Like ditheism/bitheism (see below), moral dualism does not imply the absence of monist or monotheistic principles. Monism is the metaphysical and Theological view that all is one that all reality is subsumed under the most fundamental category of being or existence For the Celtic Frost album see Monotheist (album In Theology, monotheism (from Greek grc [[wiktμόνος μόνος]] Moral dualism simply implies that there are two moral opposites at work, independent of any interpretation of what might be "moral" and - unlike ditheism/bitheism - independent of how these may be represented.
For example, Mazdaism (Mazdaen Zoroastrianism) is both dualistic and monotheistic (but not monist) since in that philosophy God—the Creator—is purely good, and the antithesis—which is also uncreated—is an absolute one. Zoroastrianism (ˌzɔroʊˈæstriəˌnɪzəm is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings Zurvanism (Zurvanite Zoroastrianism), Manichaeism and Mandaeism, are representative of dualistic and monist philosophies since each has a supreme and transcendental First Principle from which the two equal-but-opposite entities then emanate. Zurvanism is a now-extinct branch of Zoroastrianism that had the divinity Zurvan as its First Manichaeism (in Modern Persian fa-Arab آیین مانی Āyin e Māni; Chinese zh 摩尼教 was one of the major Gnostic Religions originating Mandaeism or Mandaeanism ( Mandaic: Mandaiuta, مندائية Mandā'iyya) is a Monotheistic Religion with a strongly This is also true for the lesser-known Christian gnostic religions, such as Bogomils, Catharism, etc. Gnosticism (γνώσις gnōsis, Knowledge) refers to a diverse Syncretistic Religious movement consisting of various Belief systems Bogomilism (Богомилство is the Gnostic dualistic Sect, the Synthesis of Armenian Paulicianism and the Bulgarian Slavonic More complex forms of monist dualism also exist, for instance in Hermeticism, where Nous "thought" - that is described to have created man - brings forth both good and evil, depending on whether it receives prompting from God or from the demons. Hermeticism is a set of philosophical and religious beliefs based primarily upon the writings attributed to Hermes Trismegistus, who is put forth as a Nous (ˈnuːs Greek: or) is a philosophical term for Mind or Intellect.
In theology, 'dualism' may also refer to 'bitheism', 'duotheism' or 'ditheism'. Dualistic cosmology is a collective term Many variant myths and creation motifs are so described in ethnographic and anthropological Theology is the study of a god or the gods from a religious perspective Although ditheism/bitheism imply moral dualism, they are not equivalent: ditheism/bitheism implies (at least) two gods, while moral dualism does not imply any -theism (theos = god) whatsoever. The English word god continues the Old English ang god ( got-Latn guþ gudis in Gothic, gem gud in modern
Both 'bitheism' and 'ditheism' imply a belief in two equally powerful gods with complementary properties. However, while bitheism implies harmony, ditheism implies rivality and opposition, such as between Good and Evil. For example, a ditheistic system would be one in which one god is creative, the other is destructive (cf. theodicy). Theodicy (θiːˈɒdɪsi (adjectival form theodicean) is a specific branch of Theology and Philosophy that attempts to reconcile the existence of In a bitheistic system, one god could be male and the other female (cf. duotheism). However, bitheistic and ditheistic principles are not always so easily contrastable, for instance in a system where one god is the representative of summer and drought and the other of winter and rain/fertility (cf. the mythology of Persephone). In Greek mythology, Persephone ( Kore or Cora) was the embodiment of the Earth's fertility at the same time that she was the Queen of the Underworld Marcionism, a nominally Christian sect (but denounced as a heresy), held that the Old and New Testaments were the work of two opposing gods: both were First Principles, but of different religions. Marcionism is the dualist Belief system that originates in the teachings of Marcion of Sinope at Rome around the year 144.
Alternatively, dualism can mean the tendency of humans to perceive and understand the world as being divided into two overarching categories. Categorization is the process in which ideas and objects are recognized, differentiated and understood. However that definition is considered a tad controversial. In this sense, it is dualistic when one perceives a tree as a thing separate from everything surrounding it, or when one perceives a "self" that is distinct from the rest of the world. In mystic traditions such as Zen or Islamic Sufism, a key to enlightenment is "transcending" this sort of dualistic thinking, without merely substituting dualism with monism or pluralism. Mysticism (from the Greek grc μυστικός mystikos, an initiate of a Mystery religion) is the pursuit of communion with identity Zen is a school of Mahāyāna Buddhism, referred to in Chinese as Chan. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Sufism ( تصوّف - taṣawwuf, Persian: صوفیگری sufigari, Turkish: tasavvuf, Urdu: تصوف Monism is the metaphysical and Theological view that all is one that all reality is subsumed under the most fundamental category of being or existence Pluralism is the name of entirely unrelated positions in Metaphysics and Epistemology.
