|The Dow Chemical Co.|
|Type||Public (NYSE: DOW)|
|Headquarters||Midland, Michigan, USA|
|Key people||Andrew N. Liveris, CEO, President, & Chairman of the Board of Directors|
|Products||Chemicals, Plastics, Agricultural Products, and other Specialized Products & Services|
|Revenue||▲$53. A public company usually refers to a company that is permitted to offer its registered securities ( Stock, bonds, etc The New York Stock Exchange ( NYSE) is a Stock exchange based in New York City. Midland is a city in the US state of Michigan in Flint/Tri-Cities region of the state The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Andrew Liveris is a Greek - Australian American executive from Australia and is the Chairman, CEO and President For other uses of this term see Industry (disambiguation An industry (from Latin industrius, "diligent industrious" Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, "making by hand" is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale In Marketing, a product is anything that can be offered to a Market that might satisfy a want or need A chemical substance is a Material with a definite chemical composition. Plastic is the general common term for a wide range of synthetic or semisynthetic organic solid materials suitable for the manufacture of industrial products Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture In Marketing, a product is anything that can be offered to a Market that might satisfy a want or need In Marketing, a product is anything that can be offered to a Market that might satisfy a want or need A service is the non-material equivalent of a good. A service provision is an economic activity that does not result in Ownership, and this is what differentiates In business revenue or revenues is Income that a company receives from its normal business activities usually from the sale of goods and services 513 Billion USD (2007)|
|Net income||▲$2. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Net income is equal to the Income that a firm has after subtracting costs and Expenses from the total Revenue. 887 Billion USD (2007)|
The Dow Chemical Company (NYSE: DOW TYO: 4850) is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Employment is a Contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. A website (alternatively web site or Web site, a back-construction from the Proper noun World Wide Web) is a collection of Web pages The New York Stock Exchange ( NYSE) is a Stock exchange based in New York City. The, or TSE, located in Tokyo, Japan, is the second largest Stock exchange market in the world by market value second only to the New York Stock The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Multinational corporation ( MNC) or transnational corporation ( TNC) is a Corporation or enterprise that manages Production or delivers Midland is a city in the US state of Michigan in Flint/Tri-Cities region of the state As of 2007, it is the second largest chemical manufacturer in the world (after BASF). BASF SE () is a German chemical company and the largest chemical company in the world 
Dow Chemical is a provider of plastics, chemicals, and agricultural products with presence in more than 175 countries and employing 46,000 people worldwide. It spends more than $1 billion annual expenditure in R&D. Its stated mission under the current CEO, Andrew N. Liveris, is: "To constantly improve what is essential to human progress by mastering science and technology" with the vision: "to be the largest, most profitable, and most respected chemical company in the world". Andrew Liveris is a Greek - Australian American executive from Australia and is the Chairman, CEO and President 
The company was founded in 1897 by Canadian-born chemist Herbert Henry Dow, who had invented a new method of extracting the bromine that was trapped underground in brine at Midland, Michigan. Herbert Henry Dow ( February 26, 1866 Belleville Ontario, Canada – October 15, 1930) was a Canadian born Brine (lat saltus) is Water saturated or nearly saturated with Salt (NaCl  While at first the company sold only bleach and potassium bromide, Dow today has seven major operating segments, with a wide variety of products offered by each. A bleach is a Chemical that removes color or whitens often via Oxidation. Potassium bromide ( K[[Bromine Br]] is a salt, widely used as an Anticonvulsant and a Sedative in the late 19th and early 20th centuries  The company's 2005 sales totaled $46. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been 3 billion, with a net income of $4. 5 billion. Traded on the New York Stock Exchange, as of 2005 Dow has about 105,000 shareholders. The New York Stock Exchange ( NYSE) is a Stock exchange based in New York City. 
Dow has been called the "Chemical companies' Chemical company" in that most of their product is sold to other manufacturers rather than to end users. At varying points in time Dow has sold directly to customers, primarily in the Human and Animal Health markets as well as Consumer Products.
