Drawing is a visual art which makes use of any number of drawing instruments to mark a two-dimensional medium. Annibale Carracci ( November 3, 1560 - July 15, 1609) was an Italian Baroque painter. The visual arts are art forms that focus on the creation of works which are primarily Visual in nature such as Painting, Photography Common instruments include graphite pencils, pen and ink, inked brushes, wax color pencils, crayons, charcoals, chalk, pastels, markers, stylus, or various metals like silverpoint. The Mineral graphite, as with Diamond and Fullerene, is one of the Allotropes of carbon. A pencil is a Writing or Drawing instrument consisting of a thin stick of Pigment (usually Graphite, but can also be coloured pigment or Pen and ink refers to a technique of drawing or writing in which colored (this includes black Ink is applied to paper using a Pen or other Stylus. An ink is a Liquid containing various Pigments and/or Dyes used for coloring a surface to produce an Image, text, or "Paintbrush" redirects here For other uses see Paintbrush (disambiguation. A pencil is a Writing or Drawing instrument consisting of a thin stick of Pigment (usually Graphite, but can also be coloured pigment or A crayon is a stick of colored Wax, Charcoal, Chalk, or other materials used for writing and Drawing. Charcoal' is the blackish residue consisting of impure Carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from Animal and Vegetation Chalk (ʧɔːk is a soft white porous Sedimentary rock, a form of Limestone composed of the Mineral Calcite. Pastel is an Art medium in the form of a stick consisting of pure powdered Pigment and a binder A stylus (plural styli or styluses) is a Writing utensil. The word is also used for a computer accessory ( PDAs) Silverpoint is a traditional drawing technique first used by Medieval scribes on manuscripts An artist who practices or works in drawing may be referred to as a draftsman or draughtsman.
A small amount of material is released onto the two dimensional medium which leaves a visible mark—the process is similar to that of painting. Painting (pān'tīng in Art, is the practice of applying Color to a Surface (support base such as e The most common support for drawing is paper, although other materials such as cardboard, plastic, leather, canvas and board, may be used. Paper is thin material mainly used for writing upon printing upon or packaging Paperboard is a Paper -like material usually over ten mils (0 Plastic is the general common term for a wide range of synthetic or semisynthetic organic solid materials suitable for the manufacture of industrial products Leather is a material created through the Tanning of hides and Skins of Animals primarily Cattlehide The Tanning process Canvas is an extremely heavy-duty plain-woven fabric used for making Sails Tents Marquees Backpacks and other functions Temporary drawings may be made on a blackboard or whiteboard, or indeed almost anything. A whiteboard (also known as a markerboard, dry-erase board dry-wipe board or a pen-board) is a name for any glossy surface most commonly colored The medium has also become popular as a means of public expression via graffiti art, because of the easy availability of permanent markers. Graffiti (singular graffito; the plural is used as a Mass noun) is the name for images or lettering scratched scrawled painted or marked in any manner on property
Drawing is a form of visual expression and is one of the major forms within the visual arts. There are a number of subcategories of drawing, including cartooning. A cartoonist is a person who specializes in drawing Cartoons Traditionally much of this work was and still is humorous and is intended primarily for entertainment purposes Certain drawing methods or approaches, such as "doodling" and other informal kinds of drawing such as drawing in the fog a shower leaves on a bathroom mirror, or the surrealist method of "entopic graphomania," in which dots are made at the sites of impurities in a blank sheet of paper, and lines are then made between the dots, may or may not be considered as part of "drawing" as a "fine art. A doodle is a type of sketch an unfocused Drawing made while a person's attention is otherwise occupied A shower (also called shower bath is a booth for washing usually in a Bathroom, having an overhead nozzle that sprays water down on the body A bathroom is a room that may have different functions depending on the cultural context A mirror is an object with a surface that has good Specular reflection; that is it is smooth enough to form an Image. Surrealism in Art, Poetry, and Literature utilizes numerous unique techniques and games to provide inspiration "
The word 'drawing' is used as both a verb and a noun:
In simplistic terms, drawing is distinct from painting, perhaps more so in the Western view; East Asian art, which generally only uses brushes, has historically made less distinction between the two. Critics may praise a painter's ability to draw well, meaning that the shapes, especially of the human body, are well-articulated, or a drawing may be considered painterly. Painterly is a translation of the German term malerisch, one of the opposed categories popularized by Swiss Art historian Heinrich Wölfflin
Adding confusion, similar tools and media may be used in both tasks. Dry media normally associated with drawing, such as chalk, may be used in pastel painting. Pastel is an Art medium in the form of a stick consisting of pure powdered Pigment and a binder Drawing may be done with liquid media applied with brushes or pens. Similar supports likewise can serve both: painting generally involves the application of liquid paint onto prepared canvas or panels, but sometimes an underdrawing is drawn first on that same support. Underdrawing is the Drawing done on a painting ground before paint is applied for example an Imprimatura or an Underpainting. Drawing is generally concerned with the marking of lines and areas of tone onto paper, but watercolor painting uses a paper support. Watercolor ( US) or Watercolour ( UK) (and "aquarelle" in French is a Painting method Traditional drawings were monochrome, or at least had little colour, while modern coloured-pencil drawings may approach or cross the boundary (if there is one) between drawing and painting.
