|January 26, 1880 – April 5, 1964 (aged 84)|
Douglas MacArthur in 1945
|Place of birth||Little Rock, Arkansas|
|Place of death||Washington, D.C.|
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Years of service||1900–1952|
|Rank||General of the Army (US Army)|
Field Marshal (Philippine Army)
|Commands held||2nd Lt US Army Corps of Engineers|
Superintendent of the U.S. Military Academy
Department of the Philippines
U.S. Army Forces Far East
Supreme Allied Commander Pacific
|Battles/wars||Vera Cruz Expedition|
World War I
World War II
|Awards||Medal of Honor|
Distinguished Service Cross (3)
Army Distinguished Service Medal (5)
Navy Distinguished Service Medal
Distinguished Flying Cross
Silver Star (7)
Purple Heart (2)
Order of the Rising Sun
Douglas MacArthur (January 26, 1880 – April 5, 1964) was an American general and Field Marshal of the Philippine Army. Lieutenant General Arthur MacArthur Jr (June 2 1845&ndashSeptember 5 1912 was a United States Army General. Events 1340 - King Edward III of England is declared King of France. Year 1880 ( MDCCCLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Events 456 - St Patrick returns to Ireland as a missionary bishop Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar. Little Rock is the Capital and the most populous city of the U Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D The United States of America —commonly referred to as the General of the Army (GA is a five-star General officer and is the highest possible rank in the United States Army. The United States Army is a military organization whose primary mission is to "provide necessary forces and capabilities. Please see Field Marshal for other nations which use this rank Field marshal of the Philippines was a rank created in 1937 to be held The Philippine Army ( PA) is the ground arm of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP The United States Army Corps of Engineers ( USACE) is a federal agency and a major Army command made up of some 34600 Civilian and 650 Military personnel The commanding officer of the United States Military Academy is its Superintendent. The Philippine Department ( Philippine Garrison -- The Battling Bastards of Bataan) was a regular US Army unit defeated in the Philippines, during USAFFE ( United States Army Forces in the Far East) included the Philippine Department, Philippine Army (2 regular and 10 reserve divisions The Commanders of World War II were for the most part career officers The United States occupation of the Mexican port of Veracruz lasted for six months in response to the Tampico Affair of April 9, 1914. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Korean War refers to a period of military conflict between North Korean and South Korean regimes with major hostilities lasting from June 25 1950 until the The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States government. The Distinguished Service Cross (DSC is the second highest military decoration that can be awarded to a member of the United States Army, awarded for extreme This article concerns the United States Army Distinguished Service Medal The Navy Distinguished Service Medal is a military award of the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps which was first created in 1919 The Distinguished Flying Cross is a medal awarded to any officer or enlisted member of the United States armed forces who distinguishes himself or herself in The Silver Star is the third highest military decoration that can be awarded to a member of any branch of the United States Armed Forces. The Bronze Star Medal is a United States Armed Forces individual military decoration which may be awarded for bravery acts of merit or meritorious service The Purple Heart is a United States military decoration awarded in the name of the President to those who have been wounded or killed while serving The Order of the Rising Sun (旭日章 Kyokujitsu shō ? See also Douglas MacArthur Douglas MacArthur, United States Army General began his career in 1899 served in three major military conflicts and held Events 1340 - King Edward III of England is declared King of France. Year 1880 ( MDCCCLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Events 456 - St Patrick returns to Ireland as a missionary bishop Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Philippine Army ( PA) is the ground arm of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP He was a Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and later played a prominent role in the Pacific theater of World War II, receiving the Medal of Honor for his early service in the Philippines and on the Bataan Peninsula. The Chief of Staff of the United States Army ( CSA) is the highest ranking officer in the United States Army and is member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff The Pacific War was the part of World War II —and preceding conflicts—that took place in the Pacific Ocean, its islands and in East Asia, between World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States government. He was designated to command the proposed invasion of Japan in November 1945. Operation Downfall was the overall Allied plan for the invasion of Japan near the end of World War II. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. When that was no longer necessary, he officially accepted their surrender on September 2, 1945. Events 44 BC - Pharaoh Cleopatra VII of Egypt declares her son co-ruler as Ptolemy XV Caesarion. Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar
MacArthur oversaw the Occupation of Japan from 1945 to 1951. At the end of World War II, Japan was occupied by the Allied Powers, led by the United States with contributions also from Australia, British Although criticized for protecting Emperor Hirohito and the imperial family, he is credited with implementing far-ranging democratic changes in that country. also known as, (April 29 1901 – January 7 1989 was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order reigning from December 25 1926 until his death Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system He led the United Nations Command forces defending South Korea against the North Korean invasion from 1950 to 1951. The United Nations Command (Korea is the unified command structure for the multinational military forces supporting the Republic of Korea (South Korea or ROK during and after South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː North Korea is the commonly used short form name for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (or DPRK) a State located in East Asia, On April 11, 1951 MacArthur was removed from command by President Harry S. Truman for publicly disagreeing with Truman's Korean War Policy. 