Dow Chemical is an active member of the American Chemistry Council, and an active partner in different programs and initiatives in both the World Bank and United Nations. The American Chemistry Council (ACC formerly known as the Chemical Manufacturers' Association is an industry Trade association for American chemical companies based in The World Bank is an internationally supported Bank that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries for development programs (e The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security
Dow is the world's largest producer of plastics, including polystyrene, polyurethanes, polyethylene, polypropylene, and synthetic rubbers. Plastic is the general common term for a wide range of synthetic or semisynthetic organic solid materials suitable for the manufacture of industrial products Polystyrene ˌpɒliˈstaɪriːn ( IUPAC Polyphenylethene is an aromatic Polymer made from the aromatic Monomer Styrene A polyurethane, commonly abbreviated PU, is any Polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links Polyethylene or polythene ( IUPAC name poly(ethene) is a Thermoplastic commodity heavily used in consumer products (notably the Polypropylene or polypropene ( PP) is a Thermoplastic Polymer, made by the Chemical industry and used in a wide variety of applications It is also a major producer of the chemicals calcium chloride, ethylene oxide, and various acrylates, surfactants, and cellulose resins. Calcium chloride (CaCl2 is an ionic compound of Calcium and Chlorine. The acrylate ion ( C[[Hydrogen H]]2=CHC OO sup>&minus is the Ion of Acrylic acid. Surfactants are wetting agents that lower the Surface tension of a liquid allowing easier spreading and lower the Interfacial tension between two liquids Cellulose is an Organic compound with the formula, a Polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to over ten thousand β(1→4 It produces many agricultural chemicals, perhaps being most famous for its pesticide Lorsban. A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used to kill a pest. Chlorpyrifos is a toxic crystalline Organophosphate Insecticide that inhibits Acetylcholinesterase and is used to control insect pests  Its most well-known consumer products include Styrofoam brand insulation. In Marketing, a product is anything that can be offered to a Market that might satisfy a want or need Styrofoam is a trademark for polystyrene Thermal insulation, a material manufactured by Dow Chemical Company. Former Dow product lines, Saran wrap, Ziploc bags and Scrubbing Bubbles have been sold to S. C. Johnson & Son. Saran is the Trade name for a number of Polymers made from Vinylidene chloride (especially Polyvinylidene chloride or PVDC) along Ziploc is a brand of disposable re-sealable Zipper storage bags and containers originally developed by Dow Chemical Company, and now produced by S The Scrubbing Bubbles are Mascots for Scrubbing Bubbles bathroom cleaner from S S C Johnson ( S C Johnson & Son Inc) previously known as S C Johnson Wax (and earlier Johnson Wax) is a global manufacturer of household
Performance Plastics make up 25% of Dow's sales, with many products designed for the automotive and construction industries. The automotive industry is the industry involved in the design development manufacture marketing and sale of Motor vehicles In 2007 more than 73 million motor vehicles In the fields of Architecture and Civil engineering, construction is a process that consists of the Building or assembling of Infrastructure The plastics include polyolefins such as polyethylene and polypropylene, as well as the polystyrene most often seen in Styrofoam insulating material. Plastic is the general common term for a wide range of synthetic or semisynthetic organic solid materials suitable for the manufacture of industrial products A polyolefin is a Polymer produced from a simple Olefin (also called an Alkene with the general formula CnH2n as a Monomer. Polyethylene or polythene ( IUPAC name poly(ethene) is a Thermoplastic commodity heavily used in consumer products (notably the Polypropylene or polypropene ( PP) is a Thermoplastic Polymer, made by the Chemical industry and used in a wide variety of applications Polystyrene ˌpɒliˈstaɪriːn ( IUPAC Polyphenylethene is an aromatic Polymer made from the aromatic Monomer Styrene Styrofoam is a trademark for polystyrene Thermal insulation, a material manufactured by Dow Chemical Company. A complete range of epoxy resin intermediates and products are manufactured by Dow, including bisphenol A and epichlorohydrin. In Chemistry, epoxy or polyepoxide is a Thermosetting Epoxide Polymer that cures (polymerizes and crosslinks when mixed with a Bisphenol A, commonly abbreviated as BPA, is an Organic compound with two Phenol Functional groups It is a difunctional building block of Epichlorohydrin is a reactive Organic compound. It is an Epoxide and an Organochloride. Polyurethane, polyether polyols and specialty acrylates are all derived from ethylene oxide (EO). A polyurethane, commonly abbreviated PU, is any Polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links The acrylate ion ( C[[Hydrogen H]]2=CHC OO sup>&minus is the Ion of Acrylic acid. The Saran range of resins and films is based on polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC). Polyvinylidene chloride is a Polymer derived from Vinylidene chloride.
The Performance Chemicals (17% of sales) segment produces materials for water purification, pharmaceuticals, paper coatings, paints and advanced electronics. Water purification is the process of removing contaminants and other harmful microorganisms from a raw water source Coating is a Covering that is applied to an object The aim of applying coatings is to improve surface properties of a bulk material usually referred to as a substrate Electronics refers to the flow of charge (moving Electrons through Nonmetal conductors (mainly Semiconductors, whereas electrical Major product lines include nitroparaffins such as nitromethane, used in the pharmaceutical industry and manufactured by ANGUS Chemical Company , a wholly owned subsidiary of the Dow Chemical Company. Nitromethane is an Organic compound with the chemical formula CH3NO2 Important polymers include Dowlex ion exchange resins, acrylic and polystyrene latex, as well as Carbowax polyethylene glycols. ion-exchange resin is an insoluble matrix (or support structure normally in the form of small (1-2 mm diameter beads usually white or yellowish fabricated from an organic Polymer In Organic chemistry, the acryl group is the Functional group with structure H 2 C =CH-C(= O)- it is the Acyl group LaTeX (ˈleɪtɛ Poly( Ethylene glycol) (PEG also known as poly( Ethylene oxide) (PEO or polyoxyethylene (POE is the most commercially important type of polyether Specialty chemicals are used as starting materials for production of agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals.