The term drawing suggests a process and intent that is distinct from the traditional act of painting. While there are drawings that are finished artworks, drawing is often exploratory, with considerable emphasis on observation, problem solving and composition, often as a means of preparation for a painting. In contrast, traditional painting is often a means of execution or finishing an artwork. It is fair to note that modern painters often incorporate methods of drawing in their painting process, particarly in the early stages of a painting.
Drawings may be representational, depicting objects, living beings, or scenes which the artist views, remembers, or imagines. They may be realistic to the point of lifelike resemblance (e. g. traditional portraits), architectural drawing or looser approximations of reality (e. A portrait is a painting, photograph, Sculpture, or other artistic representation of a person in which the face and its expression is predominant g. sketches), and highly stylized (e. A sketch (from Ancient Greek σχέδιος - schedios “‘made suddenly off-hand’” from σχεδιάζω - schediazo “‘to do a g. cartoons, caricatures, manga), or abstract (e. The word cartoon has various meanings based on several very different forms of Visual art and Illustration. A caricature is either a Portrait that exaggerates or distorts the essence of a person or thing to create an easily identifiable visual likeness or in literature a description ˈmɑŋgə is the Japanese word for Comics (sometimes called komikku コミック and print Cartoons In their modern form manga date from shortly Abstract art uses a Visual language of form color and line to create a composition which exists independently of visual references to the world g. automatic drawing, entoptic graphomania). Automatism has taken on many forms the Automatic writing and drawing initially (and still to this day practiced by surrealists can be compared to similar or perhaps Surrealism in Art, Poetry, and Literature utilizes numerous unique techniques and games to provide inspiration Drawing may also be a form of heraldic art, with a range of formality from finished works of heraldic art to tricking. The system of Heraldry has two main methods to designate the tinctures of arms hatching and tricking, i
The medium is the means by which ink, pigment, or color are delivered onto the drawing surface. Most drawing media are either dry (e. g. graphite, charcoal, pastels, Conté, silverpoint), or water-based (marker, pen and ink). Pastel is an Art medium in the form of a stick consisting of pure powdered Pigment and a binder Conté, also known as Conté sticks or crayons are a drawing medium composed of compressed powdered Graphite or Charcoal mixed with a wax or clay base square in Silverpoint is a traditional drawing technique first used by Medieval scribes on manuscripts  Watercolor pencils can be used dry like ordinary pencil, then moistened with a wet brush to get various painterly effects. Very rarely, artists have drawn with (usually decoded) invisible ink. Invisible ink is a substance used for writing which is either invisible on application or soon thereafter and which later on can be made visible by some means
Paper comes in a variety of different sizes and qualities, ranging from newspaper grade for practice up to high quality and relatively expensive paper sometimes sold as individual sheets.  Papers can vary in texture, hue, acidity, and strength when wet. Smooth paper is good for rendering fine detail, but a more "toothy" paper will hold the drawing material better. Thus a more coarse material is useful for producing deeper contrast.