MacArthur is credited with the military dictum, "In war, there is no substitute for victory" but he also warned, "The soldier, above all other people, prays for peace, for he must suffer and bear the deepest wounds and scars of war. " He fought in three major wars (World War I, World War II, Korean War) and was one of only five men ever to rise to the rank of General of the Army. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Korean War refers to a period of military conflict between North Korean and South Korean regimes with major hostilities lasting from June 25 1950 until the Military rank is a system of hierarchical relationships in Armed forces or civil institutions organized along military lines General of the Army (GA is a five-star General officer and is the highest possible rank in the United States Army.
Douglas MacArthur, the youngest of three brothers, was born in Little Rock, Arkansas in 1880 in an upstairs room of The Tower Building of the Little Rock Arsenal, which was at the time an active military building, while his parents were briefly stationed there. Little Rock is the Capital and the most populous city of the U The Tower Building of the Little Rock Arsenal is a building located in MacArthur Park in downtown Little Rock Arkansas.  His parents were Lieutenant General Arthur MacArthur, Jr. (at the time a captain), a recipient of the Medal of Honor, and Mary Pinkney Hardy MacArthur (nicknamed "Pinky") of Norfolk, Virginia. This article is about a United States military rank For other countries that use a similar rank see Lieutenant General. Lieutenant General Arthur MacArthur Jr (June 2 1845&ndashSeptember 5 1912 was a United States Army General. See " Captain " for other versions of this rank In the uniformed services of the United States, captain is a federal The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States government. Norfolk is an Independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States Douglas MacArthur was the grandson of jurist and politician Arthur MacArthur, Sr. He was baptized at Christ Episcopal Church in Little Rock on May 16, 1880. Arthur MacArthur Sr ( January 26, 1815 &ndash August 26, 1896) was an American lawyer judge and politician who served as the acting In Christianity, baptism ( Greek, "immersing" "performing Ablutions " is the ritual act with the use of water by which one is admitted Events 1204 - Baldwin IX Count of Flanders is crowned as the first Emperor of the Latin Empire. Year 1880 ( MDCCCLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year In his memoir Reminiscences, MacArthur wrote that his first memory was the sound of the bugle, and that he had learned to "ride and shoot even before I could read or write—indeed, almost before I could walk and talk. "
MacArthur's father was posted to San Antonio, Texas, in 1893. There, Douglas attended West Texas Military Academy (now known as T.M.I.: The Episcopal School of Texas), where he became an excellent student. TMI - The Episcopal School of Texas is an Episcopal College preparatory school in San Antonio Texas, USA, with an optional boarding program MacArthur entered the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1898; accompanied by his mother, who occupied a hotel suite overlooking the grounds of the Academy. "USMA" redirects here For other uses see USMA (disambiguation The United States Military Academy (also known as USMA,  (The story is that his mother would use a telescope to look over into his room to ensure that he was studying. ) An outstanding cadet, he graduated first in his 93-man class