|Drum and bass|
|Mainstream popularity||Small, largely based in UK at first, now global but still underground music in many countries|
|Derivative forms||Breakcore, Dubstep|
|Darkstep - Drumfunk - Electrostep - Futurestep - Hardstep - Intelligent drum and bass - Jazzstep - Jump-Up - Liquid funk - Neurofunk - Ragga jungle - Techstep - Jungle Techno - J-tek|
|Breakstep - Darkcore - Raggacore|
|Drum and bass artists, Drum and bass record labels, History of drum and bass, Junglist|
Drum and bass (commonly abbreviated to d&b, DnB, dnb, d'n'b, drum n bass, drum & bass) is a type of electronic dance music also known as jungle which emerged in the late 1980s. Breakbeat hardcore ( Rave music) is a derivate of Acid house that combines 4-to-the-floor rhythms with breakbeats and is associated with UK Rave scene Techno is a form of Electronic dance music (EDM that emerged in Detroit, Michigan, USA during the mid to late 1980s Hip hop music, also referred to as rap music, is a Music genre typically consisting of a rhythmic vocal style called rap which is accompanied with Dub is a form of music which evolved from Reggae in the late 1960s Dancehall is a type of Jamaican Popular music which developed in the late 1970s initially as a more sparse and less political and religious variant of Reggae Raggamuffin music, usually abbreviated as ragga, is a sub-genre of Dancehall music or Reggae, in which the instrumentation primarily consists Breakbeat (sometimes breakbeats or breaks) is a term used to describe a collection of sub- genres of Electronic music, usually characterized London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Bristol ( ˈbrɪstəl is a city, Unitary authority and ceremonial county in South West England, west of London The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located For the early "drum machine" computers that used a rotating cylinder as their main memory see Drum memory A drum machine is an A music sequencer (also MIDI sequencer or just sequencer) is software or hardware designed to create and manage computer-generated music A keyboard instrument is any musical instrument played using a Musical keyboard. A sampler is an electronic musical instrument closely related to a Synthesizer. A personal computer ( PC) is any Computer whose original sales price size and capabilities make it useful for individuals and which is intended to be operated The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Breakcore is a loosely defined electronic music style that brings together elements of Industrial, jungle, Hardcore techno and IDM into a breakbeat-oriented Dubstep is a Genre of Electronic music that has its roots in London 's early 2000s UK garage scene This is a list of Electronic music genres sub-genres and styles though for the latter not all possess their own article (in which case see the main genre article Darkstep is a sub-genre of Drum and Bass commonly known as Hard Drum n Bass which became popular in the late 1990s Drumfunk is a Subgenre of Drum & bass sometimes referred to as " edits " or " choppage " Hardstep is a subgenre of Drum and bass which emerged in 1994. Intelligent drum and bass ( IDB) is the widespread term for the subgenre of Drum and bass emphasising influences from lounge Jazz and Jazzstep, also known as jazzy jungle and jazz and bass is a Drum and bass subgenre which emerged in 1995. Jump Up is also the name of a Record company that released hard drum and bass records from 1996-1997 Liquid funk is a style of Drum and bass. While it uses similar Basslines and bar layouts to other styles it contains fewer bar-oriented samples and more instrumental Neurofunk is a subgenre of Drum and bass pioneered by producers Ed Rush, Optical and Matrix, between 1997 and Ragga jungle is the type of music that emerged circa 1989-1990 and is initially heavily based on production of Michael West (Rebel MC Congo Natty Label Techstep is a subgenre of Drum and bass that was popular in the late 1990s Jtek (also spelled 'J-Tec' or Japanese Techno is an electronic music genre and also a subgenre of Techno. Breakstep is a breakbeat influenced subgenre of UK garage - originally called breakbeat garage, now more often referred to as 'breakstep Darkcore is a genre of jungle (should not be confused with recent Darkcore techno music which is a form of Hardcore techno) that became Raggacore is a genre of music resembling a heavier version of Ragga jungle The earliest examples of raggacore can be found in productions of Remarc, who is sometimes Sambass, or drum 'n' sambass (a Portmanteau of " Samba " and " bass " is a regional sub-genre of Drum and bass music This is a list of jungle and Drum and bass artists. This includes artists who have either been very important to the genre or have had a considerable amount of Junglist is a slang term referring to a dedicated listener of jungle and/or Drum and bass. Synonyms Since around the mid-1980s electronic dance music has enjoyed popularity in many Nightclubs and as of 2006 is the predominant type of music played in The genre is characterised by fast tempo broken beat drums (generally between 160–180 beats per minute) with heavy sub basslines. Beats per minute ( BPM) is a unit typically used as either a measure of Tempo in music or a measure of one's Heart rate. A bassline (also spelled bass line) is the term used in many styles of Popular music, such as jazz blues funk and electronic Music for the low-pitched In the 2000s, drum and bass is still considered an underground musical style, but it has nevertheless had a significant influence on popular music and culture.
Drum and bass began as an offshoot of the UK's hardcore rave scene of the very early 90s, and over the first decade of its existence there were many permutations in its style, incorporating elements from ragga, dancehall, electro, funk, hip hop, house, jazz, heavy metal, reggae, rock, techno and trance. A rave (or rave party) is a term in use since the 1980s to describe Dance Parties (often all-night events
A musical style called acid house developed in the UK in the late 1980s and early 1990s, along with a "scene" which consisted of related social activities in nightclubs and other venues. Oldskool jungle is the name given to a style of Electronic music that incorporates influences from genres including Breakbeat hardcore, techno, Acid house is a sub-genre of House music that emphasizes a repetitive hypnotic and trance -like style with samples or spoken lines usually used rather than sung lyrics A nightclub (or "night club" or "club" is a drinking, dancing, and entertainment venue which does its primary business after dark Acid house music combined regular beats alongside broken, syncopated beats, strong basslines and a faster tempo than the regular house music. House generally refers to a Shelter or Building that is a Dwelling or place for Habitation by Human beings. By 1991, musical tracks made up of only "broken" beats began to be known as "jungle" and became a separate musical genre (circa 1991-1992) popular at raves and on pirate radio in urban Britain.
These tracks often combined ragga vocal tracks with broken beats and basslines. Raggamuffin music, usually abbreviated as ragga, is a sub-genre of Dancehall music or Reggae, in which the instrumentation primarily consists By 1994 jungle began to gain mainstream popularity and fans of the music (known as junglists) became a recognisable part of British youth subculture. Junglist is a slang term referring to a dedicated listener of jungle and/or Drum and bass. At this time jungle began to be associated with criminals and criminal activity and perhaps as a reaction or perhaps independently of this, producers began to draw away from the ragga style and create what they labelled drum and bass. There is no clear point at which jungle became drum and bass, though most jungle producers continue nowadays to produce what they call drum and bass.