For pen and ink work, typing paper is often used for practice drawings, but heavier paper holds up better. Bristol board makes a hard surface that is especially good for ink or fine detailed graphite drawing. Coldpressed watercolor paper is sometimes favored for ink drawing due to its texture. Tracing vellum is often used for experimenting on top of a pencil drawing, prior to committing a technique to the final page.
Various tools are routinely used in the process of drawing. These include a pencil sharpener, sandpaper, kneaded eraser, blending stumps, and chamois. A pencil sharpener (also referred to as pencil parer) is a device for sharpening a Pencil 's point by shaving one end Abrasive Paper is a form of Paper where an Abrasive material has been fixed to its surface See also Eraser The kneaded eraser (or putty rubber) is a tool for Artists. A tortillon (or tortillion) is an Artist 's Tool used to smudge and blend Drawings made from Charcoal, Graphite pencil or The chamois ( Rupicapra rupicapra) is a Goat -like animal native to the Carpathian Mountains of Romania the European Alps, the Gran Other tools that sometimes prove useful are tracing paper, a circle compass, ruler, frisket film, fixative, and drafting tape. Tracing paper is a type of Translucent Paper. It is made by immersing unsized and unloaded paper of good Quality in Sulfuric acid for a few A compass or pair of compasses is a Technical drawing instrument that can be used for inscribing Circles or arcs They can also be used as A ruler, or rule, is an instrument used in Geometry, Technical drawing and engineering/building to measure distances and/or to rule straight Drafting Tape, also known as "the second most useful tape in the world" is similar to duct tape in that is has a wide variety of uses but differs in several key areas The use of an easel or slanted table reduces the distorting effects of perspective. Metalpointing can include copper, bronze, and even gold some of which metals can change color over time and produce interesting results. Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29 Bronze is any of a broad range of Copper alloys, usually with Tin as the main additive but sometimes with other elements such as Phosphorus Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79
One new tool for drawing is the computer's 'drawing option'. Contemporary artists have broadened the sphere of associations the term 'drawing' encompasses to a number of unconventional drawing media, including performance and multimedia work, employing the branches of trees as drawing instruments, and fashioning images with carbon deposit from smoke.
Almost all draughtsmen use their hands and fingers to apply the media, with the exception of some handicapped individuals who draw with their mouths or feet.
Prior to working on an image, the artist will likely want to gain an understanding of how the various media will work. The different drawing implements can be tried on practice sheets in order to determine value and texture, and how to apply the implement in order to produce various effects.
The stroke of the drawing implement can be used to control the appearance of the image. Chalk (ʧɔːk is a soft white porous Sedimentary rock, a form of Limestone composed of the Mineral Calcite. Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci ( April 15 1452 – May 2 1519 was an Italian Polymath, having been a scientist Mathematician, Engineer Ink drawings typically use hatching, which consists of groups of parallel lines. Hatching ( hachure in French) and cross-hatching are artistic techniques used to create tonal or shading effects by drawing (or painting or scribing closely  Cross-hatching uses hatching in two or more different directions to create a darker tone. Broken hatching, or lines with intermittent breaks, is used to form lighter tones, and by controlling the density of the breaks a graduation of tone can be achieved. Stippling, uses dots to produce tone, texture or shade. Stippling is the technique of using small dots to simulate varying degrees of solidity or shading Shade is the blocking of Sunlight (in particular direct sunshine by any object and also the Shadow created by that object
Sketch drawings use similar techniques, although with pencils and drawing sticks continuous variations in tone can be achieved. For best results the lines in a sketch are typically drawn to follow the contour curves of the surface, thus producing a depth effect. When drawing hair, the lines of the sketch follow the direction of the hair growth.
Typically a drawing will be filled in based on which hand the artist favors. A right-handed artist will want to draw from left to right in order to avoid smearing the image. Sometimes the artist will want to leave a section of the image blank while filling in the remainder of the picture. A frisket can be used for this purpose. The shape of the area to be preserved is cut out of the frisket, and the resulting shape is then applied to the drawing surface. A frisket is any material that protects areas of a work from unintended change This will protect the surface from receiving any stray marks before it is ready to be filled in.