Agricultural Sciences (Dow AgroSciences) provides 7% of sales, and are responsible for a range of insecticide s (such as Lorsban), herbicides and fungicides. Dow AgroSciences LLC is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Dow Chemical Company specializing in not only Agricultural chemicals such as Pesticides An insecticide is a Pesticide used against Insects in all developmental forms Chlorpyrifos is a toxic crystalline Organophosphate Insecticide that inhibits Acetylcholinesterase and is used to control insect pests A herbicide is used to kill unwanted Plants Selective herbicides kill specific targets while leaving the desired Crop relatively unharmed Fungicides are Chemical compounds or biological organisms used to kill or inhibit fungi or fungal spores Genetically modified plant seeds are also an important, growing area. Dow AgroSciences sells seeds commercially under the following brands: Mycogen (grain corn, silage corn, sunflowers, alfalfa, and sorghum, Atlas (soybean) and PhytoGen (cotton).
Basic plastics (26% of sales) end up in everything from diaper liners to beverage bottles and oil tanks. "Nappy" redirects here For other uses see Nappy (disambiguation and Diaper (disambiguation. A bottle is a container with a neck that is narrower than the body and a "mouth Products are based on the three major polyolefins – polystyrene (such as Styron resins), polyethylene and polypropylene.
Basic chemicals (12% of sales) are used internally by Dow as raw materials, and are also sold worldwide. Markets include dry cleaning, paints and coatings, snow and ice control and the food industry. Major products include ethylene glycol, caustic soda, chlorine, vinyl chloride monomer (VCM, for making PVC) and calcium chloride. Sodium hydroxide ( Na[[hydroxide OH]]) also known as Lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly according to IUPAC nomenclature Chlorine (ˈklɔriːn from the Greek word 'χλωρóς' ( khlôros, meaning 'pale green' is the Chemical element with Atomic number 17 and Vinyl chloride is the Organic compound with the formula CH2CHCl Calcium chloride (CaCl2 is an ionic compound of Calcium and Chlorine. Ethylene oxide (EO) and propylene oxide and the derived alcohols ethylene glycol and propylene glycol are major feedstocks for the manufacture of plastics such as polyurethane and PET. Propylene oxide is a highly toxic flammable Chemical compound. Ethylene glycol ( monoethylene glycol ( MEG) 12-ethanediol, IUPAC name: ethane-12-diol) is an Alcohol with two -OH Propylene glycol, known also by the systematic name propane-12-diol is an Organic compound (a Diol Alcohol) usually a faintly sweet odorless and Uses PET can be semi-rigid to rigid depending on its thickness and is very lightweight
The Hydrocarbons and Energy operating segment (13% of sales) oversees energy management at Dow, succeeding in raising energy efficiency by 92% since 1990.  Fuels and oil-based raw materials are also procured. Major feedstocks for Dow are provided by this group, including ethylene, propylene, 1,3-butadiene, benzene and styrene. Structure This Hydrocarbon has four Hydrogen Atoms bound to a pair of Carbon atoms that are connected by a Double bond. Propene, also known as propylene, is an unsaturated organic compound having the Chemical formula C 3 H 6 Benzene, or benzol, is an organic Chemical compound and a known Carcinogen with the molecular formula C 6 H 6 Styrene, also known as vinyl benzene as well as many other names (see table is an Organic compound with the Chemical formula C6H5CH=CH2
The company originally sold only bleach and potassium bromide, achieving a daily bleach output of 72 tons a day in 1902. A bleach is a Chemical that removes color or whitens often via Oxidation. Potassium bromide ( K[[Bromine Br]] is a salt, widely used as an Anticonvulsant and a Sedative in the late 19th and early 20th centuries Early in the company's existence, a group of British manufacturers attempted to drive Dow out of the bleach business by cutting prices. The economy of the United Kingdom is the fifth largest in the world in terms of market Exchange rates and the sixth largest by Purchasing power parity Dow survived by cutting prices in response and, although losing about $90,000 in income, began to diversify its product line. Product lining is the Marketing strategy of offering for sale several related products.  In 1905 German bromide producers drastically reduced their price of bromides in the US in an effort to prevent Dow from expanding its sales of bromides in Europe. Dow was able to purchase German-made bromides in the US, ship them back to Europe and still sell them at a lower price than the German producers were charging.  Even in its early history, the company set a tradition of rapidly diversifying its product line. Product lining is the Marketing strategy of offering for sale several related products. Within twenty years, Dow had become a major producer of agricultural chemicals, elemental chlorine, phenol and other dyestuffs, and magnesium metal. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Chlorine (ˈklɔriːn from the Greek word 'χλωρóς' ( khlôros, meaning 'pale green' is the Chemical element with Atomic number 17 and Phenol, is a toxic colourless Crystalline Solid with a sweet tarry odor commonly referred to as a "hospital smell" A dye can generally be described as a Colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied Magnesium (mægˈniːziəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Mg, Atomic number 12 Atomic weight 24
In the 1930s, Dow began production of plastic resins, which would grow to become one of the corporation's major businesses. Its first plastic products were ethylcellulose, made in 1935, and polystyrene, made in 1937. Polystyrene ˌpɒliˈstaɪriːn ( IUPAC Polyphenylethene is an aromatic Polymer made from the aromatic Monomer Styrene
In 1940-1, Dow built its first plant to produce magnesium extracted from seawater rather than underground brine. Magnesium (mægˈniːziəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Mg, Atomic number 12 Atomic weight 24 Seawater is Water from a Sea or Ocean. On average seawater in the world's oceans has a Salinity of about 3 This marked the first time man had 'mined the ocean for metal'. 