As the music style became more polished and sophisticated, it began to shift from pirate to commercial radio and gain widespread acceptance (circa 1995-1997). It also began to split into recognisable subgenres such as jump-up. Jump Up is also the name of a Record company that released hard drum and bass records from 1996-1997 As a lighter sound of drum and bass began to win over the musical mainstream, many producers continued to work on the other end of the spectrum, resulting in a series of releases which highlighted a dark, technical sound which drew more influence from techno music and the soundscapes of science fiction and anime films, this sub-genre became know as techstep (circa 1997-1998). Intelligent drum and bass ( IDB) is the widespread term for the subgenre of Drum and bass emphasising influences from lounge Jazz and Techstep is a subgenre of Drum and bass that was popular in the late 1990s
Whilst evolving musically, drum and bass found itself suddenly upstarted by the UK garage sound, which drew a key part of its inspiration from drum and bass. UK Garage ( UKG) is an umbrella term that refers to several different varieties of modern Electronic dance music generally connected to the evolution of house This genre quickly eclipsed drum and bass in popularity and nearing the turn of the millennium, statements were made to the effect that "drum and bass is dead". Drum and bass however survived this event and the turn of the millennium has seen a revival in its popularity and continuing development, i. e. the appearance of the liquid funk subgenre which draws its inspiration from house and disco alongside a new wave of artists, joining the "jungle" pioneers. Liquid funk is a style of Drum and bass. While it uses similar Basslines and bar layouts to other styles it contains fewer bar-oriented samples and more instrumental It remains a fairly unknown musical style but makes frequent unrecognised appearance in the mainstream as well as being highly influential on other musical styles and some of its artists, notably Goldie, are widely known. Clifford Joseph Price, better known as Goldie (born 19 September 1965 in Walsall, England) is an English Electronic music artist It remains most popular in its birthplace in the UK but has spread worldwide over the short period of its existence. 
There are many views of what constitutes "real" drum and bass as it has many scenes and styles within it, from the highly electronic, industrial sounds of techstep through to the use of conventional, acoustic instrumentation that characterise the more jazz-influenced end of the spectrum. Industrial music is a loose term for a number of different styles of Experimental music, especially but not necessarily Electronic music. It has been compared with jazz where the listener can get very different sounding music all coming under the same music genre, because like jazz, it is more of an approach, or a tradition, than a style. Jazz is an American Musical art form which originated in the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States  The sounds of drum and bass are extremely varied - and to a person unfamiliar to them, there may seem to be little connection between the subgenres. One common, though by no means universal, element is a prominent snare drum falling on the 2nd & 4th beats, with a less regular kick pattern around it.
Drum and bass could at one time be defined as a strictly electronic musical genre with the only 'live' element being the DJ's selection and mixing of records during a set. 'Live' drum and bass using electric, electronic and acoustic instruments played by musicians on stage has appeared and is a growing aspect of the genre. 
For the already mentioned reasons, the musicology of drum and bass is difficult to precisely define; however, the following key characteristics may be observed:
The name "drum and bass" should not lead to the assumption that tracks are constructed solely from these elements. Musicology ( Greek: μουσική = "music" and λόγος = "word" or "reason" is the scholarly study of Music Nevertheless, they are by far and away the most critical features, and usually dominate the mix of a track. Despite the apparent simplicity of drum and bass productions to the untrained ear, an inordinate amount of time is spent on preparing tracks by the more experienced producers.
The genre places great importance on the "bass line", a deep sub-bass musical pattern which is felt physically as much as it is heard. Sub-bass is a term used to describe audible sounds below 90Hz - sound in the range below this (under 16-17Hz would be termed Infrasound. There has also been considerable exploration of different timbres in the bass line region, particularly within techstep. In Music, timbre (ˈtæm-bər' like timber, or, from Fr timbre tɛ̃bʁ is the quality of a Musical note or sound that distinguishes different Bass lines exist in many forms, but most notably they originate from sampled sources or synthesizers. In Music, sampling is the act of taking a portion or sample, of one Sound recording and reusing it as an instrument or element of a new recording Bass lines performed with a bass instrument, whether it is electric, acoustic or a double bass, are rare. The double bass is the largest and lowest-pitched bowed String instrument used in the modern symphony orchestra. Sampled basslines are often taken from double bass recordings or from publicly available loops. Synthesized bass lines are however just as common.
In drum and bass productions, the bass lines are subjected to many and varied sound effects, including standard techniques such as dynamic compression, flanger, chorus, over-drive, equalization, etc. For the album by The Jam see Sound Affects. Sound effects or audio effects are artificially created or enhanced Sounds and drum and bass specific techniques such as the "Reese Bass", in fact not a technique per se, but the degrees of processing, distortion and filtering placed upon a widely-used sample of Kevin Saunderson's most infamous 'Reese' bass line sample - from 1988's classic "Just Another Chance". Kevin Maurice Saunderson (born in Brooklyn, New York on Sept 5 1964) is an electronic music producer
Of equal importance is the "808" kick drum, an artificially pitch-downed or elongated bass drum sound sampled from Roland's classic TR-808 drum machine, and a sound which has been subject to an enormous amount of experimentation over the years. A bass drum is a large Drum that produces a note of low definite or indefinite pitch. The Roland TR-808 Rhythm Composer was one of the first programmable Drum machines ("TR" serving as an Initialism for Transistor Rhythm 
These bass techniques are fully appreciated in a club or rave environments where high quality woofers and powerful amplifiers are required to fully reproduce the eponymous basslines at high volume levels. This has led to the creation of very large and intensely loud touring soundsystems by producers wishing to show off their tracks, such as dubs from Soundman and dubs from Dillinja's Valve Sound System. Soundman (born Antonio Straughn on April 24 1967 is an English sound engineer record producer and inventor The Valve Sound System is a touring Sound reinforcement system specifically designed for the Playback of Drum and bass music This does not mean, however, that the music cannot be appreciated at home or accurately reproduced on personal equipment.
The complex syncopation of the drum tracks' breakbeat, is another facet of production on which producers spend a very large amount of time. In Music, syncopation includes a variety of Rhythms which are in some way unexpected in that they deviate from the strict succession of regularly spaced In Popular music a break is an Instrumental or percussion section or interlude during a song derived from or related to Stop-time &ndash being A drum phrase lasting seconds may often take a day or more to prepare, depending on the dedication of the producer. The Amen break is generally acknowledged to have been the most-used (and often considered the most powerful) break in drum and bass. The "Amen break" (usually ɑːˈmɛn was a drum solo performed by Gregory Sylvester "G 
It would not be too much of an exaggeration to say that drum and bass (at least in its early days) was a style built around a single broken beat element which was a single sample, the Amen, but other samples have had a significant impact, including the Apache break, the Funky Drummer, and others. " Funky Drummer " (also known as " The Funky Drummer " is a Funk song recorded by James Brown and his band  The Funky Drummer has perhaps superseded the Amen in modern productions.