Another method to preserve a section of the image is to apply a spray-on fixative to the surface. This will hold loose material more firmly to the sheet and prevent it from smearing. However the fixative spray typically uses chemicals that can negatively affect the respiratory system, so it should be employed in a well-ventilated area such as outdoors.
Shading is the technique of varying the tonal values on the paper to represent the shade of the material as well as the placement of the shadows. Careful attention to reflected light, shadows, and highlights can result in a very realistic rendition of the image.
Blending uses an implement to soften or spread the original drawing strokes. Blending is most easily done with a medium that does not immediately fix itself, such as graphite, chalk, or charcoal, although freshly applied ink can be smudged, wet or dry, for some effects. For shading and blending, the artist can use a blending stump, tissue, a kneaded eraser, a fingertip, or any combination of them. A tortillon (or tortillion) is an Artist 's Tool used to smudge and blend Drawings made from Charcoal, Graphite pencil or Facial tissue refers to a class of soft absorbent disposable Paper that is suitable for use on the Face. See also Eraser The kneaded eraser (or putty rubber) is a tool for Artists. A piece of chamois is useful for creating smooth textures, and for removing material to lighten the tone. Great Britain The British Standard BS 6715 1991 is widely considered to offer the correct definition of chamois leather Continuous tone can be achieved with graphite on a smooth surface without blending, but the technique is laborious, involving small circular or oval strokes with a somewhat blunt point.
Shading techniques that also introduce texture to the drawing include hatching and stippling. Hatching ( hachure in French) and cross-hatching are artistic techniques used to create tonal or shading effects by drawing (or painting or scribing closely Stippling is the technique of using small dots to simulate varying degrees of solidity or shading There are a number of other methods for producing texture in the picture: in addition to choosing a suitable paper, the type of drawing material and the drawing technique will result in different textures. Texture can be made to appear more realistic when it is drawn next to a contrasting texture; a coarse texture will be more obvious when placed next to a smoothly blended area. A similar effect can be achieved by drawing different tones in close proximity; a light edge next to a dark background will stand out to the eye, and almost appear to float above the surface.
Measuring the dimensions of a subject while blocking in the drawing is an important step in producing a realistic rendition of the aertically can be used to measure the angles of different sides. These angles can be reproduced on the drawing surface and then rechecked to make sure they are accurate. Another form of measurement is to compare the relative sizes of different parts of the subject with each other. A finger placed at a point along the drawing implement can be used to compare that dimension with other parts of the image.
When attempting to draw a complicated shape such as a human figure, it is helpful at first to represent the form with a set of primitive shapes. Almost any form can be represented by some combination of the cube, sphere, cylinder, and cone. Once these basic shapes have been assembled into a likeness, then the drawing can be refined into a more accurate and polished form. The lines of the primitive shapes are removed and replaced by the final likeness.
A more refined art of figure drawing relies upon the artist possessing a deep understanding of anatomy and the human proportions. Figure drawing is an exercise in Drawing the human body in its various shapes and positions A trained artist is familiar with the skeleton structure, joint location, muscle placement, tendon movement, and how the different parts work together during movement. This allows the artist to render more natural poses that do not appear artificially stiff. The artist is also familiar with how the proportions vary depending on the age of the subject, particularly when drawing a portrait.
Linear perspective is a method of portraying objects on a flat surface so that the dimensions shrink with distance. Perspective (from Latin perspicere to see through in the graphic arts such as drawing is an approximate representation on a flat surface (such as paper of an image as it is perceived The parallel, straight edges of any object, whether a building or a table, will follow lines that eventually converge at infinity. Typically this point of convergence will be along the horizon, as buildings are built level with the flat surface. When multiple structures are aligned with each other, such as buildings along a street, the horizontal tops and bottoms of the structures will all typically converge at a vanishing point.
When both the fronts and sides of a building are drawn, then the parallel lines forming a side converge at a second point along the horizon (which may be off the drawing paper. ) This is a "two-point perspective". Converging the vertical lines to a point in the sky then produces a "three-point perspective".
