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Drogheda (pronounced /ˈdrɒhədə, ˈdrɔːdə/) (Droichead Átha in Irish, meaning "Bridge of the Ford") is an industrial and port town in County Louth on the east coast of Ireland, 56 km (35 mi) north of Dublin. Basic concept of GPS operation A GPS receiver calculates its position by carefully timing the signals sent by the constellation of GPS Satellites high above the Earth The Irish grid reference system is a system of geographic Grid references commonly used in Ireland (both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland Poetic description This dinnseanchas poem named Ard Ruide (Ruide Headland poetically describes the kingdoms of Ireland Leinster (ˈlɛnstər Irish: Laighin, lainʲ one of the Provinces of Ireland, lies in the east of Ireland and comprises the counties of Since the late 16th century the Island of Ireland has been divided into 32 counties ( Irish language contae or condae County Louth (Contae Lú is a County on the East coast of Ireland, on the border with Northern Ireland. The elevation of a Geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point often the mean sea level. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology Irish (ga ''Gaeilge'' is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish. County Louth (Contae Lú is a County on the East coast of Ireland, on the border with Northern Ireland. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. Drogheda is the largest town in the Ireland , recently outpassing its neighbour Dundalk. The River Boyne, split the town in half between County Meath and County Louth until the enactment of the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898 which saw a large area of Drogheda, south of the Boyne signed over to form part of an extended Co Louth. With the passing of the County of Louth and Borough of Drogheda (Boundaries) Provisional Order, 1976, County Louth again grew larger at the expense of County Meath. However the 2007 - 2013 Meath County Development Plan recognises the Drogheda environs as a primary growth centre on par with Navan. Navan (ˈnævən) is the largest town and County town or administrative capital of County Meath, Ireland. This plan in conjunction with ambitious plans for growth to the north of the town by Louth County Council will ensure growth for Drogheda in the future, despite not obtaining Gateway status in the Irish government's National Spatial Strategy. The National Spatial Strategy, is a twenty year planning framework with an aim of balancing social economic and physical development in Ireland.
In recent years Drogheda has been diversifing its economy away from its traditional industrial image, as an increasing number of people employed in the retail, services and technology sectors they also have plenty of independent artists and musicians who have been looking to the local economy instead of Dublin for employment.
The town is located close to the site of Newgrange, a burial mound constructed around 3200 BC. Newgrange (Dún Fhearghusa is one of the Passage tombs of the Brú na Bóinne complex in County Meath, one of the most famous A trading post and settlement existed on the site of the town from Roman times and was known as Inver Colpa. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial The town itself was founded in 911 by the Danes and officially chartered as a town in 1194. Events A large Viking fleet arrives in Waterford and a second period of Viking raids begins A Viking is one of the Norse ( Scandinavian Explorers Warriors Merchants, and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas The Irish Parliament moved to the town in 1494 and passed Poyning's Law a year later. The Parliament of Ireland (Irish Parlaimint na hEireann) was a Legislature that existed from mediæval times until 1800. Poynings' Law is a parliamentary act initiated by Sir Edward Poynings in the Irish Parliament at Drogheda in 1494. The town was besieged twice during the Irish Confederate Wars (see the siege of Drogheda). This article is concerned with the military history of Ireland from 1641-53 a town in eastern Ireland, was besieged twice in the 1640s during the Irish Confederate Wars and the Irish theatre of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. On the second occasion it was taken by Oliver Cromwell in September 1649, as part of the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 Old Style &ndash 3 September 1658 Old Style) was an English military and political leader best known The Cromwellian conquest of Ireland (1649-53 refers to the re-conquest of Ireland by the forces of the English Parliament, led by Oliver Cromwell Drogheda was the site of an infamous massacre of the Royalist defenders. a town in eastern Ireland, was besieged twice in the 1640s during the Irish Confederate Wars and the Irish theatre of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. Cavalier was the name used by Parliamentarians for a Royalist supporter of King Charles I during the English Civil War ( 1642 &ndash 1651 The Battle of the Boyne, 1690, occurred some 6 km (4 mi) west of the town, on the banks of the River Boyne, at Oldbridge. The Battle of the Boyne (Cath na Bóinne was a turning point in the Williamite claim on the English throne The River Boyne ( Abhainn na Bóinne) is a river in Leinster, Ireland, the course of which is about 112 Kilometres (70 Miles long
