750,000 to 2,000,000
|Regions with significant populations|
|Rasa'il al-hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom), Qur'an|
|Arabic. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Jordan, officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (الأردنّ al-Urdunn) is an Arab country in Southwest Asia spanning the southern The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language |
English. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States
Hebrew (Only In Israel). For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics.
French (Only In Lebanon and Syria). French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية
|*Includes Druze in the Golan Heights|
|The Qur'an · The Ginans|
Ali · Hasan · Husayn
The Druze (Arabic: درزي, derzī or durzī, plural دروز, durūz; Hebrew: דרוזים, Druzim; also transliterated Druz or Druse) are a religious community found primarily in Lebanon, Israel and Syria whose traditional religion is said to have begun as an offshoot of the Ismaili sect of Islam, but is unique in its incorporation of Gnostic, neo-Platonic and other philosophies. Borders of Israel The Golan Heights ( الجولان al-Jawlān, הגולן ha-Golan) is a strategic Plateau and mountainous For the Egyptian city see Ismaïlia. The Ismāʿīlī ( Urdu: إسماعیلی Ismāʿīlī, Arabic: الإسماعيليون See also Ismaili The Nizārī s (النزاريون an-Nizāriyyūn) are the largest branch of the Ismā‘īlī (اسماعیلیه and comprise See also Imamah (Shi'a Ismaili doctrine The Musta‘lī (مستعلي Ismā'īlī Muslims are so named because they accept al-Musta‘lī An esoteric interpretation of the Qur'an is an Interpretation of the Qur’an which includes attribution of Esoteric or mystic meanings to the The Ginans are a vast corpus of devotional literature in the form of lyrics and hymns and has been the living tradition of Nizari Ismailis particularly from the The belief in Reincarnation in Nizari Ismailism is attested to in the Ginans and Ismailis perform Chantas yearly one of which is for sins committed in past With the exception of the Mustaali Ismaili most Ismaili Shi'a Muslims believe in Panentheism, meaning God is both Reality and transcendent This is a sub-article to Imamah (Shi'a doctrine. The Ismaili view on the Imamah differs from the Twelver Shi'a as well as Sunni views Pir ( Persian: (پیر literally "old " is a title for a Sufi master The term Dāˤī al-Mutlaq (الداعي المطلق literally means "the absolute or unrestricted missionary " Ismailis believe that numbers have religious meanings The number seven plays a general role in the theology of the Ismā'īliyya including mystical speculations that there are seven heavens seven Persecution of Shia MuslimsWithin Shi'ite Islamic tradition the concept of Taqiyya (تقية - 'fear guard against' refers to a dispensation allowing believers to conceal According to some Muslim groups the Zahir is the external or apparent meaning of the Quran. Batin is defined as the interior or hidden meaning of the Quran. The Shi'a Ismāˤīlī - the Nizari, Druze and Mustaali - have Pillars beyond those of the Sunni. This is about the "pillar of Islam" for the historical view see Imamah (Shi'a Ismaili doctrine Guardianship (ولاية Walayah Ṣalāt ( Arabic: صلاة, pl ṣalawāt, Qur'anic Arabic: صلوة ṣalawah) (also munz in Pashto and This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. Zakaat ( زكاة zækæːh zakaat or zakāh, has the implied Sawm ( Arabic: صوم is an Arabic word for Fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. The Hajj (حج is a pilgrimage to Mecca (Makkah It is the largest annual pilgrimage in the world Jihad (جهاد ʤɪhæːd an Islamic term, is a religious duty of Muslims. This article is about Hygiene in Islam. For the Jewish Taharah ritual preparation for burial see Bereavement in Judaism preparing the body — Taharah The Shahada ( Arabic: ar الشهادة, from the verb ar شهد "to testify" is the Islamic Creed. Hamza ibn ‘Alī ibn Aḥmad ( 985 -??? (Arabic and Persian حمزه بن علي بن أحمد was an 11th century Ismaili and founding leader of the Druze Muhammad bin Ismail Nashtakin ad-Darazi ( محمد بن اسماعيل نشتاكين الدرازي) was a 11th century Ismaili preacher and early leader Hassan-i Sabbāh (حسن صباح حسن الصباح Hassan aṣ-Ṣabbāḥ, c The Hashshashin (also Hashishin, Hashashiyyin, Hashasheen or Assassins) were an offshoot of the Ismā'īlī sect of Shia Dawoodi Bohras ( Arabic: داؤدی بوہرہ Hindi: दवूदि बोह्रा are the main branch of the Bohras, a Musta‘lī subsect Sulaymanis are a Musta‘lī Ismaili community that predominantly reside in Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Pakistan and India Alavi Bohra (علوی بوہرہ are a subsect of Ismaili Mustaali. A branch of Mustaali Ismailism that believed the current ruler of the Fatimid Empire after the reign of Al-Amir Bi-Ahkamillah, Al-Hafiz was also A branch of Mustaali Ismailism that split with the Fatimid supporting Hafizi branch by believing Tayyab Abī l-Qāsim was the rightful Imam The Ainsarii were a sect of the Ismaili Assassins who survived the destruction of the stronghold of Alamut. Seveners (Arabic سبعية are a branch of Ismā'īlī Shīˤa. The Qarmatians, Arabic Qarāmita قرامطة (also spelled "Carmathians" "Qarmathians" "Karmathians" etc Pir Sadardin or Pir Sadruddin was a Fourteenth century spiritual leader and is regarded as the founder of Khoja Ismaili ' Satpanth ' is a subgroup (but not separate from Nizari Ismailism, a blend of Ismaili Sufism and Hinduism, inspired by followers of Pir The manifesto of Baghdad was a testimony ordered by The Abbasid Caliph Al-Qadir in response to the growth of the Fatimid Supporting Nizari This is a list of the Imams recognized by the Ismaili Shia and their sub-branches ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (a=علي بن أﺑﻲ طالب|t=ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib 13th Rajab, 24 BH – 21st Ramaḍān, 40 AH Hasan ibn ‘Alī ibn Abī Tālib ( ar الحسن بن علي بن أﺑﻲ طالب) (Fifteenth of Ramadhān, 3 AH – Seventh or Twenty-eighth of Safar Ḥusayn ibn ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib ( ar حسين بن علي بن أﺑﻲ طالب) (third of Shaban 4 AH / 8th January 626 AD at Medina ‘Alī ibn Ḥusayn (Arabic