A commonly used break is the Tramen, a combined beat that is perhaps the ultimate statement on the fusion of musical styles in drum and bass as it combines the Amen, a James Brown funk breakbeat ("Tighten Up" or "Samurai" break) and an Alex Reece drum and bass breakbeat. The tramen is a drum loop which is very popular in Drum and bass, made by combining several other classic breakbeats. James Joseph Brown Jr (May 3 1933 – December 25 2006 commonly referred to as "The Godfather of Soul" the "King of Funk" and "The Alex Reece is the creator of the Jazzstep sound a mix of drum 'n' bass and Jazz, and one of the artists under the Metalheadz collective 
The very fast (objectively) drum beat forms a canvas on which a producer can create tracks to appeal to almost any taste and often will form only a background to the other elements of the music. However, without a fast & broken beat, a drum and bass track would not be a drum and bass track but could be classified as a gabber, techno, breaks or house music track. Gabber (IPA pronunciation English /gæbər/ Dutch /xɑbər/ gabba or hardcore, is a style of Electronic music and a subgenre of Techno is a form of Electronic dance music (EDM that emerged in Detroit, Michigan, USA during the mid to late 1980s Breakbeat (sometimes breakbeats or breaks) is a term used to describe a collection of sub- genres of Electronic music, usually characterized House music is a style of Electronic dance music initially popularized in mid-1980s Discothèques catering to the African-American, Latino 
Drum and bass is usually between 160-180 BPM, in contrast to other forms of breakbeat such as nu skool breaks which maintain a slower pace at around 130-140 BPM. Breakbeat (sometimes breakbeats or breaks) is a term used to describe a collection of sub- genres of Electronic music, usually characterized Nu skool breaks (often abbreviated to nuskool or breaks) is a term used to describe a sub-genre of Breakbeat. A general upward trend in tempo has been observed during the evolution of drum and bass. The earliest old skool rave was around 125/135 bpm in 1989/1991, early (late 1992-1993) jungle/breakbeat hardcore was around 155-165 BPM. Since around 1996, drum and bass tempos have predominantly stayed in the 173 to 180 range. Recently some producers have started to once again produce tracks with slower tempos (ie. in the 150s and 160s), but the mid-170 tempo is still the hallmark of the drum and bass sound. 
A track combining the same elements (broken beat, bass, production techniques) as a drum and bass track, but with a slower beat (say 140 BPM), would not be drum and bass but a drum and bass-influenced breakbeat track. 
The speed of drum and bass is not however only characterised by that of the broken beat. Drum and bass has a bassline, which will typically play at half the speed of the drums, bringing its speed down to that of, for instance, a laid back hip-hop track. A listener or dancer can concentrate on this element rather than the faster drums.
Since the speed of music is subjective, an aggressively produced track with a complicated beat and synthesizer sounds may 'sound faster' than one with a sampled double bass bassline, guitar riffs and simpler beat, however the second track may be in strict BPM terms faster. Radio friendly tracks like Shy FX's "Shake Ur Body" often have higher BPMs than ominous techstep productions which might eject the uninitiated very quickly from a dancefloor.
The faster a track is in BPM terms, the less complex its drum patterns can be because at higher step the elements cease to be heard separately, turning them into a wall of sound. A faster drum and bass track will therefore generally have a less complex drum pattern than a slower one.
Live performances of drum and bass music on electric and acoustic instruments will often entail a drop in relative BPM (though not necessarily), unsurprising in light of the complexity of drum patterns and the high exertion required of a drummer.
For the most part, drum and bass is a form of dance music, mostly designed to be heard in clubs. Pendulum is an Australian Drum and bass group originally from Perth, Australia. It exhibits a full frequency response and physicality which often simply cannot be fully appreciated on home listening equipment. As befits its name, the bass element of the music is particularly pronounced, with the comparatively sparse arrangements of drum and bass tracks allowing room for basslines that are deeper than most other forms of dance music. Consequently, drum and bass parties are often advertised as featuring uncommonly loud and bass-heavy sound systems. 
There are however many albums specifically designed for personal listening. The mix CD is a particularly popular form of release, with a big name DJ/producer mixing live, or on a computer, a variety of tracks for personal listening. Additionally, there are many albums containing unmixed tracks, suited for home or car listening. 
Drum and bass is often heard via a DJ. A disc jockey (also known as DJ or deejay) is a person who selects and plays recorded music for an audience Because most tracks are designed to be mixed by a DJ, their structure typically reflects this, with intro and outro sections designed for a DJ to use while beat-matching, rather than being designed to be heard in entirety by the listener. The DJ typically mixes between records so as not to lose the continuous beat. In addition, the DJ may employ hip hop style "scratching", "double-drops" (where two tracks are synchronized such that both tracks drop at the same time) and "rewinds. "Scratching" is also a Present participle of " Scratch " and may also refer to a form of street art Scratching The drop is the point in a track where a switch of Rhythm or Bassline occurs and usually follows a recognizable build section and "breakdown" "
Many mixing points begin or end with the "drop". The drop is the point in a track where a switch of Rhythm or Bassline occurs and usually follows a recognizable build section and "breakdown" The drop is the point in a track where a switch of rhythm or bassline occurs and usually follows a recognisable build section and "breakdown". In Popular music a break is an Instrumental or percussion section or interlude during a song derived from or related to Stop-time &ndash being Sometimes the drop is used to switch between tracks, layering components of different tracks, though as the two records may be simply ambient breakdowns at this point, though some DJs prefer to combine breakbeats, a more difficult exercise. Some drops are so popular that the DJ will "rewind" or "reload" by spinning the record back and restarting it at the build. "The drop" is often a key point from the point of view of the dancefloor, since the drumbreaks often fade out to leave an ambient intro playing. When the beats re-commence they are often more complex and accompanied by a heavier bassline, encouraging the crowd to dance. The name of a genre of drum and bass, "jump up" initially referred to the urge for those seated to dance at this point.
DJ support (that is playing a track) in a club atmosphere or on radio is critical in track success, even if the track producer is well known.  To this end, DJs will receive dubplates a long time before a general release of a track, sometimes many months before, in order to spark interest in it as well as benefit the DJ (exclusive and early access to tracks is a hallmark of DJ success, i. A dubplate is an Acetate disc — usually 12 inches 10 inches or 7 inches in diameter — used in Mastering studios for quality control and test recordings before e. the case of Andy C). Andy C, real name Andrew Clarke is an English DJ and producer and co-founder of record label RAM Records Sometimes a DJ will receive versions of tracks that are not planned for general release, these are so-called VIP mixes.