Drogheda's coat of arms bears the star and crescent and has its origin with King Richard I (the Lionheart), in whose reign Drogheda was granted its charter in 1194 by Hugh de Lacy (after whom the de Lacy bridge in Drogheda is named). Richard I (8 September 1157 &ndash 6 April 1199 was King of England from 6 July 1189 until his death Hugh De Lacy, 1st Earl of Ulster (~1176 &ndash after December 26 1242 was the younger son of Hugh de Lacy, and founded the Earldom of Ulster Another Norman element on Drogheda's coat of arms is its centrepiece, St. The Normans were the people who gave their names to Normandy, a region in northern France. Lawrence's Gate. The three lions which flank the Norman barbican are also taken from King Richard's coat of arms. A barbican (from medieval Latin barbecana, "outer fortification of a city or castle" a general Romanic word perhaps from Arabic or On the other side of the barbican is a ship denoting Drogheda's status as an important port. The town's motto Deus praesidium, mercatura decus translates as "God our strength, merchandise our glory".
The Earldom of Drogheda was created in the Peerage of Ireland in 1661. The title Earl of Drogheda (pronounced "Dro-hed-ah" see Drogheda for more information was created in the Peerage of Ireland in 1661 for the 3rd Viscount The Peerage of Ireland is the term used for those peers created by British monarchs in their capacity as Lord or King of Ireland.
In 1837 the population of Drogheda area was 17,365 of whom 15,138 lived in the town. Events Shaw's Bank merged with Royal Bank of Ireland. See Allied Irish Banks.  In 1921 the shrunken head of Saint Oliver Plunkett, who was executed in London in 1681, was put on display in the cathedral. Year 1921 ( MCMXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1921 calendar of the Gregorian calendar Saint Oliver Plunkett ( 1 November 1629 &ndash 1 July 1681) was the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Armagh
The estate in the famous series "The Thorn Birds" was named after the town of Drogheda. The Thorn Birds is a 1977 best-selling Novel by Colleen McCullough, an Australian author
Theatre & Performing Arts
Drogheda has a thriving arts scene; it hosts the annual Samba festival every summer, where Samba bands from around the world converge on the town for a week of drumming and parades. Samba ( is one of the most popular forms of music in Brazil. It is widely viewed as Brazil's national musical style
It is also home to the Calipo theatre company which specialises in multi-media productions and has achieved considerable success in Ireland and abroad.
The town also supports one of the largest and most successful youth theatres in Ireland (Droichead Youth Theatre) which has toured to Belfast, London, Italy, and Sweden. Belfast ( is the capital city of Northern Ireland and the seat of government in Northern Ireland. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. The addition of the Little Duke Theatre company in Duke Street, in the old Julian Blinds building, adds to this scene. The Municipal Centre in Stockwell Street acts as a base for most of the town's artists, under the umbrella of the Droichead Arts Centre, and featuring a gallery space and a theatre. The former Garda (Police) station in West Street is now a satellite site of the Droichead Arts Centre. ga '''''Garda Síochána na hÉireann''''' (ˈgaːrdə ʃiːˈxaːnə nə ˈheːɾʲən Irish for "Peace Guard of Ireland" often rendered This site is called Barlow House.
Drogheda Also has a thriving underground music scene with genres including Rock, Punk, Funk, Metal, Rap, Hip Hop And Hardcore being just a few. Recently local band Holy Matrimony have emerged proving to be very popular and going places
October 2006 saw the opening of the town's first dedicated municipal art gallery and visual arts centre, the Highlanes Gallery, housed in the former Franciscan Friary on St. Laurence Street. The Highlanes Gallery holds Drogheda's important municipal art collection which dates from the 17th century as well as visiting exhibitions in a venue which meets key international museum and gallery standards.