علي بن حسين) (approximately 6 January 659 - 20 October 712 is a great-grandson of Muhammad as well as the fourth Muḥammad ibn ‘Alī al-Baqir (محمد ابن علي الباقر) (676-743 AD or 1 Rajab 57 AH – 7 Dhu al-Hijjah 114 AH was the Fifth Imām Jaʿfar al-Sadiq (702-765 in accurate transliteration Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq Arabic: جعفر الصادق in full Jaʿfar ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Husayn Isma'il ibn Jafar ( Arabic: إسماعيل بن جعفر c 721 CE/103 AH - 755 CE/138AH was the eldest son of the sixth Shia Imam, Jafar as-Sadiq Muhammad ibn Ismail was the son of Ismail ibn Jafar and an Ismaili Imam. Wafi Ahmad is the eighth Ismaili Imam according to the Nizari branch of Ismailism, and the ninth according to the Mustaali. Taqi Muhammad is the ninth Ismaili Imam according to the Nizari branch of Ismailism, and the tenth according to the Mustaali. Rabi Abdullah is the tenth Ismaili Imam, surnamed az-Zaki Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah aka Said ibn Husayn (عبيد الله بن الحسين المهدي is considered the founder of the Fatimid dynasty the only Muhammad al-Qaim Bi-Amrillah ( 893 - 17 May, 946) (محمد القائم بأمر الله was the second Caliph of the Fatimids in Ismāʿīl al-Manṣūr (913-953 (إسماعيل المنصور was the third Caliph of the Fatimids in Ifriqiya (r Maˤād al-Muˤizz li Dīn Allāh (932&ndash975 (معاذ المعز لدين الله also known as al'Moezz, was the fourth Fatimid Caliph and Al-Aziz (955&ndash996 (العزيز بالله was the fifth Caliph of the Fatimids (975&ndash996 Tāriqu l-Ḥākim, called bi Amr al-Lāh ( Arabic: الحاكم بأمر الله; literally "Ruler by God's Command" was the sixth Fatimid For the Abbasid Caliph see Az-Zahir. ˤAlī az-Zāhir ( 20 June 1005 &ndash 13 June 1036) For the 13th century Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad see Al-Mustansir. Abū Manṣūr an-Nizār al-Mustafa ad-Dīni l-Lāh was a Fatimid Caliph and a Nizāri Ismā‘ilī Imām. Aḥmad al-Musta‘lī (احمد المستعلى d 1101 was the ninth Fatimid Caliph. Al-Amīr bi'Aḥkāmi l-Lah (1096&ndash1130 (الآمر بأحكام الله was the tenth Fatimid Caliph (1101&ndash1130 According to Taiyabi Mustaaali Ismaili Muslims, Taiyab abi al-Qasim (or Tayyib Arabic طيب was the 21st and last Fatimid Imam (or hereditary Mohammed Burhanuddin (محمد برھان الدین (born March 6, 1915) is the 52nd Dā‘ī l-Muṭlaq "Unrestricted Missionary" Karīm al-Hussaynī Āgā Khān IV, KBE, CC, GCC, GCIH ( سمو الأمیر شاہ کریم الحسیني آغا خان Al-Fakhrī ‘Abdu l-Lāh is the 52nd Da'i al-Mutlaq "Unrestricted Missionary" of a minority group of Ismā‘īlī] [[Shia Islam|Shī‘ah]] Shaykh Muwaffak Tarīf (موفق طريف is the current spiritual leader of the Druze community in Israel. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language Transliteration is the practice of Transcribing a Word or text written in one Writing system into another writing system or system of rules for such practice Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية For the Egyptian city see Ismaïlia. The Ismāʿīlī ( Urdu: إسماعیلی Ismāʿīlī, Arabic: الإسماعيليون For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Gnosticism (γνώσις gnōsis, Knowledge) refers to a diverse Syncretistic Religious movement consisting of various Belief systems Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical Philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD founded by Because of such incorporation, many Islamic scholars label the Druze as a non-Muslim sect,even though the Druze are officially classified as Muslims. In the Sociology of religion a sect is generally a smaller religious or political group that has broken off from a larger group for example from a
Theologically, Druze consider themselves "an Islamic Unist, reformatory sect". The Druze call themselves Ahl al-Tawhid "People of Monotheism or Unitarianism" or al-Muwahhidūn "Unitarians, Monotheists". The origin of the name Druze is traced to Nashtakin ad-Darazi, one of the first preachers of the religion, though the primary leader of the faith was the Persian mystic Hamza Bin Ali. Muhammad bin Ismail Nashtakin ad-Darazi ( محمد بن اسماعيل نشتاكين الدرازي) was a 11th century Ismaili preacher and early leader layout and formatting it should ensure no clashes with the top of the infobox Mysticism (from the Greek grc μυστικός mystikos, an initiate of a Mystery religion) is the pursuit of communion with identity Hamza ibn ‘Alī ibn Aḥmad ( 985 -??? (Arabic and Persian حمزه بن علي بن أحمد was an 11th century Ismaili and founding leader of the Druze
The Druze people reside primarily in Syria, Lebanon, and Israel, with a smaller community in Jordan. Jordan, officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (الأردنّ al-Urdunn) is an Arab country in Southwest Asia spanning the southern  The Arab Druze in Israel are mostly in the Galilee (70%) and around Haifa (25%). "Galil" redirects here For the weapon see IMI Galil. Galilee (הגליל ha-Galil, lit the province, Haifa (חֵיפָה; حَيْفَا) is the largest City in Northern Israel, and the third-largest city in the country with The Jordanian Druze can be found in Amman and Zarka, about 50% live in the town of Azraq, and a smaller number in Irbid and Aqaba. Amman (ɑˈmɑːn sometimes spelled Ammann ( Arabic عمان ʿAmmān) is the Capital city of the Hashemite Kingdom Zarqa ( BGN: Az Zarqāʼ; local pronunciation ez-Zergā or ez-Zer'a) is a city in Jordan located to the northeast of Amman Azraq (الأزرق is a small Town with a population of approximately 5000 people (1990 in central-eastern Jordan, 100 km east of Amman Irbid (إربد known in ancient times as Arabella, is The capital and largest city of the Irbid Governorate, it is also the third largest city in Jordan For the town in the West Bank see Aqabah West Bank. Aqaba (العقبة Al-ʻAqabah) is a coastal town in the far south of The Golan Heights, the mountainous region between Israel and Syria, is home to about 20,000 Druze. Borders of Israel The Golan Heights ( الجولان al-Jawlān, הגולן ha-Golan) is a strategic Plateau and mountainous  The Institute of Druze Studies estimates that 40%-50% of Druze live in Syria, 30%-40% in Lebanon, 6%-7% in Israel, and 1%-2% in Jordan. 