Depth can also be portrayed by several techniques in addition to the perspective approach above. Objects of similar size should appear ever smaller the further they are from the viewer. Thus the back wheel of a cart will appear slightly smaller than the front wheel. Depth can be portrayed through the use of texture. As the texture of an object gets further away it becomes more compressed and busy, taking on an entirely different character than if it was close. Depth can also be portrayed by reducing the amount of contrast of more distant objects, and also by making the colors more pale. This will reproduce the effect of atmospheric haze, and cause the eye to focus primarily on objects drawn in the foreground.
The composition of the image is an important element in producing an interesting work of artistic merit. Chiaroscuro ( Italian for light-dark) is a term in Art for a contrast between light and dark In Art, a study is a Drawing, Sketch or Painting done in preparation for a finished piece or as Visual notes William-Adolphe Bouguereau (November 30 1825 – August 19 1905 was a French academic painter. In the Visual arts — in particular Painting, Graphic design, Photography and Sculpture — composition is the placement or arrangement Artistic merit is an English language term that is used in relation to cultural products when referring to the judgment of their perceived quality or value as works of art The artist plans the placement of elements in the art in order to communicate ideas and feelings with the viewer. The composition can determine the focus of the art, and result in a harmonious whole that is aesthetically appealing and stimulating.
The illumination of the subject is also a key element in creating an artistic piece, and the interplay of light and shadow is a valuable method in the artist's toolbox. The illumination of the subject of a Drawing or Painting is a key element in creating an artistic piece and the interplay of Light and Shadow Chiaroscuro ( Italian for light-dark) is a term in Art for a contrast between light and dark The placement of the light sources can make a considerable difference in the type of message that is being presented. Three-point lighting is a standard method used in visual media such as Video, Film, Still photography and Computer-generated imagery. Multiple light sources can wash out any wrinkles in a person's face, for instance, and give a more youthful appearance. In contrast, a single light source, such as harsh daylight, can serve to highlight any texture or interesting features.
When drawing an object or figure, the skilled artist pays attention to both the area within the silhouette and what lies outside. The exterior is termed the negative space, and can be as important in the representation as the figure. Negative space, in Art, is the space around and between the subject(s of an image Objects placed in the background of the figure should appear properly placed wherever they can be viewed.
A study is a draft drawing that is made in preparation for a planned final image. In Art, a study is a Drawing, Sketch or Painting done in preparation for a finished piece or as Visual notes Studies can be used to determine the appearance of specific parts of the completed image, or for experimenting with the best approach for accomplishing the end goal. However a well-crafted study can be a piece of art in its own right, and many hours of careful work can go into completing a study.
People have made drawings since prehistoric times. Cave paintings are Paintings on Cave walls and ceilings and the term is used especially for those dating to Prehistoric times Stone Age Paleolithic See also Paleolithic, Recent African Origin, Early Homo sapiens, Early human migrations "Paleolithic" This art form first gained widespread popularity among European artists during the 1400s, when paper became generally available, although underdrawing for paintings already existed. The European peoples are the various Nations and Ethnic groups of Europe. Paper is thin material mainly used for writing upon printing upon or packaging Underdrawing is the Drawing done on a painting ground before paint is applied for example an Imprimatura or an Underpainting. Since that time, each century has produced artists who have created great drawings.
Drawing may also be done on a computer. Computer illustration or digital illustration is the use of digital tools to produce images under the direct manipulation of the artist usually through a pointing device such Digital art most commonly refers to Art created on a Computer in Digital form A computer is a Machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions. Computer illustration or digital illustration is the use of digital tools to produce images under the direct manipulation of the artist, usually through a pointing device such as a tablet or a mouse. A graphics tablet (or digitizing tablet, graphics pad, drawing tablet) is a computer Input device that allows one to hand-draw images and graphics In Computing, a mouse (plural mice, mouse devices, or mouses) It is distinguished from computer-generated art, which is produced by a computer using mathematical models created by the artist. Generative art refers to Art that has been generated composed or constructed in an Algorithmic manner through the use of systems defined by Computer It is also distinct from digital manipulation of photographs, in that it is an original construction "from scratch". (Photographic elements may be incorporated into such works, but they are not the primary basis or source for them. )