The original Drogheda bypass bridge over the river Boyne, known locally as the "Bridge of Peace", is well-known regionally for its aerosol graffiti murals. Under the bridge, on each side of the river there are two large concrete supports that measure approximately 8 metres high, and 20 metres long. Starting in the 1980s with the breakdance craze, these supports were painted and sprayed with murals by aerosol artists. Breakdance, breaking, b-boying or b-girling is a Street dance style that evolved as part of the hip hop movement among This activity at the time was technically illegal and frowned upon by the local authorities. Today the murals are frequently updated and limited sponsorship of the artists is provided by local businesses.
Live Music Notable venues are , he Pheasant on Duleek Street, McPhail's in Laurence Street, McHugh's on Cord Road , The New Central in Peter Street and The Market Bar on Magdalene Street. For traditional Irish music, Carberry's (Teach Uí Cairbre) pub near the North Quay has regular sessions by amateur and professional musicians alike
A local live music venue which no longer exists, but which was very popular in the 1980's was Johnny Connor's Boxing Club. A tribute page featuring video and pictures of patrons can be found hereThe site of the Boxing Club is now occupied by the Haymarket Bridge and Development.
With the expansion of the Irish economy in the 1990s, during the "Celtic Tiger" years, Drogheda has become one of the primary locations for people who work in Dublin to buy a house. Celtic Tiger (Tíogar Ceilteach is a name for the period of rapid Economic growth in the Republic of Ireland that began in the 1990s and slowed in 2001 Property prices in the capital are prohibitive for first time home buyers. With the expansion of transport infrastructure in the area around Drogheda i. e. the Swords and Balbriggan bypasses, the Boyne River Bridge and the increased number of commuter trains serving the town, Drogheda is now an attractive location for Dubliners to buy their first house and commute to work, the downtown area of Drogheda has been transformed over the past two years, two large shopping centres have opened, and large numbers of national and international retails have opened stores. Swords (Sord Cholm Cille is a medium-sized suburban town located in Fingal, Ireland, close to Dublin Airport. Balbriggan ( Baile Brigín in Irish) is a town in north county Dublin, Ireland. The Boyne River Bridge is the longest Cable-stayed bridge in Ireland. Commuting is the process of Travelling between one's place of residence and regular place of work In 2007 the partial pedestrianisation of the town's main street, West Street, was completed. The Boyne Cable Bridge in particular has dramatically increased the profile of the region as a location for out-of-town retail parks.
On the south quay in the space of the former Lakeland Daries premises (an old industrial area), the Scotch Hall Shopping Centre and the D hotel was completed in November 2005. A new pedestrian bridge extends from the north quay, at Mayoralty Street, into the complex. Phase two of the development, which will shortly commence construction, will extend further down along the river front, on the site of the former Irish Oil Cake works. It will have an extension to the Shopping Centre and Hotel, new apartments, cinema, and a riverside plaza.
Colp is a suburb of Drogheda. It is the site of Grange Rath, the biggest housing estate in Drogheda. There is a shopping centre in Colp, although not yet built it is close to completion.
The local economy of Drogheda, like that of many other towns in Ireland, is changing rapidly. The old industries based around linen and textiles, brewing, shipping and manufacturing have now disappeared or are in decline.
There are still a number of large employers in the town including:
Boyne Valley Foods - Production and distribution of jams and honey
Irish Cement - Ireland's largest cement works, known locally as Platin
International Flavours & Fragrances (IFF) - Produces perfumes and food fragrances
Becton Dickinson (BD) - manufacturing a variety of medical syringes and associated equipment.
Recently additions to the local ecomony include:
The opening of the Drogheda bypass has led to the development of 2 large retail parks adjacent to the motorway, either side of the Boyne cable bridge. On the south side, is the M1 Retail Park and on the north side is the Drogheda Retail Park.