Large communities of expatriate Druze also live outside the Middle East in Australia, Canada, Europe, Latin America, the United States and West Africa. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The United States of America —commonly referred to as the West Africa or Western Africa is the Westernmost Region of the African Continent. They use the Arabic language and follow a social pattern very similar to the other East Mediterraneans of the region. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language 
There are thought to be as many as 1 million Druze worldwide, the vast majority in the Levant or East Mediterranean. See also Names of the Levant The Levant (lə'vænt is a geographical term that denotes a large area in Western Asia, roughly bounded on the north by the  However, some estimates of the total Druze population have been as low as 450,000. 
Traditionally there have been two branches of Druze living in Lebanon: the Yemeni Druze, headed by the Hamdan and Al-Atrash families, and the Kaysi Druze, headed by the Jumblat and Arsalan families. The Atrash family (الأطرش (Alternate spellings (with the prefix of al al- el or el- Atrache Attrache Atrach Attrach and Attrash) is a famous The Jumblatt Family (جنبلاط in Arabic, originally Kurdish Janboulad also transliterated as Joumblatt, Junblat and Junblatt) is an
The Hamdan family was banished from Mount Lebanon following the battle of Ain Dara in 1711. Mount Lebanon ( Arabic: جبل لبنان as a geographic designation is the Lebanese mountain range known as the Western Mountain Range of Lebanon The Battle of Ain Dara took place in the town of Ain Dara in 1711 This battle was fought between two Druze factions: the Yemeni and the Kaysi. The Kaysi were represented by the Jumblat and Arslan families and the Yemeni by the Hamdan and Al-Atrash families. Following their dramatic defeat, the Yemeni faction migrated to Syria in the Jebel-Druze region and its capital, Soueida. Jabal ad-Duruz ( جبل الدروز) also known as Jabal al-Arab (Arabic جبل العرب) is an elevated volcanic region in southern Syria Suada redirects here For the Genus of Grass skipper Butterflies, see Suada (butterfly.
According to DNA testing, Druze are remarkable for their high frequency (35%) of males who carry the Y-chromosomal haplogroup L, which is otherwise uncommon in the Mideast (Shen et al 2004). The Y chromosome is the sex-determining Chromosome in most Mammals including Humans In mammals it contains the gene SRY, which triggers In Human genetics, Haplogroup L (M20 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.  This haplogroup originates from prehistoric South Asia.
The most plausible theory of the origin of the name Druze is that the term is traceable to Nashtakin ad-Darazi, one of the early leaders of the faith even though the Druze consider ad-Darazi a heretic who practiced ghuluww and was executed because of it. Ghulat (غلاة Exaggerators is the adjectival form of Ghuluww (غلو Exaggeration, a technical term mainstream Muslims  .
Others have speculated the word Druze comes from the Arabic-Persian word Darazo (درز), meaning "heaven"; others claim that it is derived from the name of the Fatimid military commander Abī Mansūr Anushtakīn ad-Darazī or that of a Fatimid Egyptian landlord, Shaykh Hussayn ad-Darazī, who was one of the early converts to the faith. Sheikh, also rendered as Sheik, Cheikh, Shaikh, and other variants ( Arabic:, shaykh  In the early stages of the movement the word "Druze" is rarely mentioned by historians, and in Druze religious texts only the word Muwahhidūn "Unitarian" appears. The only early Arab historian who mentions the Druze is the 11th century Christian scholar Yahyá ibn Saīd al-Antākī, who clearly references the heretical group created by ad-Darazī rather than the followers of Hamza bin Alī. As for Western sources, Benjamin of Tudela, the Jewish traveler who passed through Lebanon in or about 1165 was one of the first European writers to refer to the Druzes by name. Benjamin of Tudela (Binyamin MeTudela was a medieval Navarrese rabbi and explorer who traveled through Europe, Asia, and Africa in the 12th The word Dogziyin "Druzes" occurs in an early Hebrew edition of his travels, but it is clear that this is a scribal error. Be that as it may, he described the Druze as "mountain dwellers, monotheists, who believe in "soul eternity" and reincarnation. "
The Druze faith began as a movement in Ismailism that favored the traditional and more liberal eastern order of Ismailism that was mainly influenced by Greek philosophy and Gnosticism and it opposed certain religious and philosophical ideologies that were present during that epoch. Ancient Greek philosophy focused on the role of Reason and Inquiry. Gnosticism (γνώσις gnōsis, Knowledge) refers to a diverse Syncretistic Religious movement consisting of various Belief systems
The faith was officially revealed in the year 1017 by Hamza ibn ˤAlī ibn Ahmad. Hamza ibn ‘Alī ibn Aḥmad ( 985 -??? (Arabic and Persian حمزه بن علي بن أحمد was an 11th century Ismaili and founding leader of the Druze Hamza Bin Ali, who was a Persian Ismaili mystic and scholar, came to Egypt in 1014 AD and assembled a group of scholars and leaders from across the Islamic world to form the Unitarian Order. layout and formatting it should ensure no clashes with the top of the infobox For the Egyptian city see Ismaïlia. The Ismāʿīlī ( Urdu: إسماعیلی Ismāʿīlī, Arabic: الإسماعيليون The Order was created to combat perceived corruption and alteration of the Ismaili doctrine in North Africa and to create a "Unitarian nation". The Order's meetings were held in the Mosque of Raydan, situated near the palace of al-Hakim. On the right side of Bab al-Futuh in Islamic Cairo is the magnificent al-Hakim Mosque, named after the third Fatimid caliph  According to the Druze and the Fatimid Christian historian Yahyá b. Saʻīd al-Anṭākī, the meetings were blessed and supported by Caliph al-Hakim.
Hamza b. ˤAlī had not intended to create a new ideology, but to revive a certain branch of Ismailism secretly preserved by previous Ismaili dāīs; accordingly, the word kashif "reveal" is used in the Druze faith when referring to the year 1017. The term Dāˤī al-Mutlaq (الداعي المطلق literally means "the absolute or unrestricted missionary " Furthermore, the leaders of the faith who preceded Hamza b. ˤAlī during the Ismaili epoch are mentioned in Druze scriptures.
After gaining the support of the Fātimid Caliph al-Hakim. Hamza b. ˤAlī started to work on spreading the faith facing a lot of hostility from many prominent figures of the Caliphate, especially after al-Hakim was accused of undermining the orthodox Islamic law by publishing a decree promoting religious freedom. Sharia ( Arabic: ar شريعة) is the body of Islamic Religious law.