Growth of this business made Dow a strategically important business during World War II, as magnesium became important in fabricating lightweight parts for aircraft. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Also during the war, Dow and Corning began their joint venture, Dow Corning, to produce silicones for military and later civilian use. Corning Incorporated ( is an American manufacturer of Glass, Ceramics and related materials primarily for industrial and scientific applications Dow Corning is a multinational Corporation headquartered in Midland Michigan, USA. Silicones are largely inert compounds with a wide variety of forms and uses In 1942 Dow began its foreign expansion with the formation of Dow Chemical of Canada in Sarnia, Ontario to produce styrene for use in styrene-butadiene synthetic rubber. Sarnia is a City in Southwestern Ontario, Canada (city population 71419 census area population Styrene, also known as vinyl benzene as well as many other names (see table is an Organic compound with the Chemical formula C6H5CH=CH2 Styrene-Butadiene ( SBR) is an Elastomeric Copolymer consisting of Styrene and Butadiene. Elastomer Synthetic rubber is any type of artificially made Polymer material which acts as an Elastomer.
In 1940, Dow began plant construction in Freeport, Texas. This is now the home to Dow's largest site - and one of the largest integrated chemical manufacturing sites in the world. One of the first plants to come on stream was the first facility to extract magnesium from seawater. The site grew quickly - with power, chlorine, caustic soda and ethylene also soon in production.  Based on 2002-2003 data, the Freeport plants (known as Texas Operations internally) produced 27 billion pounds of product - or 21% of Dow's global production. 
In the post-war era, Dow began expanding outside North America, founding its first overseas subsidiary in Japan in 1952, with several other nations following rapidly thereafter. The economy of Japan is the second largest economy in the world after the United States, at around US$4 Based largely on its growing plastics business, it opened a consumer products division beginning with Saran wrap in 1953. Based on its growing chemicals and plastics businesses, Dow's sales exceeded $1 billion in 1964, $2 billion in 1971, and $10 billion in 1980.
During the Vietnam War, Dow became the sole supplier of napalm to the United States military. The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia Napalm is the name given to any of a number of Flammable Liquids used in Warfare often jellied Gasoline. The United States Armed Forces are the overall unified military forces of the United States Napalm, an incendiary liquid used as a weapon in Vietnam, led to human casualties that were widely displayed in the news media. Protests of Dow took place at many colleges but Dow's board of directors voted to continue production of napalm (after attempting to persuade the U.S. Department of Defense to accept responsibility for napalm and exculpate Dow's management). The United States Department of Defense ( DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government
Agent Orange, a chemical defoliant containing dioxin, was also manufactured by Dow in New Plymouth, New Zealand and in America for use by the U. Agent Orange is the code name for a powerful Herbicide and Defoliant used by the U A defoliant is any chemical sprayed or dusted on plants to cause its leaves to fall off Not to be confused with Dioxane or Digoxin. Dioxin is a heterocyclic, organic, antiaromatic compound for the place called New Plymouth in the United States see New Plymouth Idaho. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island S. military during the Vietnam War; the dioxin from the defoliant made its way into the food chain and was linked to a major increase in birth defects among Vietnamese people. Food chains, also called food networks and/or trophic networks, describe the feeding relationships between species within an Ecosystem. A congenital disorder is a disease or disorder that is present at birth In 2005, a lawsuit was filed by Vietnamese victims of Agent Orange against Dow and Monsanto, which also supplied Agent Orange to the military. The Monsanto Company ( is a multinational Agricultural biotechnology Corporation. The companies argued that no link between Agent Orange and the alleged health problems had been proven, and furthermore that the companies are not responsible for the manner in which their products are used by the military.  The lawsuit was thrown out.  In 2006, a court in South Korea did order Dow and Monsanto to compensate South Korean veterans of the Vietnam War and their families for Agent Orange-related injuries. South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː The Republic of Korea Armed Forces ( Hangul: 대한민국 국군 Hanja: 大韓民國 國軍 Revised Romanization: Dae-han-min-guk Guk-gun  245-T and DDT was also used on New Zealand farmland from the 1950's to the 1980's, currently the New Zealand government provides free medical checkups to individuals who believe they are affected, however affected individuals feel this is vastly insufficient.