in 1903. For his prowess in sports, military training, and academics he was awarded the coveted title of "First Captain Of The Corps Of Cadets. " Only two other students in the history of West Point had surpassed his achievements (Robert E. Lee being one of them). Robert Edward Lee (January 19 1807 &ndash October 12 1870 was a career United States Army officer, an Engineer, and among the most celebrated Upon graduation MacArthur was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Second Lieutenant is the lowest commissioned officer Military rank in many Armed forces. The United States Army Corps of Engineers ( USACE) is a federal agency and a major Army command made up of some 34600 Civilian and 650 Military personnel
After leaving West Point, MacArthur served his first tour of duty in the Philippines. "USMA" redirects here For other uses see USMA (disambiguation The United States Military Academy (also known as USMA, Later, MacArthur served as an aide-de-camp to his father, and visited Japan during the Russo-Japanese war. An aide-de-camp ( French for camp assistant) is a personal assistant secretary or Adjutant to a person of high rank usually a senior military officer The Russo-Japanese War (日露戦争 Romaji: Nichi-Ro Sensō Русско-японская война Russko-Yaponskaya Voyna;, 10 February 1904 – 5 September In 1906 he was aide-de-camp to President Theodore Roosevelt. Theodore Roosevelt (ˈroʊzəvɛlt October 27 1858 January 6 1919 also known as T Leaving the White House in 1907, MacArthur performed engineering duties in Kansas, Milwaukee, and Washington D. C. until his assignment to the General Staff (1913-1917).
MacArthur distinguished himself by several acts of personal bravery in the Vera Cruz Expedition of 1914, including a railroad chase back to American lines. The United States occupation of the Mexican port of Veracruz lasted for six months in response to the Tampico Affair of April 9, 1914. For these he was recommended for the Medal of Honor, although this was denied on the grounds that his actions had exceeded the scope of his orders. The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States government.
These duties were performed while he was serving on the Army General Staff. MacArthur was later in charge of dealing with the National Guard Bureau within the War Department. In early 1917, prior to U. S. entry into World War I, MacArthur was elevated two grades in rank from major to full colonel. Major is a Military rank the use of which varies according to country Colonel ( RP ˈkɜnəl GA ˈkɜrnəl is a Military rank of a Commissioned officer, with corresponding ranks existing in almost every country Upon his promotion to full colonel, he transferred his basic branch from the Corps of Engineers to the Infantry.
During World War I MacArthur served in France as chief of staff of the 42nd ("Rainbow") Division. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The chief of staff is the chief aide to the Commander of larger military Formations and Units It is sometimes the case that the chief of staff is more directly The 42nd Infantry Division is an division of the National Guard and United States Army. Upon his promotion to Brigadier General he became the commander of the 84th Infantry Brigade. Brigadier General is the lowest ranking General Officer in some countries usually sitting between the ranks of Colonel and Major General. A few weeks before the war ended, he became division commander. During the war, MacArthur received two Distinguished Service Crosses, seven Silver Stars, a Distinguished Service Medal,and two Purple Hearts.