The decree stated :
Remove ye the causes of fear and estrangement from yourselves. Do away with the corruption of delusion and conformity. Be ye certain that the Prince of Believers hath given unto you free will, and hath spared you the trouble of disguising and concealing your true beliefs, so that when ye work ye may keep your deeds pure for God. He hath done thus so that when you relinquish your previous beliefs and doctrines ye shall not indeed lean on such causes of impediments and pretensions. By conveying to you the reality of his intention, the Prince of Believers hath spared you any excuse for doing so. He hath urged you to declare your belief openly. Ye are now safe from any hand which may bringeth harm unto you. Ye now ma y find rest in his assurance ye shall not be wronged. Let those who are present convey this message unto the absent so that it may be known by both the distinguished and the common people. It shall thus become a rule to mankind ;and Divine Wisdom shall prevail for all the days to come. .
Al-Hakim was replaced by his underage son ˤAlī az-Zahir after he mysteriously disappeared. For the Abbasid Caliph see Az-Zahir. ˤAlī az-Zāhir ( 20 June 1005 &ndash 13 June 1036) Theories abound as to what happened to him, but none is certain. The sect founded by Hamza b. ˤAlī, which was prominent in the Levant, North Africa, Egypt, Arabia, Iraq, Persia, Yemen and other parts of the Near East, acknowledged az-Zahir as the Caliph but followed Hamza b. See also Names of the Levant The Levant (lə'vænt is a geographical term that denotes a large area in Western Asia, roughly bounded on the north by the North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية šibh al-jazīra al-ʻarabīya or جزيرة العرب jazīrat al-ʻarab) For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia Yemen ( Arabic: اليَمَن al-Yaman officially the Republic of Yemen ( Arabic: الجمهورية اليمنية al-Jumhuuriyya B Syria - Belka Woman from Damascus Arab from Baghdadjpg|thumb|Inhabitants of the Near East late nineteenth century ˤAlī as its Imam. An imam (إمام plural ائمة A'immah, امام is an Islamic leader often the leader of a Mosque and/or community  Fatimid Caliph az-Zahir therefore ordered his army to destroy the movement.  At the same time, Bahā' ad-Dīn as-Samuki assumed leadership of the Druze in 1021. 
The killing ranged from Antioch to Alexandria, where tens of thousands of Druze were slaughtered by the Fatimid Army. Antioch on the Orontes (Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη Antiochia ad Orontem also Alexandria ( Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه Eskendereyya; Standard Arabic: ar الإسكندرية Al-Iskandariyya; Ἀλεξάνδρεια .  The largest massacre was at Antioch, where 5000 Druze religious leaders were killed,followed by that of Aleppo. For other meanings see Aleppo (disambiguation. Halab redirects here for other meanings see Halab (disambiguation.  The massacres are well described in the remaining scriptures written by As-Samuki, which recorded how the Fatimid army brutally put to death infants, women and men. 
Az-Zahir finally agreed to let the Druze alone after 1026, and Bahā' ad-Dīn as-Samuki sent feelers and missionaries deeper into the Levant. After two decades of building strong new communities there, Bahā' ad-Dīn as-Samuki declared that the sect would no longer accept new pledges, and since that time conversion has been prohibited. 
It was during the period of Crusader rule in Syria (1099-1291) that the Druze first emerged into the full light of history in the Gharb region of the Chouf Mountains. Chouf (also spelled Shouf Shuf or Chuf in Arabic جبل الشوف Jebel ash-Shouf) is a historical region of Lebanon, and also an administrative As redoubtable warriors serving the Muslim rulers of Damascus against the alien invaders, the Druze were given the task of keeping watch over the Crusaders in the seaport of Beirut, with the aim of preventing them from making any encroachments inland. Subsequently, the Druze chiefs of the Gharb placed their considerable military experience at the disposal of the Mamluk rulers of Egypt (1250-1516); first, to assist them in putting an end to what remained of Crusader rule in coastal Syria, and later to help them safeguard the Syrian coast against Crusader retaliation by sea. 
In the early period of the Crusading era the Druze feudal power was in the hands of two families, the Tanukhs and the Arslans. The Tanûkhids or Tanukh were a confederation of Arab semi-nomadic tribes sometimes characterized as Bedouin Saracens. From their fortresses in the Gharb district (modern Aley Province) of southern Mount Lebanon, the Tanukhs led their incursions into the Phoenician coast and finally succeeded in holding Beirut and the marine plain against the Franks. Aley is a picturesque town in Mount Lebanon. It is located 17 km uphill from Beirut, just south of the summer resort of Bhamdoun and north of The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group Because of their fierce battles with the crusaders the Druzes earned the respect of the Sunni Muslim Caliphs and thus gained important political powers. The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic After the middle of the twelfth century, the Ma’an family superseded the Tanukhs in Druze leadership. The origin of the family goes back to a prince Ma’an who made his appearance in the Lebanon in the days of the ‘Abbasid Caliph al-Mustarshid (1118 AD-1135 AD). Al-Mustarshid (died 1135 was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 1118 to 1135 The Ma’ans chose for their abode the Chouf district in the southern part of Western Lebanon, overlooking the maritime plain between Beirut and Sidon, and made their headquarters in Baaqlin, which is still a leading Druze village. They were invested with feudal authority by Sultan Nur-al-Dīn and furnished respectable contingents to the Muslim ranks in their struggle against the Crusaders.
Having cleared Syria from the Franks, the Mamluk Sultans of Egypt turned their attention to the schismatic Muslims of Syria. In 1305, after the issuing of a fatwa by the Hanbali Sunni scholar Taqī ad-Dīn Ahmad ibn Taymiya al-Harrānī calling for jihad against the Druze, Alawites, Ismaili and twelver Shiites, al-Malik al-Nasir inflicted a disastrous defeat on the Druzes at Keserwan and forced outward compliance on their part to "orthodox" Sunni Islam. A fatwā (فتوى plural fatāwā فتاوى in the Islamic faith is a religious opinion on Islamic law issued by an Taqi ad-Din Ahmad ibn Taymiyyah ( January 22, 1263 &ndash 1328 was a Sunni Islamic scholar born in Harran, located Jihad (جهاد ʤɪhæːd an Islamic term, is a religious duty of Muslims. For the Alaouite dynasty of Morocco see Alaouite Dynasty, for the former state now in Yemen see Alawi (sheikhdom The Alawites For the Egyptian city see Ismaïlia. The Ismāʿīlī ( Urdu: إسماعیلی Ismāʿīlī, Arabic: الإسماعيليون Al-Nasir Muhammad (Arabic:الناصر محمد (Epithet al-Malik al-Nasir Nasir al-Din Muhammad ben Qalawun)( Arabic الملك الناصر ناصر الدين محمد Keserwan (Qadaa' Keserwèn ( Arabic قضاء كسروان) is a district ( Qadaa) in the Mount Lebanon Governorate ( Arabic Later, under the Ottoman Turks, they were severely attacked at Ayn-Ṣawfar in 1585 after the Ottomans claimed that they assaulted their caravans near Tripoli. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Tripolis ( Arabic: طرابلس Ṭarābulus - also طرابلس الغرب Ṭarā-bu-lus al-Gharb Libyan vernacular:
Consequently, the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were to witness a succession of armed Druze rebellions against the Ottomans, countered by repeated Ottoman punitive expeditions against the Chouf, in which the Druze population of the area was severely depleted and many villages destroyed. These military measures, severe as they were, did not succeed in reducing the local Druze to the required degree of subordination. This led the Ottoman government to agree to an arrangement whereby the different nahiyes (districts) of the Chouf would be granted in iltizam "fiscal concession" to one of the region’s amirs, or leading chiefs, leaving the maintenance of law and order and the collection of its taxes in the area in the hands of the appointed amir. Chouf (also spelled Shouf Shuf or Chuf in Arabic جبل الشوف Jebel ash-Shouf) is a historical region of Lebanon, and also an administrative Emir ( Arabic: ar أمير;, female أميرة; emira;) ( Farsi and Urdu: امیر) This arrangement was to provide the cornerstone for the privileged status which ultimately came to be enjoyed by the whole of Mount Lebanon in Ottoman Syria, Druze and Christian areas alike. 