A major manufacturer of silicone breast implants, Dow Corning was successfully sued in 1977 for damages arising from a woman whose implants ruptured; it was the first such successful suit, and Dow Corning paid $170,000 in a settlement. A breast implant is a Prosthesis used to enlarge the size of a woman's Breasts (known as breast augmentation, breast enlargement, mammoplasty During the 1980s, Ralph Nader's Public Citizen Health Research Group publicised its belief that the implants were cancer-causing; in December of 1990, an episode of Face to Face with Connie Chung addressed the then-alleged dangers of silicone implants. Ralph Nader (born February 27 1934 is an American Attorney, Author, Lecturer, political activist, and independent candidate for President Public Citizen is a Washington DC -based public interest group engaged in Consumer Advocacy, government accountability clean democracy and ethical Constance Yu-Hwa "Connie" Chung Povich ( born August 20, 1946) is an American journalist who has been an anchor and reporter More lawsuits, as well as Food and Drug Administration reviews, Congressional hearings, and scientific studies took place in the ensuing years; as of December 1991, 137 individual lawsuits were filed against Dow Corning, a figure that would rise to 3,558 in December 1992, and 19,092 by December 1994. The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses Amidst the flurry of lawsuits in May 1995, Dow Corning filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection; several judgments against Dow Corning and Dow Chemical were handed down in lawsuits. Chapter 11 is a chapter of the United States Bankruptcy Code, which permits reorganization under the Bankruptcy laws of the United States
Several panels of independent experts, including the Institute of Medicine, have since found that silicone breast implants do not appear to cause any systemic diseases or cancers. The Institute of Medicine (IOM is one of the United States National Academies, and is a not-for-profit non-governmental American organization chartered in 1970 as a part of the United  
Per the 2005 10-K for The Dow Chemical Company filing "On October 6, 2005, all such cases then pending in the District Court against the Company were dismissed. Should cases involving Dow Corning’s breast implant and other silicone medical products be filed against the Company in the future, they will be accorded similar treatment. " The Dow Chemical Company - 10-K Filing - 2005
Until the late 1970s, Dow produced DBCP (1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane), a soil fumigant and nematicide sold under the names the Nemagon and Fumazone. A nematicide is a type of Chemical Pesticide used to kill Parasitic Nematodes (roundworms Workers at Dow's DBCP production were made sterile by exposure to the compound. These male reproductive effects were consistent with animal experiments showing that DBCP sterilized rabbits. The workers successfully sued the company, and most domestic uses of DBCP were banned in 1977. Amid growing concerns over the chemical's effects on male workers, Dow ceased production and reclaimed DBCP that had been shipped to its users. Despite warning from the company about its health effects, Dole Food Company, who was using the chemical on its banana plantations in Latin America, threatened to sue Dow if it stopped DBCP shipments, so Dow shipped half a million gallons of DBCP to Dole, much it reclaimed from other users. Dole Food Company Inc is an American -based Agricultural Multinational corporation headquartered in Westlake Village California and is For the fruit see Banana. For other meanings see Banana (disambiguation. Plantation workers who became sterile or were stricken with other maladies subsequently sued both Dow and Dole in Latin American courts, alleging that their ailments were caused by DBCP exposure. While the courts agreed with the workers and awarded them over $600 million in damages, they have been unable to collect payments from the companies. A group of workers then sued in the United States, and, on November 5, 2007, a Los Angeles jury awarded them 3. Events 1499 - Publication of the Catholicon in Treguier ( Brittany) Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. 2 million dollars. Dole and Dow vowed to appeal the decision. 
In the early 1990s, Dow embarked on a major structural reorganization. The former reporting hierarchy was geographic based, with the regional president reporting directly to the overall company President and CEO. The new organization groups together the same businesses from different sites, irrespective of which region they belong (i. e. the vice president for Polystyrene is now in charge of these plants all over the word), almost reducing the regional president to a figurehead.
Chlorpyrifos, marketed by Dow as Dursban, is well known as a home and garden insecticide, and until 2000 it was one of the most widely used household pesticide in the US. Chlorpyrifos is a toxic crystalline Organophosphate Insecticide that inhibits Acetylcholinesterase and is used to control insect pests An insecticide is a Pesticide used against Insects in all developmental forms A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used to kill a pest. The pesticide is also a nerve toxin and suspected endocrine disruptor and has been associated with carcinogenicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity, and acute toxicity. Endocrine disruptors (sometimes also referred to as hormonally active agents) are Exogenous substances that act like Hormones in the Endocrine system The term carcinogen refers to any substance Radionuclide or radiation that is an agent directly involved in the promotion of Cancer or in the fatation of its propagation Toxicity is the degree to which a substance is able to damage an exposed organism Acute toxicity describes the adverse effects of a substance which result either from a single exposure or from multiple exposures in a short space of time (usually less than 24 hours One study claims that Dow has contributed to 80% of the Chlorpyrifos burden of the US.
In 1995, Dow was fined $732,000 for not sending the EPA reports it had received on 249 Dursban poisoning incidents. In June 2000, Dow withdrew registration of chlorpyrifos for use in homes and other places where children could be exposed, and severely restricted its use on crops. The company, however, continues to market Dursban in industrializing countries, including India, where Dow's sales literature claimed Dursban has "an established record of safety regarding humans and pets. "
In 2003, Dow agreed to pay $2 million - the largest penalty ever in a pesticide case - to the state of New York, in response to a lawsuit filed by the Attorney General to end Dow's illegal advertising of Dursban as "safe".