Douglas MacArthur made it his policy to "lead. . . men from the front. " Because of this policy, and the fact that he usually refused to wear a gas mask while the rest of his men would, he had respiratory problems the rest of his life. Still, he was the most decorated American officer of the war, and General Charles T. Menoher once said that he was the "greatest fighting man" in the army. Major General Charles T Menoher (1862-1930 was a US Army general and commanded the U
In 1919 MacArthur became superintendent of the U. The commanding officer of the United States Military Academy is its Superintendent. S. Military Academy at West Point, which had become out of date in many respects and was much in need of reform. MacArthur ordered drastic changes in the tactical, athletic and disciplinary systems; he modernized the curriculum, adding liberal arts, government and economics courses. He also took the first major step to formalizing the as yet unwritten Cadet Honor Code when, in 1922, he formed the Cadet Honor Committee to review all honor allegations. Both the United States Military Academy and the United States Air Force Academy have adopted a Cadet Honor Code as a formalized statement of the minimum standard of ethics expected of cadets 
In October 1922, MacArthur left West Point for the Philippines. From 1922 to 1930, MacArthur served two tours of duty in the Philippines, the second as commander of the Philippine Department (1928–1930); he also served two tours as commander of corps areas in the states. In 1925, he was promoted to major general, the youngest officer of that rank at the time, and served on the court martial that convicted Brigadier General Billy Mitchell (he later portrayed himself in a non-speaking role in the Otto Preminger movie based on the trial). Major General or Major-General is a Military rank used in many countries A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a Military court. These military courts can determine Punishments for members of the Military subject For other people with the same name see Billy Mitchell (disambiguation. Otto Ludwig Preminger ( December 5[[ 906]]&ndash April 23[[ 986]] was an Austrian born Film director who moved from the theatre to Hollywood In 1928, he headed the U. S. Olympic Committee for the Amsterdam games. The 1928 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the IX Olympiad, was an International Multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1928
General MacArthur was married twice. His first marriage, on February 14, 1922, was to socialite Mrs. Louise Cromwell Brooks, the divorced wife of Walter Brooks, Jr. Events 842 - Charles the Bald and Louis the German swear the Oaths of Strasbourg in the French and German Year 1922 ( MCMXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. A socialite is a person who is known to be a part of fashionable Society because of his or her regular participation in social activities and fondness for spending a significant Henrietta Louise Cromwell Brooks (c 1890 - May 30 1965 was an American Socialite and the first wife of General Douglas MacArthur. , and stepdaughter of Edward T. Stotesbury, a wealthy Philadelphia banker. Edward Townsend Stotesbury (1849-1938 was a prominent Investment banker and partner at J Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə A banker or bank is a Financial institution whose primary activity is to act as a payment agent for customers and to borrow and lend money She obtained a divorce from him in 1929 on the grounds that he had failed to support her. Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the termination of a Marriage. She later married British actor Lionel Atwill, divorcing him in turn in 1943. Lionel Atwill ( March 1, 1885 – April 22, 1946 was an English stage and film actor born in Croydon, London, England. Brooks died in August 1973. (Her brother James H.R. Cromwell was the first husband of tobacco heiress Doris Duke)
MacArthur was married to Jean Marie Faircloth of Murfreesboro, Tennessee, on April 30, 1937. James H R Cromwell (1896&ndash1990 was an American diplomat candidate for the United States Senate, and one-time husband of Doris Duke, "the richest For the singer see Doris Duke (soul singer Doris Duke ( November 22, 1912 – October 28 Jean Marie Faircloth MacArthur ( December 28, 1898 - January 22, 2000) was the second wife of U Tennessee ( is a state located in the Southern United States. Their only child, Arthur, was born in Manila on Feb. 21, 1938. Arthur graduated from Columbia University in 1961. Columbia University is a private University in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. "Arthur" was a family name - being the name of MacArthur's grandfather, father and eldest brother. Since his brother Arthur MacArthur III was deceased at this point and had failed to give that name to his own son (naming him instead Douglas MacArthur II), MacArthur "laid claim" to the name for his son, thus Arthur MacArthur IV. Arthur MacArthur III ( June 1, 1876 – December 2, 1923) was a United States Navy officer whose active-duty career extended from Douglas MacArthur II ( July 5, 1909 – November 15, 1997) was an American diplomat
One of MacArthur's most controversial acts came in 1932, when President Hoover ordered him to disperse the "Bonus Army" of veterans who had converged on the capital in protest of government policy. Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10 1874 &ndash October 20 1964 was the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933 The self-named Bonus Expeditionary Force was an assemblage of some 43000 marchers — 17000 World War I veterans their families and affiliated groups who protested MacArthur was criticized for using excessive force to disperse the protesters. According to MacArthur, the demonstration had been taken over by communists and pacifists with, he claimed, only "one man in 10 being veterans. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based " It should be noted, however, that no supporting evidence for MacArthur's charges has ever surfaced. Recent scholarship, including PBS's The American Experience, has shown the Bonus Army was composed overwhelmingly of First World War veterans whose pacifist politics were typical of the era - pacifism was not an uncommon belief among the general public of the 1930s. The Public Broadcasting Service ( PBS) is a Non-profit Public broadcasting Television service with 354 member TV stations in the