The town is located close to M1 (E1 Euro Route 1) (main Dublin - Belfast motorway). Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. Belfast ( is the capital city of Northern Ireland and the seat of government in Northern Ireland. Motorway is a term for both a type of Road and a classification or designation Drogheda acquired rail links to Dublin in 1844, Navan in 1850 and Belfast in 1852. Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. Navan (ˈnævən) is the largest town and County town or administrative capital of County Meath, Ireland. Belfast ( is the capital city of Northern Ireland and the seat of government in Northern Ireland. Passenger services between Drogheda and Navan were ended in 1958, however the line remains open for freight (Tara Mines/Platin Cement) traffic. Navan (ˈnævən) is the largest town and County town or administrative capital of County Meath, Ireland. In 1966 Drogheda station was renamed "McBride". Drogheda railway station opened on 25 May 1844. Drogheda railway station (MacBride Station serves Drogheda in County Louth, Ireland. Events 1085 - Alfonso VI of Castile takes Toledo Spain back from the Moors. Year 1844 ( MDCCCXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year 
The local newspaper is the Drogheda Independent, known locally as "The D. The Drogheda Independent is a Newspaper for the Drogheda area Louth and the Meath coast I. ". It is published weekly every Wednesday. The headquarters of The Drogheda Independent are on Shop Street.
There are 3 free local paper that are distributed to houses and businesses. The Drogheda Leader, the Drogheda Independent Extra and the Drogheda People.
The local radio station is LM-FM, broadcasting on 95. 8 FM. The headquarters of LM-FM are on Marley's Lane on the south side of the town.
In December 2005 the town's soccer team, Drogheda United, won the national FAI Carlsberg Cup for the first time in its history by beating Cork City F.C. 2-0 in the final at Lansdowne Road. Drogheda United FC ( Irish: Cumann Peile Dhroichead Átha Aontaithe) is an Irish football club currently playing in the The FAI Cup, known as the FAI Ford Cup for sponsorship reasons is a knock-out Association football competition contested annually by teams from the Republic Cork City FC ( Irish: Cumann Peile Chathair Chorcaigh) is an Irish football club playing in the FAI Premier Division. Location The stadium is situated in the neighbourhood of Ballsbridge in the city's Dublin 4 area On Saturday 22 April 2006 Drogheda United won the Setanta Cup at Tolka Park becoming the champions of all Ireland. Events 1500 - Portuguese Navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral becomes the first European to sight Brazil. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The Setanta Sports Cup, commonly known as the Setanta Cup, is a club football competition featuring teams from both football associations on the island of Tolka Park ( is a football ground located in the north Dublin suburb of Drumcondra, on the northern banks of the River Tolka. Drogheda United is known as "The Drogs" by their fans. Drogheda United FC ( Irish: Cumann Peile Dhroichead Átha Aontaithe) is an Irish football club currently playing in the On 19 October 2007, Drogheda United won the League of Ireland for the first time in the club's history, with a 2-1 win over Cork City. Events 202 BCE - The Battle of Zama results in the defeat of Carthage and Hannibal. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The FAI eircom League of Ireland is the Republic of Ireland 's current national football league system created following the merging of the FAI and the League
There is a popular tale, that Drogheda’s Star and Crescent Moon Emblem originates from a gesture of appreciation to "the Sultan Abdul Hemid", who sent three ships full of food to the town during the Great Famine. . It is recorded that Sultan Abdul Medjid Khan did send £1,000 in famine relief aid to the government of the day, there is no historical record of any ships being sent containing food.  The star and crescent are in fact the royal seal of King John, who presented the town with its charter in 1194 .
The Civic Arms are also medieval in origin. The gate is St. Lawrence's Gate, a Norman building that still stands in the town. The ship represents the town's status as a major trading port, while the three lions (or leopards) represent the House of Plantagenet.