At the beginning of August 1999, Dow agreed to purchase Union Carbide Corporation for $9. Union Carbide Corporation ( Union Carbide) is one of the oldest chemical and polymers companies in the United States, currently employing more than 3800 people 3 billion in stock. At the time the combined company was the second largest chemical company, behind DuPont. E I du Pont de Nemours and Company (,) is an American chemical company that was founded in July 1802 as a Gunpowder mill by Eleuthère Irénée This led to protests from some stockholders, who feared that Dow would become responsible for Union Carbide's role in the Bhopal disaster. The Bhopal disaster was an Industrial disaster that occurred in the city of Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India, resulting in the immediate deaths In 1984, a Union Carbide plant in Bhopal, India had leaked toxic gas. Bhopāl ( Hindi: भोपाल bʰoːpɑːl, Marathi -भोपाळ is a city in central India.  According to Amnesty International, over 20,000 people died as a result of the Bhopal disaster, with an additional 100,000 "living with chronic illnesses". Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a Western based international Non-governmental organization which defines its mission as "to 
Union Carbide maintained that the company met its legal responsibility by reaching a settlement with the Indian government in 1989 which required the Indian state government of Madhya Pradesh to clean up the disaster site. Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP) ( Hindī: मध्य प्रदेश pronounced, Translation: Middle Province) often As part of the settlement, Union Carbide gave the Indian government $470 million. By 1998, the Indian government had disbursed $230 million to victims of the disaster and earmarked the rest for cleanup and additional aid to residents. The survivors of the disaster sued, and in 2004 the Indian government began disbursing the remainder of the money. Survivors have also filed a criminal case against Dow in the hopes that the company's Indian assests can be seized. According to Union Carbide, the explosion was caused by sabotage. In 2004, Amnesty International released a report indicating areas they consider Union Carbide failings, and accused the company of withholding information critical to medical treatment. 
Bill Stavropoulos served as President and Chief Executive Officer from 1995-2000 and again from 2002-2004. He relinquished his board seat on April 1, 2006, having been a director since 1990 and chairman since 2000. During his first tenure, he led the purchase of Union Carbide which had proven controversial, as it was initially blamed for poor results under his successor as CEO Mike Parker. Union Carbide Corporation ( Union Carbide) is one of the oldest chemical and polymers companies in the United States, currently employing more than 3800 people Parker was dismissed and Stavropoulos returned from retirement to lead a turnaround of Dow. 
Today, Dow is the world's largest producer of plastics; with its 2001 acquisition of Union Carbide, it has become a major player in the petrochemical industry as well. Union Carbide Corporation ( Union Carbide) is one of the oldest chemical and polymers companies in the United States, currently employing more than 3800 people Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of Petroleum or other Hydrocarbon origin
Areas along Michigan's Tittabawassee River, which runs within yards of Dow's main plant in Midland, were found to contain elevated levels of the cancer-causing chemical dioxin in November 2006. The Tittabawassee River is a stream which flows in a generally southward direction through the Lower Peninsula of the U Midland is a city in the US state of Michigan in Flint/Tri-Cities region of the state Not to be confused with Dioxane or Digoxin. Dioxin is a heterocyclic, organic, antiaromatic compound The dioxin was located in sediments two to ten feet below the surface of the river, and, according to the New York Times, "there is no indication that residents or workers in the area are directly exposed to the sites".  However, people who often eat fish from the river had slightly elevated levels of dioxin in their blood.  In July 2007, Dow reached an agreement with the Environmental Protection Agency to remove 50,000 cubic yards (38,000 m³) of sediment from three areas of the riverbed and levees of the river that had been found to be contaminated. 
In December 2007, Dow announced a series of moves to revamp the company. A December 4 announcement revealed that Dow planned to exit the automotive sealers business in 2008 or 2009. "December 4th" redirects here For the song by Jay-Z, see December 4th (song.  Within several weeks, Dow also announced the formation of a joint venture with the Petrochemical Industries Company, a subsidiary of Kuwait Petroleum Corporation. Kuwait Petroleum Corporation ( Arabic: مؤسسة البترول الكويتية was Kuwait's national oil company headquartered in Kuwait City In exchange for $9. 5 billion, Dow sold a 50% interest in five of its global businesses: polyethylene, polypropylene and polycarbonate plastics, and ethylenamines and ethanolamines. 
Based on year 2000 data, researchers at the Political Economy Research Institute determined that Dow Chemical was ranked eleventh among corporations in a measure of toxicity of airborne pollutants emitted in the United States, releasing more than 14 million pounds of toxins into American air in that year. (The statistics given are not correlated to the volume of production. )  According to United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) documents Dow has some responsibility for 96 of the United States' worst Superfund toxic waste dumps, in tenth place by number of sites. Superfund is the common name for the United States environmental policy officially known as the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act Toxic waste is waste material often in chemical form that can cause death or injury to living creatures One of these, a mining site, is listed as the sole responsibility of Dow: all the rest are shared with numerous other companies. Fifteen sites have been listed by the EPA as finalized (cleaned up) and 69 are listed as "construction complete", meaning that all required plans and equipment for cleanup are in place. 