The opposition and combination of the universe's two basic principles of yin and yang is a large part of Taoist religion. In Chinese philosophy, the concept of yin and yang ( is used to describe how seemingly opposing forces are bound together intertwined and interdependent in the Taoism (pronounced /ˈdaʊɪzəm/ or /ˈtaʊɪzəm/ also spelled '''Daoism''') refers to a variety of related Philosophical and Religious traditions Some of the common associations with Yang and Yin, respectively, are: male and female, light and dark, active and passive, motion and stillness. Light, or visible light, is Electromagnetic radiation of a Wavelength that is visible to the Human eye (about 400–700 Although, these interpretations are just the common concepts which are some aspects derived from the greater concepts of Yin and Yang. The Tai-Chi in actuality has very little to do with Western dualism, instead it represents the Eastern dualism philosophy of balance, where two opposites co-exist in harmony and are able to transmute into each other.
The complementary aspects of masculinity and femininity are revered by certain Neo-pagan religions. Neopaganism or Neo-Paganism is an Umbrella term used to identify a wide variety of modern religious movements particularly those influenced by historical
In philosophy of mind, dualism is any of a narrow variety of views about the relationship between mind and matter, which claims that mind and matter are two ontologically separate categories. In Philosophy of mind, dualism is a set of views about the relationship between mind and matter which begins with the claim that mental phenomena are in some Philosophy of mind is the branch of Philosophy that studies the nature of the Mind, Mental events Mental functions mental properties In Philosophy, ontology (from the Greek, genitive: of being (part In particular, mind-body dualism claims that neither the mind nor matter can be reduced to each other in any way, and thus is opposed to materialism in general, and reductive materialism in particular. The Philosophy of materialism holds that the only thing that can be truly proven to exist is Matter, and is considered a form of Physicalism. Type physicalism (also known as Type Identity Theory, Mind-Brain Identity Theory and Identity Theory of Mind) is a theory in Philosophy of mind Mind-body dualism can exist as substance dualism which claims that the mind and the body are composed of a distinct substance, and as property dualism which claims that there may not be a distinction in substance, but that mental and physical properties are still categorically distinct, and not reducible to each other. In Philosophy of mind, dualism is a set of views about the relationship between mind and matter which begins with the claim that mental phenomena are in some Property dualism describes a category of positions in the Philosophy of mind which hold that while the world is constituted of just one kind of Substance - the physical This type of dualism is sometimes referred to as "mind and body" and stands in contrast to philosophical monism, which views mind and matter as being ultimately the same kind of thing. Monism is the metaphysical and Theological view that all is one that all reality is subsumed under the most fundamental category of being or existence See also Cartesian dualism, substance dualism, epiphenomenalism. In Philosophy of mind, dualism is a set of views about the relationship between mind and matter which begins with the claim that mental phenomena are in some In Philosophy of mind, dualism is a set of views about the relationship between mind and matter which begins with the claim that mental phenomena are in some In Philosophy of mind, epiphenomenalism, also known as ' Type-E Dualism ' is a view according to which some or all mental states are mere Epiphenomena
The belief that body and spirit exist as two separate entities was first documented in approximately 1000 B. C. by Zoroastrianism, and has become a very common view to the present day. Zoroastrianism (ˌzɔroʊˈæstriəˌnɪzəm is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings
During the classical era of Buddhist philosophy in India, philosophers such as Dharmakirti argue for a dualism between states of consciousness and Buddhist atoms (the basic building blocks that make up reality), according to "the standard interpretation" of Dharmakirti's Buddhist metaphysics. Buddhist philosophy deals extensively with problems in Metaphysics, phenomenology, Ethics, and Epistemology. Dharmakirti ( ca 7th century was an Indian scholar and one of the Buddhist founders of Indian philosophical logic. Buddhist atomism had two major movements During the first phase Buddhist Atomism had a very qualitative Aristotelian -style Atomic theory in  Typically in Western philosophy, dualism is considered to be a dualism between mind (nonphysical) and brain (physical), which ultimately involves mind interacting with the physical brain, and therefore also interacting with the micro-particles (basic building blocks) that make up the brain tissue. Western philosophy is a term that refers to philosophical thinking in the Western or Occidental world, as distinct from Eastern or Oriental philosophies Buddhist dualism, in Dharmakirti’s sense, is different in that it is not a dualism between the mind and brain, but rather between states of consciousness (nonphysical) and basic building blocks (according to the Buddhist atomism of Dharmakirti, Buddhist atoms are also nonphysical: they are unstructured points of energy). Like so many Buddhists from 600-1000 CE, Dharmakirti’s philosophy involved mereological nihilism, meaning that other than states of consciousness, the only things that exist are momentary quantum particles, much like the particles of quantum physics (quarks, electrons, etc. Mereological nihilism (also called compositional nihilism or what some philosophers just call Nihilism) is the position that objects with proper parts do not exist (not only Quantum mechanics is the study of mechanical systems whose dimensions are close to the Atomic scale such as Molecules Atoms Electrons In Physics, a quark (kwɔrk kwɑːk or kwɑːrk is a type of Subatomic particle. The electron is a fundamental Subatomic particle that was identified and assigned the negative charge in 1897 by J ).