With the advent of the Ottoman Turks and the conquest of Syria by Sultan Selim I in 1516, the Ma’ans threw in their lot with the conquering invaders and were acknowledged by the new rulers as the feudal lords of southern Lebanon. Selim I ( Ottoman: سليم الأول, Turkish: ISelim; also known as "the Grim" or "the Brave" Yavuz in Druze villages spread and prospered in that region, which under Ma’an leadership so flourished that it acquired the generic term of Jabal Bayt-Ma’an (the mountain of the Ma’an family) or Jabal al-Druze. The latter title has since been usurped by the Hawran region, which since the middle of the nineteenth century has proven a haven of refuge to Druze emigrants from Lebanon and has become the headquarters of Druze power. Hauran, also Hawran or Houran, ( حوران, is the southwestern region of modern-day Syria, it extends to the far northwestern region of modern-day
Under Fakhreddin II (1585-1635) the Druze dominion increased until it included almost all Syria, extending from the edge of the Antioch plain in the north to Safad in the south, with a part of the Syrian desert dominated by Fakhr-al-Dīn's castle at Tadmur (Palmyra), the ancient capital of Zenobia. Fakhr-al-Din II also the Great or Fakhreddine II (1572&ndash April 13, 1635) (فخر الدين الثاني بن قرقماز was a Lebanese Safed (צְפַת pronounced Tsfat; صفد pronounced Safad) is a city in the Northern District of Israel. Palmyra ( Arabic: تدمر Tadmor) was in ancient times an important city of central Syria, located in an Oasis 215 km northeast of Damascus Zenobia (زنوبيا 240-after 274 was a Syrian queen who lived in the 3rd century The ruins of this castle still stand on a steep hill overlooking the town. Fakhr-al-Dīn became too strong for his Turkish sovereign in Constantinople. He went so far in 1608 as to sign a commercial treaty with Duke Ferdinand I of Tuscany containing secret military clauses. Ferdinando I de' Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany ( 30 July 1549 &ndash 17 February 1609) was Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1587 to 1609 The Sultan then sent a force against him, and he was compelled to flee the land and seek refuge in the courts of Tuscany and Naples in 1614. Tuscany (Toscana is a region in Italy. It has an area of 22990 km² and a population of about 3 Naples ( Napoli, Neapolitan: Nàpule) is a historic City in southern Italy, the Capital of the
Fakhr-al-Din was the first ruler in modern Lebanon to open the doors of his country to foreign Western influences. Under his auspices the French established a khān (hostel) in Sidon, the Florentines a consulate, and the Christian missionaries were admitted into the country. Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany Beirut and Sidon, which Fakhr-al-Dīn beautified, still bear traces of his benign rule.
As early as the days of Saladin, and while the Ma’ans were still in complete control over southern Lebanon, the Shihab tribe, originally Hijaz Arabs but later settled in Ḥawran, advanced from Ḥawran, in 1172, and settled in Wadi-al-Taym at the foot of Mt. Hermon. Salahadin Ayyubi ( Arabic:صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب Kurdish: سهلاحهدین ئهیوبی Selah'edînê Eyubî; c al-Hejaz (also Hijaz, Hedjaz; الحجاز al-Ḥiǧāz, literally "the barrier" is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia Mount Hermon ( הר חרמון Har Hermon, جبل الشيخجبل حرمون Jabal el-Shaiykh, Jabal Haramon They soon made an alliance with the Ma’ans and were acknowledged as the Druze chiefs in Wadi-al-Taym. At the end of the seventeenth century (1697) the Shihabs succeeded the Ma’ans in the feudal leadership of Druze southern Lebanon, although they professed Sunni Islam. Secretly, they showed sympathy with Druzism, the religion of the majority of their subjects. Because of their blood relationship to the Quraysh, the family of the Prophet Muhammad, the Shihab, next to the Quraysh, is the noblest family in the Arabic world. Quraish is also the name of a Surah in the Qur'an. Quraysh or Quraish (Arabic ar قريش
The Shihab leadership continued till the middle of the last century and culminated in the illustrious governorship of Amir Bashir Shihab II (1788-1840) who, after Fakhr-al-Din, was the greatest feudal lord Lebanon produced. Bashir Shihab II (1767 in Ghazir – 1850 in Constantinople) was a Lebanese Emir who ruled Lebanon in the first half of the 19th century Though governor of the Druze Mountain Bashir was a crypto-Christian, and it was he whose aid Napoleon solicited in 1799 during his campaign against Syria. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe.
Having consolidated his conquests in Syria (1831-1838), Ibrahim Pasha, son of the viceroy of Egypt, Muhammad Ali Pasha, made the fatal mistake of trying to disarm the Christians and Druzes of the Lebanon and to draft the latter into his army. This article is about the leader of Egypt For other people named Muhammad Ali or Mehmet Ali see Muhammad Ali (disambiguation and Mehemet Ali (disambiguation This was contrary to the principles of the life of independence which these mountaineers had always lived, and resulted in a general uprising against Egyptian rule. The uprising was encouraged, for political reasons, by the British. The Druzes of Wadi-al-Taym and Ḥawran, under the leadership of Shibli al-Aryan, distinguished themselves in their stubborn resistance at their inaccessible headquarters, al-Laja, lying southeast of Damascus.