In 2007, Dow was awarded an American Chemical Council (ACC) award of 'Exceptional Merit' in recognition of its longstanding energy efficiency and conservation efforts. Between 1995 and 2005, Dow reduced energy intensity (BTU per pound produced) by 22%. This is equivalent to saving enough electricity to power eight million US homes for a year.  The same year, Dow subsidiary Dow Agrosciences won a United Nations Montreal Protocol Innovators Award for its efforts in helping replace methyl bromide - a compound identified as contributing to the depletion of the ozone layer. In addition, Dow Agrosciences won an EPA "Best of the Best" Stratospheric Ozone Protection Award. . The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) named Dow as a 2008 Energy Star Partner of the Year for excellence in energy management and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. Energy Star is an international standard for energy efficient Consumer products Greenhouse gases are gaseous constituents of the atmosphere bothnatural and anthropogenic that absorb and emit radiation at specific wavelengths within the spectrum of thermal infrared 
Equally owned by Dow and Corning, Inc. (formerly Corning Glass Works), Dow Corning was founded in 1943 by the two companies as a joint venture. Dow Corning is a multinational Corporation headquartered in Midland Michigan, USA. Corning Incorporated ( is an American manufacturer of Glass, Ceramics and related materials primarily for industrial and scientific applications The company's focus is silicon-based products and technology. Silicon (ˈsɪlɪkən or /ˈsɪlɪkɒn/ silicium is the Chemical element that has the symbol Si and Atomic number 14  Dow Corning in turn owns 63% of the Hemlock, Michigan-based Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation, which manufactures polycrystalline silicon for semiconductor chips. Hemlock is an Unincorporated community in Richland Township of Saginaw County in the U A semiconductor' is a Solid material that has Electrical conductivity in between a conductor and an insulator; it can vary over that 
Dow Corning manufactured silicone breast implants, which were the cause of controversy and legal liability in the 1980s and 1990s (see below. A breast implant is a Prosthesis used to enlarge the size of a woman's Breasts (known as breast augmentation, breast enlargement, mammoplasty The Dow Chemical Company () is an American Multinational corporation headquartered in Midland Michigan. )
Current members of the board of directors of The Dow Chemical Company are Arnold Allemang (who is also a senior adviser to the company); chemistry professor Jacqueline Barton; former Boeing manager James A. Bell; Whirlpool Corporation chairman and CEO Jeff Fettig; former U.S. Secretary of Commerce Barbara Franklin; Dow chairman and CEO Andrew N. Liveris; Dow CFO Geoffery E. Professor Jacqueline K Barton is the Arthur and Marian Hanisch Memorial professor of Chemistry at California Institute of Technology. The Boeing Company is a major Aerospace and defense corporation originally founded by William E James A Bell ( Born June 4, 1948 in in Los Angeles, California) is currently the Corporate President Executive Vice President and Whirlpool Corporation ( is a Fortune 500 company and a global manufacturer and marketer of major Home appliances,with annual sales of approximately $18 billion more The United States Secretary of Commerce is the head of the United States Department of Commerce concerned with business and industry the Department states its mission to Barbara Hackman Franklin (born March 19, 1940) was the 29th United States Secretary of Commerce and was the highest-ranking woman in the Administration Andrew Liveris is a Greek - Australian American executive from Australia and is the Chairman, CEO and President Merszei; Illinois Tool Works Inc. vice chairman James Ringler; Duke Energy Corporation president Ruth Shaw; and Claris Capital chairman Paul Stern (who is Dow's presiding director and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. Duke Energy ( headquartered in Charlotte North Carolina, is an energy company with assets in the United States, Canada and Latin America Dr Paul Stern (1892–1948 lawyer and diplomat was an Austrian international bridge player who fled to London in 1938 The Council on Foreign Relations ( CFR) is an American Nonpartisan foreign policy membership organization founded in 1921 and based at 58 East 68th Street (at )
On April 12, 2007, Dow dismissed two senior executives for "unauthorized discussions with third parties about the potential sale of the company. Events 467 - Anthemius is elevated to Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. " The two figures are executive vice president Romeo Kreinberg, and director and former CFO J. Pedro Reinhard. Dow claims they were secretly in contact with JPMorgan Chase; at the same time, a story surfaced in Britain's Sunday Express regarding a possible leveraged buyout of Dow. JPMorgan Chase & Co ( is the largest Banking institution in the United States by deposits and market capitalization and is one of the oldest operating The Daily Express is a conservative Middle-market British Tabloid Newspaper. A leveraged buyout (or LBO, or highly-leveraged transaction (HLT or "bootstrap" transaction occurs when a Financial sponsor acquires a controlling interest The two executives have since filed lawsuits claiming they were fired for being a threat to CEO Liveris, and that the allegations were concocted as a pretext. 