DJs are often accompanied by one or more MCs, drawing on the genre's roots in hip hop and reggae/ragga. Reggae is a Music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s Raggamuffin music, usually abbreviated as ragga, is a sub-genre of Dancehall music or Reggae, in which the instrumentation primarily consists 
The role of MCs in the music cannot be underestimated but they do not generally receive the same level of recognition as producer/DJs. There are relatively few well-known drum and bass MCs, Dynamite MC, MC Fats, MC Conrad, Skibadee, Shabba D, Eksman, Bassman, MC Fun and Stevie Hyper D (deceased) as examples. Dynamite MC, (born 7 October 1973) is an MC from Gloucester, England. MC Conrad (born Conrad Thompson is a British MC, probably best known for his collaboration with Drum'n'bass DJ LTJ Bukem, as well as other artists on Bukem's Alfonso Bondzie also known as MC Skibadee is Kevin Forrester better known as MC Eksman is a Drum and Bass musician originally born in Brockley South London in 1980 
"You and me - me and you! We haffi brock a smile and don bother screw dis one dedicated to all massive and crew, we haffi get lively inna di venue! mi bawl . . . Where's the noise? I want you jump up and swing an sway, and move your body with no delay. Hyper on the microphone, I've nuff to say, nuff to say, nuff to say. " - Congo Natty "Stevie Hyper D Tribute" (Congo Natty) 2005
Recently, smaller scenes within the drum and bass community have developed and the scene as a whole has become much more fractured into specific sub-genres. The generally accepted and major sub-genres of drum and bass include:
The following are to a lesser and great degree, arguable subgenres, they would generally be described as separate genres by their proponents:
As with all attempts to classify and categorize music, the above should not be treated as definitive. Darkstep is a sub-genre of Drum and Bass commonly known as Hard Drum n Bass which became popular in the late 1990s Drumfunk is a Subgenre of Drum & bass sometimes referred to as " edits " or " choppage " Hardstep is a subgenre of Drum and bass which emerged in 1994. Intelligent drum and bass ( IDB) is the widespread term for the subgenre of Drum and bass emphasising influences from lounge Jazz and Jazzstep, also known as jazzy jungle and jazz and bass is a Drum and bass subgenre which emerged in 1995. Jump Up is also the name of a Record company that released hard drum and bass records from 1996-1997 Liquid funk is a style of Drum and bass. While it uses similar Basslines and bar layouts to other styles it contains fewer bar-oriented samples and more instrumental Neurofunk is a subgenre of Drum and bass pioneered by producers Ed Rush, Optical and Matrix, between 1997 and Sambass, or drum 'n' sambass (a Portmanteau of " Samba " and " bass " is a regional sub-genre of Drum and bass music Techstep is a subgenre of Drum and bass that was popular in the late 1990s Breakcore is a loosely defined electronic music style that brings together elements of Industrial, jungle, Hardcore techno and IDM into a breakbeat-oriented Darkcore can refer to two different subgenres Darkcore (drum & bass genre Darkcore (hardcore techno genre Raggacore is a genre of music resembling a heavier version of Ragga jungle The earliest examples of raggacore can be found in productions of Remarc, who is sometimes Ragga jungle is the type of music that emerged circa 1989-1990 and is initially heavily based on production of Michael West (Rebel MC Congo Natty Label Haile Selassie I ( Ge'ez: am ኃይለ፡ ሥላሴ "Power of the Trinity " 23 July 1892 &ndash 27 August 1975 born Tafari Makonnen, was The Rastafari movement (also known as Rastafari, Rastafarianism or simply Rasta) is a monotheistic, Abrahamic, New Testament Many producers release albums and tracks which touch into many of the above styles and there are significant arguments as to the classification of tracks as well as the basic defining characteristics of subgenres. The list of arguable subgenres in particular should not be treated as definitive.
The modern distinctive ragga jungle style (arguably subgenre or even separate genre) is a direct throwback to the 1994-1995 style of drum and bass production. Ragga jungle is the type of music that emerged circa 1989-1990 and is initially heavily based on production of Michael West (Rebel MC Congo Natty Label However, many modern drum and bass mainstream productions contain ragga, dancehall and regga elements, they are just not as dominant as previously.
Clownstep is a derisory term for varieties of drum and bass not appreciated by certain listeners (in particular the jump-up variety) and is prevalent on the internet, whilst not being a subgenre as such. Clownstep is a Pejorative term used to describe a certain type of sound found in the Electronic music genre Drum and bass. Most producers would feel insulted by the labelling of their music as "clownstep". 
Nowadays the difference between jungle (or oldschool jungle) and drum and bass is a common debate within the "junglist" community. Oldskool jungle is the name given to a style of Electronic music that incorporates influences from genres including Breakbeat hardcore, techno, There is no universally accepted semantic distinction between the terms "jungle" and "drum and bass". Some associate "jungle" with older material from the first half of the 1990s (sometimes referred to as "jungle techno"), and see drum and bass as essentially succeeding jungle. Others use jungle as a shorthand for ragga jungle, a specific sub-genre within the broader realm of drum and bass. In the U.S., the combined term "jungle drum and bass" (JDB) has some popularity, but is not widespread elsewhere. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
Proponents of a distinction between jungle and drum and bass argue that:
Opponents of a distinction would argue that there are many modern drum & bass productions with separated basslines, complex breakbeats and ragga vocals.
Probably the widest held viewpoint is that the terms are simply synonymous and interchangeable: drum and bass is jungle, and jungle is drum and bass.
"At the end of the day I am an ambassador for Drum and Bass the world over and have been playing for 16 years under the name Hype. . . To most of you out there Drum and Bass will be an important part of your lives, but for me Drum and Bass/Jungle is my life and always has been. . . We all have a part to play and believe me when I say I am no fucking bandwagon jumper, just a hard working Hackney man doing this thing called Drum and Bass/Jungle. " DJ Hype
"A lot of the people who are producing now are influenced only by drum 'n' bass so they're losing contact with the outside world. DJ Hype is a Stage name of Drum and bass producer and DJ Kevin Ford. It's a really narrow-minded sound right now. Years ago the producers were listening to all sorts of styles to make their music -- they were into hip-hop and jazz and hearing new sounds. Now there's a new generation that grew up on drum 'n' bass and that's all they know. It's like it's created its own monster. " - Dillinja
Drum and bass music, born in samplers, has been and is heavily influenced by other music genres, though this influence has perhaps been lessened in the shift from jungle to drum and bass and the intelligent drum and bass and techstep revolution.  It still remains a fusion music style. 
Miles Davis has been named as one the most important influences, and blues artists like Leadbelly, Robert Johnson, Charlie Patton, Muddy Waters & B.B King have also been cited by producers as inspirations. Miles Dewey Davis III (May 26 1926 &ndash September 28 1991 was an American Jazz Trumpeter, Bandleader, and Composer. Huddie William Ledbetter, (January 1888 – December 6 1949 was an American folk and Blues Musician, notable for his clear and forceful singing Robert Leroy Johnson (May 8 1911 – August 16 1938 is among the most famous of Delta blues musicians Charlie Patton, better known as Charley Patton ( May 1, 1891 - April 28, 1934) is best known as an American Delta For the album by Redman, see Muddy Waters (album. For the college football coach see Muddy Waters (football coach. B B King (born Riley B King, September 16 1925 is an American Blues Guitarist and Singer-songwriter.