The conquest of Syria by the Muslim Arabs in the middle of the seventh century introduced into the land two political factions later called the Qaysites and the Yemenites. The Qaysite party represented the Ḥijaz and Bedouin Arabs who were regarded as inferior by the Yemenites who were earlier and more cultured emigrants into Syria from southern Arabia. The Bedouin, (from the Arabic (ar بدوي pl badū) are a desert-dwelling Arab Nomadic pastoralist, or previously Druzes and Christians grouped in political rather than religious parties so the party lines in Lebanon obliterated racial and religious lines and the people grouped themselves regardless of their religious affiliations, into one or the other of these two parties. The sanguinary feuds between these two factions depleted, in course of time, the manhood of the Lebanon and ended in the decisive battle of Ain Dara in 1711, which resulted in the utter defeat of the Yemenite party. The Battle of Ain Dara took place in the town of Ain Dara in 1711 Many Yemenite Druzes thereupon immigrated to the Hawran region and thus laid the foundation of Druze power there.
The Druzes and their Christian Maronite neighbors, who had thus far lived as religious communities on friendly terms, entered a period of social disturbance in the year 1840, which culminated in the civil war of 1860. Maronites ( الموارنة,, Syriac: ܡܪܘܢܝܐ, Latin: Ecclesia Maronitarum) are members of one of the Syriac For this disturbance the Ottoman Sultan was, in a great measure, responsible. The Sultan, realizing that the only way to bring the semi-independent people of Lebanon under his direct control was to sow the seeds of discord among the people themselves, inaugurated in the mountain a policy long tried and found successful in the Ottoman provinces, the policy of "divide and rule".
Also, after the Shehab dynasty converted to Christianity the Druze community and feudal leaders came under attack from the regime with the collaboration of the Catholic Church, and the Druze lost most of their political and feudal powers. Also, the Druze formed a strong ally with Britain and allowed Protestant missionaries to enter Mount Lebanon, creating tension between them and the Catholic Maronites, who were supported by the french. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927 Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. The civil war of 1860 cost the Christians some ten thousand lives in Damascus, Zahle, Deir al-Qamar, Hasbaya and other towns of Lebanon. Damascus ( دمشق,, also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. This article is about a town in Lebanon. You may also be looking for Carl Theodor Zahle, a Danish politician Deir el Qamar (in Arabic دير القمر meaning " Monastery of the Moon " is a village in south-central Lebanon, 5 kilometres outside Hasbeya or Hasbeiya (حاصبيا is a town in Lebanon, situated about 58 Kilometers west of Damascus, at the foot of Mount Hermon, overlooking
The European powers then determined to interfere and authorized the landing in Beirut of a body of French troops under General Beaufort d’Hautpoul, whose inscription can still be seen on the historic rock at the mouth of the Dog River (Nahr El-Kalb). Following the recommendations of the powers, the Ottoman Porte granted Lebanon local autonomy, guaranteed by the powers, under a Christian governor. This autonomy was maintained until World War I. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All 
In Lebanon, Syria and Israel the Druze have official recognition as a separate religious community with its own religious court system. Their symbol is an array of five colors, green, red, yellow, blue and white. Each color pertains to a symbol defining its principles: green for Aql "the Universal Mind", red for Nafs "the Universal Soul", yellow for Kalima "the Truth/Word", blue for Sabq "the Antagonist/Cause" and white for Talī "the Protagonist/Effect". These principles are why the number five has special considerations among the religious community, it is usually represented symbolically as a five-pointed star. This article discusses the number five. For the year 5 AD see 5.
The Druze community played an important role in the formation of the modern state of Lebanon, and even though they are a minority they played an important role in the Lebanese political scene. Before and during the Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990), the Druze were in favor of Pan-Arabism and Palestinian resistance represented by the PLO. The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990 was a multifaceted Civil war whose antecedents can be traced back to the conflicts and political compromises reached after the end Pan-Arabism is a movement for Unification among the peoples and countries of the Arab World, from the Atlantic Ocean to the The Palestine Liberation Organization ( PLO) (منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a political and paramilitary Most of the community supported the Progressive Socialist Party formed by the Lebanese leader Kamal Jumblatt and they fought alongside other leftist and Palestinian parties against the Lebanese Front that was mainly constituted of Christians. The Progressive Socialist Party (or PSP) ( Arabic "الحزب التقدمي الاشتراكي" al-hizb al-taqadummi al-ishtiraki) is a political Kamal Jumblatt ( كمال جنبلاط); ( December 6, 1917 – March 16, 1977) was an important Lebanese Politician The Lebanese Front (الجبهة اللبنانية was a right-wing coalition of mainly Christian parties formed in 1976, during the Lebanese Civil War After the assassination of Kamal Jumblatt on March 16, 1977, his son Walid Jumblatt took the leadership of the party and played an important role in preserving his father’s legacy and sustained the existence of the Druze community during the sectarian bloodshed that lasted till 1990. Events 597 BC - Babylonians capture Jerusalem, replace Jehoiachin with Zedekiah as king Also 1977 (album by Ash. Year 1977 ( MCMLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays Walid Jumblatt (وليد جنبلاط (born August 7, 1949) is the current leader of the Progressive Socialist Party "PSP" of Lebanon
In August 2001 Patriarch Nasrallah Boutros Sfeir toured the predominantly Druze Chouf region of Mount Lebanon and visited Mukhtara, the ancestral stronghold of Druze leader Walid Jumblatt. Patriarch Mar Nasrallah Boutros Cardinal Sfeir ( Arabic: الكاردينال مار نصر الله بطرس صفير) (born May 15, 1920 The tumultuous reception that Sfeir received not only signified a historic reconciliation between Maronites and Druze, who fought a bloody war in 1983-1984, but underscored the fact that the banner of Lebanese sovereignty had broad multi-confessional appeal and was a cornerstone for the Cedar Revolution. The Cedar Revolution ( Arabic: ثورة الأرز - thawrat al-arz) or Independence Intifada ( intifāḍat al-istiqlāl) was a chain of demonstrations Other “pro-Syrian” political parties are supported by some Druzes such as the Lebanese Democratic Party led by Talal Arslan and other minor political figures. The Lebanese Democratic Party ( Hizb al-democraty al-lubnany) ( arabic:الحزب الديمقراطي is a Lebanese political party established by former Talal Arslan (طلال أرسلان ( June 12, 1963 -) is a Lebanese politician and the head of the mostly Druze Lebanese Democratic Party
In Syria, most Druze live in the Jabal al-Druz, a rugged and mountainous region in the southwest of the country, which is more than 90 percent Druze inhabited, some 120 villages are exclusively so.