MacArthur finished his tour as Chief of Staff in October 1935. MacArthur's main programs included the development of new mobilization plans, the establishment of a mobile general headquarters air force, and a four-army reorganization which improved administrative efficiency. He supported the New Deal by enthusiastically operating the Civilian Conservation Corps. The New Deal was the name that United States President Franklin D Civilian Conservation Corps ( CCC) was a Work relief program for young men from unemployed families established on March 21, 1933, by U He brought along many talented mid-career officers, including George C. Marshall, and Dwight D. Eisenhower. George Catlett Marshall Jr (December 31 1880 &ndash October 16 1959 was an American military leader Chief of Staff of the Army, Secretary of Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14 1890 – March 28 1969 was President of the United States from 1953 until 1961 and a five-star general However, MacArthur's support for a strong military and his public criticism of pacifism and isolationism made him unpopular with the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration. Isolationism is a Foreign policy which combines a non-interventionist military policy and a political policy of Economic nationalism ( Protectionism Following his retirement in December 1937, he reverted to his permanent grade of major general, and accepted an offer in the Philippines.
When the Commonwealth of the Philippines achieved semi-independent status in 1935, President of the Philippines Manuel L. Quezon, a personal friend since his father had been Governor General, asked MacArthur to supervise the creation of a Philippine Army. The Commonwealth of the Philippines was the political designation of the Philippines from 1935 to 1946 when the country was a commonwealth with the United The President of the Philippines is the head of state and government of the Republic of the Philippines. Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina (b August 19, 1878 in Baler Aurora, Philippines - d MacArthur elected not to retire but to remain on the active list as a major general, and with President Roosevelt's approval he accepted the assignment.
Among MacArthur's assistants as Military Adviser to the Commonwealth of the Philippines was Dwight D. Eisenhower. (Some years later, Eisenhower was asked if he knew MacArthur. He replied, "Know him? I studied dramatics under him for seven years!" MacArthur retorted that Eisenhower was the "Best clerk I ever had". 
When MacArthur resigned from the U. S. Army in 1937, his rank again became that of a general, and he was made Field Marshal of the Philippine Army by President Quezon. Please see Field Marshal for other nations which use this rank Field marshal of the Philippines was a rank created in 1937 to be held (MacArthur is the senior officer on the rolls of the Philippine Army today—he is also the only American military officer ever to hold the rank of field marshal).
In July 1941 Roosevelt recalled him to active duty in the U. S. Army as a major general and named him commander of United States Armed Forces in the Far East promoting him to a lieutenant general the following day. USAFFE ( United States Army Forces in the Far East) included the Philippine Department, Philippine Army (2 regular and 10 reserve divisions In December, he became a four star general yet again when the Japanese attacked across a wide front in the Pacific.
Following the outbreak of war with Japan, MacArthur was offered and accepted a payment of $500,000 (an enormous sum at the time) from President Quezon of the Philippines as payment for his pre-war service. 
On the day of the attack on Pearl Harbor (December 8, 1941, in Manila), MacArthur was Allied commander in the Philippines. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The attack on Pearl Harbor (or Hawaii Operation, as it was called by the Imperial General Headquarters) was a surprise Military strike conducted by He had over eight hours warning of a possible Japanese attack on the Philippines, and express orders from Army Chief of Staff General George C. Marshall to commence operations. George Catlett Marshall Jr (December 31 1880 &ndash October 16 1959 was an American military leader Chief of Staff of the Army, Secretary of 
MacArthur's reliance on his air commander of only two months (the prior air commander and his aide had both been transferred for excessive drinking), General Lewis H. Brereton, may have been misplaced. Lewis Hyde Brereton ( June 21, 1890 - July 20, 1967) was a military aviation pioneer and United States Army Air Forces general in the Despite clear warnings of Japanese aggression, Brereton had not transitioned his air defenses to a war footing, and like the air commanders at Hickam Field at Pearl Harbor, failed to disperse aircraft properly in camouflaged revetments to limit damage from incoming air raids. Brereton's difficulties were magnified by the fact that the Far East Air Force (FEAF) was mostly a motley collection of obsolescent U. S. and Philippine Air Force planes with only 72 operational P-40 fighters capable of effective air defense, and in no way could withstand a determined Japanese air offensive. Nevertheless, U. S. fighter aircraft were launched to receive the first Japanese attack, but failed to encounter the enemy. Upon returning to the airfield to refuel, many U. S. aircraft were caught on the ground and destroyed.