As a musical style built around a funk or syncopated rock & roll beat, Al Green, Marvin Gaye, Ella Fitzgerald, Gladys Knight & the Pips, Temptations, Jackson 5, Billie Holiday, Aretha Franklin, Otis Redding, Smokey Robinson, Diana Ross, the Supremes, the Commodores, George Clinton, Ray Charles, Jerry Lee Lewis, Herbie Hancock,James Brown and even Michael Jackson, are funky influences on the music. Funk is an American musical style that originated in the mid- to late-1960s when African American musicians blended Soul music, Soul Rock and roll (also known as rock 'n' roll) is a form of Music that evolved in the United States in the late 1940s and early 1950s with roots in mostly African Albert Greene (born April 13 1946 better known as Al Green, is an American gospel and Soul music singer who received great acclaim in Marvin Pentz Gay Jr, known as Marvin Gaye ( April 2, 1939 – April 1, 1984) was an American Singer-songwriter Ella Jane Fitzgerald (April 25 1917 &ndash June 15 1996 also known as " Lady Ella " and the "First Lady of Song" is considered one of the most influential Gladys Maria Knight, "The Empress of Soul" (born May 28, 1944) is a seven-time Grammy Award -winning American "The Pips" redirects here For the BBC pips, see Greenwich Time Signal. The Temptations (sometimes abbreviated as The Temps or The Tempts) are a Grammy -winning vocal group that achieved fame as one of the most successful The Jackson 5 (also spelled The Jackson Five or The Jackson 5ive, and later known as The Jacksons) was an American popular music Family Billie Holiday (born Eleanora Fagan; April 7 1915 – July 17 1959 was an American Jazz singer and songwriter Aretha Louise Franklin (born March 25 1942 Franklin has had a total of twenty number-one singles on the Billboard R&B Singles Chart, two of which became #1 hits on the Otis Ray Redding Jr ( September 9, 1941 December 10, 1967) was an American soul singer William "Smokey" Robinson Jr (born February 19 1940 is an American R&B and soul Singer-songwriter, Record producer, Diana Ross (born March 261944 is an American twelve-time Grammy and Oscar -nominated singer Record producer and actress whose musical repertoire The Supremes were an American female singing group that first formed as a quartet called The Primettes The Commodores were a highly successful Funk / soul band of the 1970s and 1980s Ray Charles Robinson ( September 23, 1930 – June 10, 2004) known by his Stage name Ray Charles, was an American Jerry Lee Lewis (born September 29, 1935) is an American Rock and roll and Country music Singer, Songwriter Herbert Jeffrey Hancock ("Herbie" born April 12 1940 is a Jazz Pianist and Composer. James Joseph Brown Jr (May 3 1933 – December 25 2006 commonly referred to as "The Godfather of Soul" the "King of Funk" and "The Michael Joseph Jackson (born August 29 1958 is an American musician entertainer and businessman 
A very obvious and strong influence on jungle and drum and bass is the original dub and reggae sound out of Jamaica, with pioneers like King Tubby, Peter Tosh, Sly & Robbie, Bill Laswell, Lee Perry, Mad Professor, Roots Radics, Bob Marley and Buju Banton heavily influencing the music. Dub is a form of music which evolved from Reggae in the late 1960s Reggae is a Music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s King Tubby (born Osbourne Ruddock, January 28, 1941 – February 6, 1989) was a Jamaican electronics and sound engineer Peter Tosh, born Winston Hubert McIntosh ( October 19 1944 &ndash September 11 1987) was a a Reggae musician who was Sly and Robbie are one of Reggae 's most prolific and long lasting production teams Bill Laswell (born February 12, 1955 in Salem Lee "Scratch" Perry (born Rainford Hugh Perry, on March 20, 1936, in Kendal Jamaica) is a reggae and dub artist who has been Mad Professor (born Neil Fraser, 1955 Georgetown, Guyana) is a Dub music producer and engineer known for his original productions and remix The Roots Radics Band was formed in 1978 by bass player Errol "Flabba" Holt and guitarist Eric "Bingy Bunny" Lamont Robert "Bob" Nesta Marley OM (February 6 1945 – May 11 1981 was a Jamaican Musician, Singer-songwriter and Rastafarian Buju Banton (born Mark Anthony Myrie) is a Jamaican Dancehall, Ragga, and Reggae musician  This influence has lessened with time but is still evident with many tracks containing ragga vocals.
Early hip-hop is an extremely important influence on drum and bass, with the genres sharing the same broken beat. Hip hop is a cultural movement which developed in New York City in the 1970s primarily among African Americans and Latinos. Drum and bass shares many musical characteristics with hip-hop, though it is nowadays mostly stripped of lyrics. Grandmaster Flash, Afrika Bambaata, De La Soul, 2 Live Crew, Jungle Brothers, Kool Keith, Run DMC, Public Enemy, Schooly D, N.W.A, Wu-Tang Clan, Dr Dre, Mos Def, Beastie Boys and the Pharcyde are very often directly sampled, regardless of their general influence. Joseph Saddler (born January 1, 1958 in Bridgetown Barbados) better known as Grandmaster Flash, is an American Hip hop musician Afrika Bambaataa (born Kevin Donovan on April 17, 1957) is an American DJ from the South Bronx, who was instrumental in the De La Soul is a Grammy Award-winning hip hop group They are best known for their eclectic sampling and quirky surreal lyrics and their contributions to the evolution 2 Live Crew is a hip hop group from Miami Florida. They caused considerable controversy with the Sexual themes in their work particularly on their The Jungle Brothers are an American hip hop group who pioneered the fusion of Jazz and hip-hop and also became the first hip-hop group to use a house-music Keith Matthew Thornton, better known by his Stage name Kool Keith, is an American rapper. Run-DMC was a pioneering hip hop group during the 1980s founded by Joseph "[The Reverend] Run" Simmons, Darryl "D Public Enemy, also known as PE, is an influential hip hop group from Long Island New York, known for its politically charged Lyrics, criticism Schoolly D is the moniker of American Rapper Jesse B Weaver Jr NWA (also known as Niggaz with Attitudes) was a Compton, California -based hip hop group widely considered one of the seminal acts of the Andre Romelle Young (born February 18 1965 primarily known by his stage name Dr Dante Terrell Smith (born December 11, 1973) better known by his stage name Mos Def, is an American MC and Actor. The Pharcyde is an Alternative hip hop group from the West coast of the United States 
Even modern avant-garde composers such as Henryk Gorecki have influenced drum and bass. Henryk Mikołaj Górecki (ˈxɛnrɨk mʲiˈkɔwaj guˈrɛ͡tski (born December 6 1933 in Czernica, Silesia, Poland) is a Polish Composer 
Many tracks belonging to other genres are 'remixed' into drum and bass versions. The quality of these remixes varies from the simple and primitive adding of broken beats to a vocal track or to complete reworkings that may exceed the original in quality and effort put into them. Original artists will often ask for drum and bass remixes of their tracks to be made in order to spark further interest in their tracks (e. g. Aphrodite's remix of Jungle Brothers' "Jungle Brother"). The Jungle Brothers are an American hip hop group who pioneered the fusion of Jazz and hip-hop and also became the first hip-hop group to use a house-music
On the other hand, some tracks are illegally remixed and released on white label (technically bootleg), often to acclaim. This article is about the vinyl records for other uses see White Label (disambiguation. For example, DJ Zinc's remix of The Fugees' "Ready or Not", also known as "Fugee Or Not", was eventually released with the Fugees' permission after talk of legal action, though ironically the Fugees' version infringed Enya's copyright to an earlier song. The Fugees were a critically-acclaimed New Jersey hip hop group that rose to fame in the mid-1990s whose repertoire included elements of soul and "Ready or Not" is the second single from The Fugees ' 1996 album The Score. Enya (born Eithne Patricia Ní Bhraonáin on May 17 1961, Gaoth Dobhair, County Donegal, Ireland, sometimes presented in  White labels along with dubplates play an important part in drum and bass musical culture. A dubplate is an Acetate disc — usually 12 inches 10 inches or 7 inches in diameter — used in Mastering studios for quality control and test recordings before
One of the most influential tracks in drum and bass history was Amen Brother by The Winstons. The Winstons is a Funk and Soul music outfit based in Washington D Without the "Amen break" sample, drum and bass if had appeared at all, would have a very different sound. The "Amen break" (usually ɑːˈmɛn was a drum solo performed by Gregory Sylvester "G
In mentioning drum and bass influences, special mention needs to be given to a few scenes and individuals.