In some cultures, people (or also other beings) are believed to have two (or more) kinds of soul. Soul dualism or a dualistic soul concept is a range of beliefs that a person has two (or more kinds of Souls In many cases the one of the souls The soul, according to many religious and philosophical beliefs is the self-awareness, or Consciousness, unique to a particular living In several cases, one of these souls is associated with body functions (and is sometimes thought to disappear after death), and the other one is able to leave the body (e. g. a shaman's free-soul may be held to be able to undertake a spirit journey). The plethora of soul types may be even more complex.
Correctly distinguishing between Self (Spirit/Consciousness Purusha) and Matter/Nature (Prakrti) is of central importance to Samkhya Philosophy. In Hinduism, Purusha ( Sanskrit puruṣa पुरुष "man Cosmic Man " in Sutra literature also called puṃs Prakrti or Prakriti (from Sanskrit language प्रकृ्रति prakṛti is according to Vedanta philosophy the basic matter of which the Sankhya, also Samkhya, ( सांख्य, IAST: sānkhya - 'enumeration' is one of the six schools of classical Indian philosophy. Samkhya Philosophy elaborates a fundamental dualism between such aware Selves and all the phenomena that is presented to such Selves by Matter/Nature. Such phenomena of Matter/Nature includes reflections of the intellect, the faculty that makes things personal (the I-Maker/Ahamkara), the instinctual mind (manas), the capacities to perceive sense data, the capacities to act, the principles of the elements of sense perception, and the gross elements. These arise when Prakriti is in the presence of a Purusha, and they become enmeshed and entangled when there is mis-identification between Prakriti and Purusha. False confusion between the Self and what is not the Self is considered the fundamental ignorance that perpetuates bondage in this world. Liberation is sought by becoming aware of such distinctions on a very deep level of personal knowledge, so that one may eventually use the great faculty of the mind -- intellectual reflection (Buddhi/Mahat) -- without mistakenly identifying it with the Purusha, and then the effects of such entanglement will unravel and one will no longer be bound by incarnations or confused by Prakriti.
The Vedanta philosophy is divided into dvaita (dualistic) and advaita (non-dualistic). Dvaita ( Kannada: ದ್ವೈತ Devanagari:द्बैत is a dualist school of Vedanta Hindu philosophy. Advaita Vedanta ( IAST Advaita Vedānta; Sanskrit अद्वैत वेदान्त əd̪vait̪ə veːd̪ɑːnt̪ə is a sub-school of the Neither propose dualism in consciousness and matter. While the dvaita philosophy distinguishes between atman and brahman, the advaita philosophy looks at everything as Brahman which has three fundamental attributes sat-cit-ānanda (truth-consciousness-bliss). The Ātman ( IAST: Ātman Sanskrit: आत्मन् is a philosophical term used within Hinduism and Vedanta to identify the Soul Brahman ( bráhman-, Nominative bráhma sa ब्रह्म is a concept of Hinduism. Brahman ( bráhman-, Nominative bráhma sa ब्रह्म is a concept of Hinduism. Saccidānanda or Sat-cit-ānanda (Sanskrit सच्चिदानंद is a compound of three Sanskrit words Sat (सत् Cit (चित्
Advaita vedanta insists that the experiential personal realization of unity of everything must be achieved. Until a person achieves such realization, advaita vedanta uses the Sanhkya dualism of consciousness and matter for describing the world.