The Jabal Druze always played a far more important role in Syrian politics than its comparatively small population would suggest. With a community of little more than 100,000 in 1949, or roughly three percent of the Syrian population, the Druzes of Syria's southeastern mountains constituted a potent force in Syrian politics and played a leading role in the nationalist struggle against the French. Under the military leadership of Sultan Pasha al-Atrash the Druzes provided much of the military force behind the Great Syrian Revolt of 1925-1927. Family Sultan al-Atrash was born in Al-Qrayya, a village 20 km south of Sweida known for the famous Druze family of Al-Atrash, which had nominally In 1945 Amir Hasan al-Atrash, the paramount political leader of the Jabal, led the Druze military units in a successful revolt against the French, making the Jabal Druze the first and only region in Syria to liberate itself from French rule without British assistance. No Syrians played a more heroic role in the struggle against colonialism or shed more blood for independence than the Druzes. At independence the Druzes, made confident by their successes, expected that Damascus would reward them for their many sacrifices on the battlefield. They demanded to keep their autonomous administration and many political privileges accorded them by the French and sought generous economic assistance from the newly independent government.
Well led by the Atrash household and jealous of their reputation as Arab nationalists and proud warriors, the Druze leaders refused to be beaten into submission by Damascus or cowed by threats. When a local paper in 1945 reported that President Shukri al-Quwatli (1943-1949) had called the Druzes a "dangerous minority" Sultan Pasha al-Atrash flew into a rage and demanded a public retraction. Shukri al-Quwatli (1891 Damascus, Syria &mdash June 30, 1967, Beirut, Lebanon) ( Arabic: شكري القوتلي was If it were not forthcoming, he announced, the Druzes would indeed become "dangerous" and a force of 4,000 Druze warriors would "occupy the city of Damascus. " Quwwatli could not dismiss Sultan Pasha's threat. The military balance of power in Syria was tilted in favor of the Druzes, at least until the military build up during the 1948 War in Palestine. One advisor to the Syrian Defense Department warned in 1946 that the Syrian army was "useless," and that the Druzes could "take Damascus and capture the present leaders in a breeze. "
During the four years of Adib Shishakli's rule in Syria (December 1949 to February 1954) the Druze community was subjected to a heavy attack by the Syrian regime. Adib ibn Hasan Shishakli born 1909 in Hamah Syria died Sept 27 1964 in Ceres Brazil assassinated Shishakli believed that among his many opponents in Syria, the Druzes were the most potentially dangerous, and he was determined to crush them. He frequently proclaimed: "My enemies are like a serpent: the head is the Jabal Druze, the stomach Homs, and the tail Aleppo. For military actions near the city see Battle of Homs. Homs ( حمص,, anciently called Emesa (ἡ Ἔμεσα or "La Chamelle" If I crush the head the serpent will die. " Shishakli dispatched 10,000 regular troops to occupy the Jabal Druze. Several towns were bombarded with heavy weapons, killing scores of civilians and destroying many houses. According to Druze accounts, Shishakli encouraged neighboring bedouin tribes to plunder the defenseless population and allowed his own troops to run amok.
Shishakli launched a brutal campaign to defame the Druzes for their religion and politics. He accused the entire community of treason, at times claiming they were agents of the British and Hashimites, at others that they were fighting for Israel against the Arabs. Hashemite is the Latinate version of the Arabic: هاشمي ( Transliteration: Hāšimī and traditionally refers to those belonging to the Banu Hashim He even produced a cache of Israeli weapons allegedly discover in the Jabal. Even more painful for the Druze community was his publication of "falsified Druze religious texts" and false testimonials ascribed to leading Druze sheikhs designed to stir up sectarian hatred. This propaganda was also broadcasted in the Arab world, mainly Egypt. Shishakli was assassinated in Brazil on September 27, 1964 by a Druze seeking revenge for Shishakli's bombardment of the Jabal Druze. Events 489 - Odoacer attacks Theodoric at the Battle of Verona and is defeated again Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar.
After the Shishakli’s military campaign, the Druze community lost a lot of its political influence but many Druze military officers played an important role when it comes to the Baathist regime currently ruling Syria. The Arab Socialist Ba'th Party (also spelled Baath or Ba'ath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي was founded in Damascus 
In Israel the majority of the approximately 120,000 Druze consider themselves a distinct ethnic group and do not identify themselves as Arab. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding  Since 1957 the Israeli government has also designated the Druze a distinct ethnic community, at the request of the community's leaders.
Druze are prominent in the Israel Defense Forces and in politics. Daliyat al-Karmel is a Druze townin the North District of Israel, about 20 km southeast of Haifa. The Israel Defense Forces ( IDF) (צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, lit Politics of Israel takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic Republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Israel is A considerable number of Israeli Druze soldiers have fallen in Israel's wars since the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, and the bond between is commonly known by the term brit damim "covenant of blood", although in recent years this expression has been criticized because Israel has been accused of not providing enough opportunity for Israeli Druze youth beyond the traditional military relationship. 
Israeli Druze served in the Israeli army, voluntarily during 1948-1956, and at the community leaders' request, compulsorily ever since.  Their privileges and responsibilities are the same as those of Israeli Jews. All Druze are drafted, but exemptions are given for religious students and for various other reasons, as in the majority Jewish population. Israeli Druze have achieved high positions of command in the Israeli military, far beyond their proportion in the general population of Israel. In the 2006 Lebanon War the all-Druze Herev "Sword" Battalion, through their knowledge of the Lebanese terrain, suffered no casualties and claim to have killed 20 Hezbollah fighters, triggering suggestions that the battalion be transformed into a sayeret "elite unit". Background See also Israel-Lebanon conflict The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO had engaged in cross-border attacks from Southern Lebanon Hezbollah (حزب الله, literally " party of God " is a Shi'a Islamic political and Paramilitary organisation 
In 1996 Azzam Azzam, a Druze Israeli businessman, was accused by Egypt of spying for Israel and was imprisoned for eight years, an accusation denied by the Israeli government. Azzam Azzam (עזאם עזאם (born 1963 is a Druze Israeli who was convicted in Egypt of spying for Israel, and jailed for eight years
In January 2004 the spiritual leader of the Druze community in Israel, Shaykh Mowafak Tarif, signed a declaration calling on all non-Jews in Israel to observe the Seven Noahide Laws as laid down in the Bible and expounded upon in Jewish tradition. Sheikh, also rendered as Sheik, Cheikh, Shaikh, and other variants ( Arabic:, shaykh Shaykh Muwaffak Tarīf (موفق طريف is the current spiritual leader of the Druze community in Israel. The Seven Laws of Noah ( Hebrew: שבע מצוות בני נח Sheva mitzvot B'nei Noach) often referred to as the Noahide Laws, are a set of seven moral Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut The mayor of the Galilean city of Shfaram also signed the document. "Galil" redirects here For the weapon see IMI Galil. Galilee (הגליל ha-Galil, lit the province, Shefa-'Amr, also Shfar'am (شفاعمرو Šafā ʻAmr שְׁפַרְעָם Šəfarʻam is a city in the North District in Israel.  The declaration includes the commitment to make a ". . . better humane world based on the Seven Noahide Commandments and the values they represent commanded by the Creator to all mankind through Moses on Mount Sinai. "
Support for the spread of the Seven Noahide Commandments by the Druze leaders reflects the biblical narrative itself. The Druze community reveres the non-Jewish father-in-law of Moses, Jethro, whom Muslims call Shuˤayb. In the Hebrew Bible, Jethro (יִתְרוֹ Standard Yitro Tiberian Yiṯrô; "His Excellence/Posterity" Shoaib ( circa 1600 BC - 1500 BC?, (شعيب; also Shuʕayb Shuʕaib Shuaib, literally "Who Shows the Right Path" was a prophet of According to the biblical narrative, Jethro joined and assisted the Jewish people in the desert during the Exodus, accepted monotheism, but ultimately rejoined his own people. Exodus ( Greek: έξοδος eksodos = "departure" is the second book of the Jewish Torah and of the Christian Old Testament. The tomb of Jethro near Tiberias is the most important religious site for the Druze community. Tiberias ( British English: /taɪˈbɪəriæs -əs/ American English: /taɪˈbɪriəs/ טְבֶרְיָה Tverya; طبرية Ṭabariyyah  It has been claimed that the Druze are actually descendents of Jethro.