In September 2004, the company obtained the naming rights to the Saginaw County Event Center in Saginaw, Michigan; the center is now called the Dow Event Center. The Dow Event Center (formerly known as The Saginaw County Event Center, formerly known as The Saginaw Civic Center) is located in downtown Saginaw The Saginaw Spirit (of the Ontario Hockey League) plays at the Center, which also hosts events such as professional wrestling and live theater. The Saginaw Spirit are a Junior ice hockey team from Saginaw, Michigan, United States of America, playing in the Ontario Hockey League Professional wrestling, or pro wrestling, is a non-competitive professional Sport, where all matches are scripted by the promotion's booking staff 
In October 2006 the company bought the naming rights to the stadium used by the Great Lakes Loons, a Single-A minor league baseball team located in its hometown of Midland, Michigan. The Great Lakes Loons, based in Midland Michigan, is a Low Class A Minor league baseball team affiliated with the Los Angeles Dodgers. The Midwest League is a Class A Minor league baseball league which operates in the Midwestern United States. Part of the History of baseball series Minor league baseball is a hierarchy of Professional baseball leagues in North The stadium, which opened in April 2007, is called Dow Diamond. Dow Diamond is a Minor League baseball stadium located in Midland Michigan. The Dow Foundation played a key role in bringing the Loons to the city.
The company also sponsors a global running relay to highlight the need for better drinking water in locations around the globe. The run will roughly follow the 41st North parallel and cover nearly 12,000 miles (19,000 km). The run is organized by the Blue Planet Run Foundation.
Dow CEO Andrew N. Liveris called 2005 the company's "best year ever" with operating profits of $5. Andrew Liveris is a Greek - Australian American executive from Australia and is the Chairman, CEO and President 4 billion, a jump of 56. 5% compared with the previous year.  Net income rose more than 60% to $4. 5 billion, on sales of $46. 3 billion. 2006 looks as if it could be even better, with first-quarter net earnings of $1. 2 billion.  All this is occurring in the context of adverse operating conditions, caused by high energy and raw material costs, and the effects of two damaging hurricanes.
Liveris supports the vertically integrated approach used at Dow, which produces everything from basic chemical feedstocks to high value products such as pesticides and reverse osmosis membranes. These value-adding product chains, along with Dow's wide product range, help the company to weather the storms of the global economy. Despite this, high energy and feedstock costs may begin to take their toll, particularly if global demand begins to fall just as supply is rising.
Like many chemical companies, Dow is facing pressures of regulation in the US and Europe, particularly as the EU introduces its new REACH policy. The economy of the European Union combines the economies of 27 member states and is generating an estimated nominal GDP of € 12581 billion ( $ The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Registration Evaluation Authorisation and restriction of CHemicals ( REACH) is a new European Union Regulation, EC/2006/1907 of 18 December 2006 Litigation costs in the US taken over by Dow as a result of its 2001 takeover of Union Carbide also remain a concern. Union Carbide Corporation ( Union Carbide) is one of the oldest chemical and polymers companies in the United States, currently employing more than 3800 people
For these reasons the company is looking to the Middle East and Asia for new projects. In Kuwait , Dow is constructing (with PIC of Kuwait) a new world-scale ethane cracker for production of ethylene, along with an ethylene oxide/ethylene glycol plant and (for 2008) a facility for production of aromatic hydrocarbons. The State of Kuwait ( دولة الكويت IPA [dawlatt̪ alkuwajt̪]) is a sovereign Arab Emirate on the coast of the Persian Gulf, enclosed In Petroleum geology and Chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic Molecules such as Kerogens or heavy Hydrocarbons Structure This Hydrocarbon has four Hydrogen Atoms bound to a pair of Carbon atoms that are connected by a Double bond. Ethylene glycol ( monoethylene glycol ( MEG) 12-ethanediol, IUPAC name: ethane-12-diol) is an Alcohol with two -OH In Oman, the company is working with the Oman government to build a new world-scale polyethylene plant. Oman, officially the Sultanate of Oman ( Arabic: سلطنة عُمان) is an Arab Country in Southwest Asia on the southeast Polyethylene or polythene ( IUPAC name poly(ethene) is a Thermoplastic commodity heavily used in consumer products (notably the In China, the company is collaborating with Shenhua Group (the country's largest coal mining company) to improve catalyst efficiency to allow viable conversion of coal to olefins. Shenhua Group is a state-owned mining and energy company in China. Coal mining is the extraction or removal of Coal from the Earth by Mining. Catalysis is the process in which the rate of a Chemical reaction is increased by means of a Chemical substance known as a catalyst In Organic chemistry, an alkene, olefin, or olefine is an unsaturated Chemical compound containing at least one Carbon Dow is also seeking to expand its R&D presence in Asia, adding 600 jobs in Shanghai by the end of 2007, and the company may open up a large R&D center in India. The phrase research and development (also R and D or more often R&D) according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, refers Shanghai ( 上[[wikt 海|海]] is the largest city in China in terms of population and one of the largest urban areas in the world with over 20 million
The joint ventures planned for Asia are typical of Dow's "asset-light" approach, which works by offering a combination of intellectual property and money in exchange for a share in a world-scale production facility. At the same time, the company is considering selling a share of some of its existing assets in order to free up cash.
Liveris expects these goals to be reached predominantly with fossil fuels, through energy conservation and reduction of energy intensity, as he does not expect alternative energy to play a major role for at least 10-20 years. Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source Fuels that is Hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the Earth’s crust. Energy conservation is the practice of decreasing the quantity of energy used Energy intensity is a measure of the energy efficiency of a nation's economy. Alternative energy is typically defined as coming from sources that do not deplete natural resources or harm.