In philosophy of science, dualism often refers to the dichotomy between the "subject" (the observer) and the "object" (the observed). Philosophy of science is the study of assumptions foundations and implications of Science. Criticism of Western science may label this kind of dualism as a flaw in the nature of science itself. In part, this has something to do with potentially complicated interactions between the subject and the object, of the sort discussed in the social construction literature. A social construction or social construct is any phenomenon "invented" or "constructed" by participants in a particular Culture or Society
A theory relating to dualism and a contemporary feminist world view is presented by Susan Bordo. Susan Bordo (born 1947 a modern feminist Philosopher, is well known for her contributions to the field of contemporary Cultural studies, particularly Bordo contends that dualism has shaped Western culture since the time of Plato, through Augustine and René Descartes, up to the present day. Biography Early life Birth and family Plato was born in Athens Greece
All three of these philosophers provide instructions, rules or models as to how to gain control over the body, with the ultimate aim of learning to live without it. The mind is superior to the body, and strength comes from disregarding the body's existence to reach an elevated spiritual level.
Bordo believes that the influx of various patterns of disordered eating, particularly the overwhelming rise in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, is the most telling and compelling argument that dualism is central to modern thinking. Anorexia Nervosa is a psychiatric Diagnosis that describes an Eating disorder characterized by low Body weight and Body image distortion Bulimia nervosa is an Eating disorder characterized by recurrent Binge eating, followed by compensatory behaviors referred to as "purging" Furthermore, Western dualism is an adulterated form of historical philosophical dualism, an artificial mode of hegmonic power regulations. To cognitively and practically adopt the mode of Western dualisms is often a dangerous and oppressive way of looking at the world. For example, those who are anorexic seek to gain ultimate control, and depriving oneself of food makes one a master of one's own body, which creates a sense of purity and perfection. Anorexia Nervosa is a psychiatric Diagnosis that describes an Eating disorder characterized by low Body weight and Body image distortion Again, Bordo contends that this stems from dualism, the mythological separation of the mind and body.
Ecofeminist philosopher Val Plumwood argues in Feminism and the Mastery of Nature that a logical thought process inherent in the dualistic relationship is necessary to justify exploitation and oppression of the other. Val Plumwood ( 11 August 1939 – c 28 February 2008) formerly Val Routley, was an Australian ecofeminist intellectual The formation process of these ideologies is apparent within the five characteristics of dualisms. They are:
(1) Backgrounding—The master denies the essentialness of and dependency on the other. (2) Radical Exclusion/ Hyperseparation—All differences between the groups are made to have positive and negative connotations. Continuities between the master and the other are denied. (3) Incorporation—The master creates the norm, and the other is seen as substandard. The other cannot be independently identified, but is dependent on the master for its specification. (4) Instrumentalism—The other is objectified and made an instrument or resource to the master. The other must set aside its own welfare to serve the master. (5) Homogenization/Stereotyping—This is necessary within each of the two groups to reinforce and naturalize the differences between the groups.
In recent years, after European Imperialism, the distinction between "eastern" and "western" philosophy has been less significant than in previous times. In the wake of these changes new religious and philosophical movements have drawn freely upon many of the world's religions to attract new initiates. Dualism is often cited within these groups, along with ideas of oneness, wholeness and theories of multiple intelligences. Oneness is a spiritual term referring to the 'experience' of the absence of egoic identity boundaries and according to some traditions the perception of an absolute The Multiple intelligences is an educational theory first developed by Howard Gardner that describes an Array of different kinds of " intelligences quot exhibited
The Discordian religion has two competing forces that rely on each other: Order and Chaos. The Template Foundation is a philosophical organization that stems from the work of Raymond Armin, known to members as Leo In Music, an octave ( is the the use of which is "common in most musical systems Flight dynamics is the science of air and space vehicle orientation and control in three dimensions The yaw angle is the angle between a vehicle's heading and a reference heading (normally true or magnetic North) In Physics, motion means a constant change in the location of a body In Chemistry, a solution is a Homogeneous Mixture composed of two or more substances Coagulation is a complex process by which Blood forms Clots It is an important part of Hemostasis (the cessation of blood loss from a damaged vessel whereby In Engineering, compensation is planning for side effects or other unintended issues in a Design. In Physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is Energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in Temperature Discordianism is a modern Religion centered on the idea that Chaos is as important as order. Chaos (derived from the Ancient Greek, Chaos) typically refers to Unpredictability, and is the antithesis of Cosmos. These two are further separated, falling into either constructive or destructive versions of Order and Chaos. This is illustrated by the Discordian Hodge Podge (also Sacred Chao), a symbol that is similar in design to the Taoist yin yang. Discordianism is a modern Religion centered on the idea that Chaos is as important as order.
In politics, dualism refers to the separation between the legislature and executive power, which keeps a balance between the two, ensuring government doesn't go against the will of the people's representatives. A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State. This is an important aspect of the political system in the Netherlands, where it was laid down in the 1815 constitution and it applies to all three government levels (country, province and municipality). The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Members of government are not member of parliament. At the municipal level, however, this was only realised in 2002, so now aldermen are no longer member of the city council.