The first is the US breakbeat scene which emerged in the 1980s, the most famous artist being NYC's Frankie Bones whose infamous 'Bones Breaks' series from the late '80s onwards helped push the house-tempoed breakbeat sound (especially in the UK) and can be said to be a direct precursor to the UK breakbeat/hardcore scene. Frankie Bones (real name Frank Mitchell) is an American Techno and House music Disc jockey from New York City.
The second is Kevin Saunderson, who released a series of bass-heavy, minimal techno cuts as Reese/The Reese Project in the late '80s which were hugely influential in drum and bass terms. Kevin Maurice Saunderson (born in Brooklyn, New York on Sept 5 1964) is an electronic music producer One of his more infamous basslines was indeed sampled on Renegade's Terrorist and countless others since, being known simply as the 'Reese' bassline. He followed these up with equally influential (and bassline-heavy) tracks in the UK hardcore style as Tronik House in 1991/1992. Another Detroit artist who was important for the scene is Carl Craig. Carl Craig is a Detroit -based producer of Techno music, and is considered to be one of the most important names in the Detroit second generation of techno producers The sampled-up jazz break on Carl Craig's Bug in the Bassbin was also influential on the newly emerging sound, DJs at the Rage club used to play it pitched up (increased speed) as far as their Technics record decks would go. 
The third precursor worth mentioning here is the Miami, USA Booty Bass/Miami Bass scene, first popularised by 2 Live Crew in the mid to late '80s. There are clear sonic parallels with drum and bass here in the use of uptempo synths and drum machines in producing bass-heavy party music.
Both the New York breakbeat and the Miami Trout scenes were strongly influenced by the 'freestyle' sound of New York, Chicago and Miami in the 1980s which incorporated electro, disco and Latin flavours, and which was in turn a key influence on the UK's acid house/hardcore/rave scene. 
Drum and bass tracks often contain many direct samples from other tracks, some examples are listed below:
Drum and bass also samples other media, including film and television:
Jungle/drum and bass has and continues to influence many other musical genres, thanks to its variety, experimentation and producer (borderline obsessive) professionalism.
Speed garage and 2step in the UK were born at the height of the popularity of jungle, copying the bass-lines, fast tempo (though much slowed down), ragga vocals (with frequent MC accompaniment) and production techniques. UK Garage ( UKG) is an umbrella term that refers to several different varieties of modern Electronic dance music generally connected to the evolution of house They may be referred to as descendants of drum and bass and at one time drove drum and bass into relative obscurity.  Grime and dubstep, their descendants, have driven these genres underground whilst drum and bass has survived and evolved. Grime is a genre of music which emerged in London, UK, primarily a development of UK garage, Dancehall, and hip hop. Dubstep is a Genre of Electronic music that has its roots in London 's early 2000s UK garage scene Dubstep combines sounds of 2step with the deep basslines and the reggae vibe of early jungle.
Born at the end of the millennium, breakcore shares many of the elements of drum and bass and to the uninitiated, tracks from the extreme end of drum and bass, may sound identical to breakcore thanks to speed, complexity, impact and maximum sonic density combined with musical experimentation. Breakcore is a loosely defined electronic music style that brings together elements of Industrial, jungle, Hardcore techno and IDM into a breakbeat-oriented Raggacore resembles a faster version of the ragga influenced jungle music of the 1990s, similar to breakcore but with more friendly dancehall beats (dancehall itself being a very important influence on drum and bass). Raggacore is a genre of music resembling a heavier version of Ragga jungle The earliest examples of raggacore can be found in productions of Remarc, who is sometimes Dancehall is a type of Jamaican Popular music which developed in the late 1970s initially as a more sparse and less political and religious variant of Reggae  Darkcore a direct influence on drum and bass, is itself heavily influenced by drum and bass, especially darkstep. Darkcore can refer to two different subgenres Darkcore (drum & bass genre Darkcore (hardcore techno genre There is considerable crossover from the extreme edges of drum and bass, breakcore, darkcore and raggacore with fluid boundaries.
Despite never gaining the mainstream popularity of speed garage and 2step, drum and bass' impact in musical terms has been very significant and the genre has influenced many other genres like jazz, metal, hiphop, big beat, house music, trip hop, ambient music, techno, hardcore and pop, with artists such as Bill Laswell, Slipknot, Incubus, The Roots, Jedi Mind Tricks, Timbaland, Missy Elliott, Pharell, Fat Boy Slim, Lamb, Underworld, The Streets, The Freestylers, Nine Inch Nails and David Bowie (the last two both using elements of Goldie's "Timeless") and others quoting drum and bass and using drum and bass techniques and elements. Hip hop music, also referred to as rap music, is a Music genre typically consisting of a rhythmic vocal style called rap which is accompanied with Big beat (sometimes called chemical breaks) is a term deployed in the mid 1990s by the British music press to describe the music of The Chemical Brothers, House music is a style of Electronic dance music initially popularized in mid-1980s Discothèques catering to the African-American, Latino Trip hop is a music Genre also known as the Bristol sound or Bristol acid rap. Ambient music is a Musical genre in which sound is more important than notes Techno is a form of Electronic dance music (EDM that emerged in Detroit, Michigan, USA during the mid to late 1980s "Noisecore" redirects here For the style of metalcore see Mathcore. Pop music as a genre features a noticeable rhythmic element catchy melodies and hooks, a mainstream style and conventional structure Bill Laswell (born February 12, 1955 in Salem Slipknot is an American band from Des Moines Iowa. Slipknot consists of nine members the current band members are Sid Incubus is a Grammy -nominated Alternative rock band based out of Calabasas, California. The Roots are an American hip-hop band from Philadelphia Pennsylvania. Jedi Mind Tricks (JMT is a hip hop trio with two members from Philadelphia Pennsylvania and one from Camden New Jersey. Timothy Z Mosley (born March 10, 1971) better known by his Stage name Timbaland, is an American Record producer, Melissa Arnette "Missy" Elliott (born July 1 1971 is a five-time Grammy Award -winning American rapper, singer, Songwriter, and Fatboy Slim, also known as Norman Cook, (born Quentin Leo Cook on 31 July 1963 is a British DJ and Big beat musician Lamb were an Electronic music duo from Manchester, England, known for their Trip hop and Drum and bass influenced sound Underworld is an English electronic group and principal name under which duo Karl Hyde and Rick Smith have recorded together since 1980 Mike Skinner (born 27 November 1978) more commonly known by his stage name The Streets, is a Rapper from Birmingham, England For other uses see Freestyle. The Freestylers are a British electronic music group generally fitting into the Breakbeat genre David Bowie (ˈboʊiː born David Robert Jones on 8 January 1947 is an English Musician, actor producer, and arranger. This is only the tip of the iceberg in terms of impact and influence. The USA has adopted the sound with a genre called [Ghettotech] which have synth and basslines similar to drum & bass. 