The Druze are considered to be a social group as well as a religion, but not a distinct ethnic group. Also complicating their identity is the custom of Taqiya - concealing or disguising their beliefs when necessary - that they adopted from Shia Islam. Persecution of Shia MuslimsWithin Shi'ite Islamic tradition the concept of Taqiyya (تقية - 'fear guard against' refers to a dispensation allowing believers to conceal Druze in different states can have radically different lifestyles. Some claim to be Muslim, some do not. The Druze faith is said to abide by Islamic principles, but they tend to be separatist in their treatment of Druze-hood. Druze does not allow conversion to the religion. Marriage between Druze and non-Druze is discouraged for religious, political and historical reasons.
The Druze have a holy book called "Kitab Al Hikmah" or the book of wisdom.
The Druze are split into two groups. The largely secular majority, called al-Juhhāl (جهال) ("the Ignorant") are not granted access to the Druze holy literature. They are around 80% of the Druze population, and generally distance themselves from religious issues - for this reason they are able to fill governmental positions (sometimes disproportionately to the Druze's share of the general population) in the nations that they inhabit which endorse other religions. They often do not consider themselves to have most of the religious responsibilities that the faith includes, but practice personal prayer.
The religious group, which includes both men and women (about 20% of the population), is called al-ˤUqqāl (عقال), ("the Knowledgeable Initiates"). They have a special mode of dress designed to comply with Quranic traditions. Women can opt to wear al-mandīl, a loose white veil, especially in the presence of other people. A veil is an article of clothing worn almost exclusively by women that is intended to cover some part of the head or Face. They wear al-mandīl on their head to cover their hair and wrap it around their mouth and sometimes over their nose as well. They wear black shirts and long skirts covering their legs to their ankles. Male ˤuqqāl grow moustaches, and wear dark clothing with white turbans.
Al-ˤuqqāl have equal rights to al-Juhhāl, but establish an informal hierarchy of respect based on religious service. The most influential 5% of so become Ajawīd, recognized religious leaders, and from this group the local community usually chooses its official Shaykh al-ˤAql. Sheikh, also rendered as Sheik, Cheikh, Shaikh, and other variants ( Arabic:, shaykh His role is primarily as political and social leader of the community, but he is also recognized as religious authority as well - and must commit to a humble, celibate (interestingly, including celibate marriage), pious, modest lifestyle somewhat akin to some Christian clergy positions.
The Druze believe in the unity of God (rejecting concepts such as the holy trinity and they also do not believe in messiahs), and are often known as the "People of Monotheism" or simply "Monotheists". SSC RF "Troitsk Institute of Innovative and Termonuclear Research" or TRINITY for shprt Троицкий Институт инновационных и термоядерных This article is about the concept of a Messiah in religion notably in the Christian Islamic and Jewish traditions Their theology has a Neo-Platonic view about how God interacts with the world through emanations and is similar to some gnostic and other esoteric sects. Theology is the study of a god or the gods from a religious perspective Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical Philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD founded by Gnosticism (γνώσις gnōsis, Knowledge) refers to a diverse Syncretistic Religious movement consisting of various Belief systems There are Sufi influences in their philosophy as well. Sufism ( تصوّف - taṣawwuf, Persian: صوفیگری sufigari, Turkish: tasavvuf, Urdu: تصوف Some individual Druze sheikhs interpret Quranic phrases to talk about reincarnation, but contrary to popular perception this is not part of the primary theology of the faith.
Druze principles focus on honesty, loyalty, filial piety, altruism, patriotic sacrifice, and monotheism. In Confucian thought filial piety ( is one of the Virtues to be cultivated a love and respect for one's parents and ancestors Altruism is selfless concern for the welfare of others It is a traditional Virtue in many cultures and central to many religious traditions For the Celtic Frost album see Monotheist (album In Theology, monotheism (from Greek grc [[wiktμόνος μόνος]] They reject polygamy, tobacco smoking, alcohol, consumption of pork and marriage to non-Druze, though these rules are only seriously enforced among ˤUqqāl. The term polygamy (a Greek word meaning "the practice of multiple marriage" is used in related ways in Social anthropology, Sociobiology, and Tobacco Smoking is the inhalation of smoke from burned dried or cured leaves of the Tobacco plant most often in the form of a Cigarette. Pork' is the Culinary name for Meat from the domestic Pig ( Sus scrofa) often specifically the fresh meat but can be used as an all-inclusive Druze generally follow the Sunni train of thought on history, honoring Abu Bakr, Omar, Othman, Ali and others, but follow an egalitarian ethic towards other sects. Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic Early life Abu Bakr was born at Mecca some time in the year 573 CE, in the Banu Taym branch of the Quraysh tribe Umar (a=عمر بن الخطاب|t=`Umar ibn al-Khattāb c 581-83 CE &ndash 7 November, 644) also known as Umar the Great or Omar the Great Early life Uthman was born in Ta’if, which is situated on a hill and the presumption is that Uthman was born during the summer months since wealthy Meccans ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (a=علي بن أﺑﻲ طالب|t=ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib 13th Rajab, 24 BH – 21st Ramaḍān, 40 AH Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals and have
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