|Rebel Mc's "Wickedest Sound" (1991)|
|30 second sample illustrating dancehall ragga vocals combined with a broken beat in a proto-jungle track.|
|A Guy Called Gerald's "28 Gun Bad Boy" (1992)|
|30 second sample illustrating the combination of basslines, broken beats, rave melody and aesthetics in a proto-jungle or perhaps already jungle track. Arguably recognisably 'drum and bass ' in sound - see 28 Gun Bad Boy. 28 Gun Bad Boy is the third Album by House music and Drum and bass pioneer A Guy Called Gerald, released in 1992|
|Shy FX's "Original Nuttah" (1994)|
|30 second sample containing references to "jungle". One of the best known drum and bass tracks and familiar to almost all listeners.|
|Adam F's "Circles" (1995)|
|30 second sample. Notice the subtle usage of drums and melodic elements, as contrasted to previous music samples. It still contains a fast broken beat but the beat is less audible.|
|DJ Krust's "Warhead" (1997)|
|Image:Dj Krust Warhead.ogg|
|30 second sample. Note that this song has no vocals and is driven by a simple, though powerful beat. This is another 'standard' track for drum and bass listeners.|
|Ed Rush & Optical's "Compound" (1998)|
|30 second sample of Compound by Ed Rush & Optical. Exhibiting some of the crucial elements of the early experimental stages of the neurofunk subgenre.|
|Bad Company's "The Nine" (1998)|
|30 second sample. This techstep tune contains all the ominous and dark elements of its subgenre and is regularly stated as a favourite by listeners and producers. Compare it to the lighter sounds of Circles or Warhead.|
|Konflict, aka Kemal and Rob Data's "Messiah" (2000)|
|30 second sample. This track is one the most played and influential techstep tracks with its aggressive distorted bass-lines and foreboding aggressive beats, its intentional artificiality distances it far from more traditional types of music.|
|Matrix & Fierce's "Climate" (2000)|
|30 second excerpt from "Climate" by Matrix & Fierce. The blending of multiple influences ranging from funk, techno, house and progressive jazz in a neurofunk track|
|Cause 4 Concern's "Peep Show" (2001)|
|30 second excerpt from "Peep Show" by Cause 4 Concern. Techno vibes at the forefront of production in 2001 drum & bass.|
|High Contrast's "Music Is Everything" (2002)|
|30 second sample. This track illustrates the development of liquid funk, a line of evolution quite separate from that of techstep and jump-up and utilizing disco sensibilities and uplifting vocals to create a quite different atmosphere to these two subgenres.|
|Aphrodite's "Ganja Man" (2002)|
|30 second sample. A modern jump-up track with simple beats, a Lauryn Hill sample and vocal throwbacks to the ragga era of jungle.|
|Phace's Hot Rock (2005)|
|30 second excerpt from "Hot Rock" by Phace. Shows the stripped-down, minimalist approach to production adopted by 2nd wave neurofunk artists.|
|Matrix and Futurebound's "Knite Riderz" (2007)|
|30 second sample. This track illustrates the combination of advanced production techniques and modern beats along with a melody inspired by the Knight Rider theme, a standard element of many hip-hop productions, with strong vocals from one of the most popular drum & bass MC's, MC Spyda to create something that is at the cutting edge of drum & bass evolution while staying firmly rooted in the genre's traditions. Knight Rider is an American Television series that originally ran from September 26 1982 to August 8 1986|
Despite its roots in the UK, which can still be treated as the "home" of drum and bass, drum and bass has firmly established itself around the world. There are strong scenes in other English-speaking countries including Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa and the United States.  It is popular in Europe, in countries ranging from Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Ukraine, Iceland, Belgium and the Netherlands. It is also popular in South America. São Paulo is sometimes called the drum and bass Ibiza. São Paulo ( is the largest city in Brazil, with its metropolitan area ranking among the largest urban areas in the world Ibiza (Eivissa is an island located in the Mediterranean Sea about 80 km off the coast of Spain Brazilian drum and bass is sometimes referred to as "sambass", with its specific style and sound. Sambass, or drum 'n' sambass (a Portmanteau of " Samba " and " bass " is a regional sub-genre of Drum and bass music In Venezuela and Mexico, artists have created their own forms of drum and bass combining it with experimental musical forms. Asia also has a drum and bass scene in countries and cities like Indonesia, Hong Kong, Japan, Malaysia, Shanghai and Singapore. Established international drum & bass producers and DJ's include names like Pendulum (Australia), DJ Marky (Brazil), D.Kay (Austria), Noisia (Netherlands), Hive (United States), Dieselboy (United States), Black Sun Empire (Netherlands), XRS (Brazil), Patife (Brazil), Teebee (Norway), Makoto (Japan), Concord Dawn (New Zealand), Muffler (Finland), Mutated Forms (Estonia) and DJ Matter (Russia). Pendulum is an Australian Drum and bass group originally from Perth, Australia. Marco Antonio Silva aka DJ Marky is a Brazilian Drum and bass DJ DKay aka David Kulenkampff born 1979 in Austria is a Drum & Bass Producer (Brigand Music from Vienna NOISIA is a Dutch Electronic music trio consisting of members Nik Roos, Martijn van Sonderen and Thijs de Vlieger from Groningen Hive (real name Michael Petrie) is a Drum and bass producer Born in December 1974 he began his career in San Francisco For the punk rock band please see Diesel Boy. Dieselboy is the Stage name of Damian Higgins an American Drum and bass DJ Black Sun Empire is the Stage name of a team of Dutch Disc jockeys and Jungle (mostly Darkstep and Neurofunk) XRS, aka XRS Land is one of several pseudonyms of Xerxes de Oliveira a Drum and bass producer from Brazil Teebee or DJ Teebee is a Norwegian DJ and producer of Drum and bass. Makoto Shimizu (born in 1977 in Tokyo, Japan) professionally known as Makoto, is a Japanese Drum and bass musician DJ Concord Dawn, (Evan Short & Matt Harvey is a New Zealand Drum and Bass group active since mid 1999 DJ Muffler is Konsta Mikkonen, Finnish born Drum and bass DJ and producer who currently also lives in London and Tallinn
"I'll keep you in safety, forever protect you. I'll hide you away from, the world you rejected. I'll hide you, I’ll hide you. " - Kosheen "Hide U" (Moksha) 1999
"Shotter, hitter, serial killer! Go a your funeral and all drink out your liquor, when you are bury, we a stand next to vicar. Kosheen are a British Trip hop, Drum and bass and rock group based in Bristol, England. Fling on some dirt and make you bury lickle quicker, shouldn't test the youth dem in the Tommy Hilfiger. " - Pendulum & Fresh & Tenor Fly "Tarantula" (Breakbeat Kaos) 2005
Certain drum and bass releases have found mainstream popularity in their own right, almost always material prominently featuring vocals.
Perhaps the earliest example was Goldie's Timeless album of 1995, along with Reprazent's New Forms in 1997 and Pendulum's Hold Your Colour in 2005 (the biggest selling Drum And Bass album of all time). Timeless is the debut Album (1995 from Goldie, a groundbreaking release which is still often nominated as the finest album ever in the history of New Forms is a 1997 Album by the Drum and bass act Roni Size / Reprazent. Hold Your Colour is the 2005 debut album by Pendulum. The album drew very positive critical attention in both the United Kingdom and Australia Tracks such as Shy FX and T-Power's "Shake UR Body" gained a UK Top 40 Chart placing in 2005. 
More recently, video game tracks, particularly Rockstar Games' Grand Theft Auto series have contained drum and bass tracks, the MSX/MSX 98 radio station by DJ Timecode in Grand Theft Auto III and Grand Theft Auto: Liberty City Stories. Rockstar Games, (also known as Rockstar NYC) is a British -founded development division of Video game publisher Take-Two Interactive The soundtrack of the game Grand Theft Auto III has found popularity outside the game's fanbase The soundtrack of Grand Theft Auto Liberty City Stories comprises Radio stations that broadcast music and information to Liberty City Timecode, real name Rob Playford, (born 25 March 1968) is a UK Drum and bass DJ, producer and Record label Grand Theft Auto III (abbreviated as GTA III) is a sandbox-style action-adventure computer and Video game Grand Theft Auto Liberty City Stories is a sandbox-style action-adventure Video game developed by Rockstar North and Rockstar
The genre has some popularity in soundtracks, for instance Hive's "Ultrasonic Sound" was used in the Matrix's soundtrack and the EZ Rollers' song "Walk This Land" appeared in the film "Lock, Stock and Two Smoking Barrels". Hive (real name Michael Petrie) is a Drum and bass producer Born in December 1974 he began his career in San Francisco The Matrix is a 1999 science fiction - martial arts - Action film written and directed by Larry and Andy Wachowski and The E-Z Rollers are a British Drum and bass group made up of Jay Hurren (also known as JMJ Alex Banks (also known from the band Hyper-On Experience) and Kelly Richards Lock Stock and Two Smoking Barrels is a 1998 British Crime film directed and written by Guy Ritchie. Goldie himself appeared in another Guy Richie film, Snatch. Snatch is a 2000 Film by British writer - director Guy Ritchie.
Drum and bass often makes an appearance as background music, especially in Top Gear and television commercials thanks to its aggressive and energetic beats. Top Gear is a BAFTA, multi- NTA and International Emmy Award -winning BBC Television series about motor vehicles mainly Cartoon Network's Toonami programming block also employs it for television spots and show intros. Toonami (a Portmanteau of the words Cartoon and Tsunami suggesting a "tidal wave" of Animated cartoons is a registered However, due to the relative obscurity of the genre, most listeners would not recognise the music as drum and bass.
Drum and bass is dominated by a few large drum and bass-specific record labels (run by veteran drum and bass producers and DJs, eg. Dillinja's Valve label) but there exist many tiny record labels often run from bedrooms. Drum and bass labels are generally run for pleasure and profit by its artists.
The major international music labels such as Sony Music, Universal and such are generally not interested in drum and bass artists due to their relatively low sales figures, although they have in the past made exceptions for higher profile names (for example, Grooverider's "Mysteries of Funk" album was released through a Sony subsidiary). Sony Music Entertainment is a major global Record label controlled by the Sony Corporation of America, being one of the "big four" record companies Grooverider (born Raymond Bingham) is the stage name of a Drum and bass DJ from London.
Drum and bass is mostly sold in 12-inch vinyl single format. A gramophone With the emergence of drum and bass into mainstream music markets, more and more albums, compilations and DJ mixes are being sold on CDs. Still, purchasing drum and bass music can involve searching for new releases in specialized record shops or using one of the many online vinyl, CD and MP3 retailers.
Drum and bass can also be purchased in the form of "tape packs", which are a collection of recordings recorded at a selected rave or party. Tapepacks are a collection of audio Cassettes that feature live recordings of a music event/s Each tape contains the set by one DJ at that particular rave/party including the MCs.
Most tape packs contain 8 tapes with sets from different DJs. More recently tape packs have become available on CD as tape cassettes are being phased out and recordable CD media is more available, although the CD packs still retain their traditional name of "tape packs". Tapepacks are a collection of audio Cassettes that feature live recordings of a music event/s Most of these packs contain 6 CDs.
The bulk of drum and bass vinyl records and CDs are distributed globally and regionally by a relatively small number of companies. 
The two highest profile radio stations playing drum and bass shows are The Drum and Bass Show with Fabio BBC Radio 1, which can be heard in the USA and Canada on Sirius Satellite Radio channel 11, and DJ Hype on the now legal Kiss 100 in London. DJ Hype is a Stage name of Drum and bass producer and DJ Kevin Ford. Kiss 100 is a radio station broadcasting to London on 1000 MHz FM specialising in hip hop, R&B, urban and Dance music The BBC's "urban" station BBC 1Xtra also features the genre heavily, with DJs Bailey and Crissy Criss as its advocates. The network also organises a week-long tour of the UK each year called Xtra Bass. Xtra Bass is a free week long Drum and bass tour of the UK hosted by the BBC's digital radio station 1Xtra. Also worthy of mention is the pioneering and leading London pirate radio station Kool FM, which has exclusively broadcasted drum and bass since 1991. Kool FM is arguably the longest running Breakbeat hardcore, Oldschool jungle and Drum and Bass pirate radio station in the world
In North America, XM Satellite, 89. 5 CIUT (Toronto), Album 88. 5 (Atlanta) and C89. 5fm (Seattle) have shows showcasing drum and bass. Seattle also has a long standing electronica show known as Expansions on 90. 3 FM KEXP. The rotating DJ's include Kid Hops, whose shows are made up mostly of drum and bass.
In the Philippines, 103.5 Max FM has "The Bass Hour" every Saturday at midnight that caters to nothing but bass music.
The best known drum and bass publication is Kmag magazine(formerly called Knowledge Magazine). Kmag, previously known as Knowledge, is a monthly music publication primarily focused on the UK Drum and bass scene although also Other publications include the longest running drum and bass magazine worldwide ATM Magazine, Canadian-based Rinse Magazine and Austrian-based Resident. resident is an Austrian music magazine with strong focus on the German speaking Drum'n'bass scene
Drum and bass has a very strong, important and vocal online presence with many dedicated portals, forums, communities and internet radio stations - the internet has to much degree superseded the role of pirate radio stations in spreading and popularising the genre, as the stations have switched to newer genres. Peter Shapiro can refer to Peter Shapiro (journalist Peter Shapiro (politician  Internet sites are a source of the latest mixes (professional or amateur) and tracks by unsigned producers. The two dominant and most popular websites are Dogs On Acid and Drum and Bass Arena. 
As a musical genre that has recently emerged, drum and bass music has not been the subject of much academic or printed study. Junglist is a slang term referring to a dedicated listener of jungle and/or Drum and bass. This is a list of jungle and Drum and bass artists. This includes artists who have either been very important to the genre or have had a considerable amount of This is a list of Electronic music genres sub-genres and styles though for the latter not all possess their own article (in which case see the main genre article Oldskool jungle is the name given to a style of Electronic music that incorporates influences from genres including Breakbeat hardcore, techno, As such, reference materials are generally primary (particularly interviews with music producers, DJs, record label owners and listeners) and online.
"The early development of drum’n’bass had occurred in a seeming journalistic vacuum due to its perceived affiliation with the critically-dismissed sounds of rave. Once it had achieved the traditional markers of success, its emergence was rewritten into the pages of musical history. " - Steven Quinn, Rumble In the Jungle, the Invisible History of Drum 'n' Bass