Later, MacArthur would publicly defend his air commander, while privately concluding he was incompetent, and transferred Brereton out of the Philippines as soon as possible. Brereton, who would later order the disastrous low-level B-24 raid on the Romanian oil refining and storage facilities at Ploesti, claimed he had requested permission to launch 35 B-17s (Brereton's entire long-range bomber force) to attack Japanese shipping in nearby Taiwan. Ploieşti (ploˈjeʃtʲ older spelling Ploeşti) is the county seat of Prahova County and lies in the historical region of Wallachia, Romania Taiwan ( Taiwanese: Tâi-oân/Tāi-oân (historically 大灣/台員/大員/台圓/大圓/台窩灣 is an Island in East Asia. This was a distinct departure from their intended use, to scout for incoming attacking forces, or to attack Japan proper. When the Japanese attacked Clark Field, they destroyed 17 B-17s on the ground. Clark Air Base is a former United States Air Force base on Luzon Island in the Philippines, located 3 miles west of Angeles City, about 40 miles Despite Brereton's implication that the Taiwan attack would have preserved the B-17 force, without adequate fighter protection, such a raid on a heavily defended Japanese base would have inevitably resulted in massive losses to the unprotected attacking bombers, with any survivors destroyed on the ground by subsequent Japanese air raids.
MacArthur and his Chief of Staff Gen. Sutherland, later disputed Brereton's account of the Japanese attack on the Philippines. 
The original prewar Philippines defense plan assumed the Japanese could not be prevented from landings in Luzon and called for U. S. and Filipino forces to abandon Manila and retreat with their supplies to the Bataan peninsula. Bataan is a province of the Philippines occupying the whole of Bataan Peninsula on Luzon. MacArthur, however, counting on reinforcements from Washington, decided to slow the Japanese advance with an initial defense against the Japanese landings. However, the Japanese could not be stopped, and the allied troops barely escaped destruction retreating back to Bataan. Through a clerical error and because of the rush to retreat to Bataan, food to be transferred from Manila to Bataan fell into Japanese hands. Early in April 1942 the allied forces on Bataan surrendered due to Japanese superiority in aircraft and material.
MacArthur's headquarters during the Philippines campaign of 1941-2 was on the island fortress of Corregidor. The Battle of the Philippines was the invasion of the Philippines by Japan in 1941–42 and the defense of the islands by Filipino and United For the Spanish historical administrative position see Corregidor (position Corregidor is an island in the entrance of the Philippines His fortress was clearly marked and was the target of Japanese air attacks, until Manuel Quezon cautioned MacArthur "not to subject himself to danger. " In March 1942, as Japanese forces tightened their grip on the Philippines, MacArthur was ordered by President Roosevelt to relocate to Melbourne, Australia, after Quezon had already left. Melbourne ( is the second most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 3 For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. After first discussing with his staff the idea that he resign his commission and fight on as a private soldier in the Philippine resistance, with his wife, four-year-old son, and a select group of advisers and subordinate military commanders, MacArthur left the Philippines in PT 41 (commanded by Lieutenant John D. Bulkeley) and successfully evaded an intense Japanese search for him. Motor Torpedo Boat PT-41 was a PT-20 (Elco 77-Foot Class Patrol torpedo boat, built at Elco and commissioned on 23 July Vice Admiral John Duncan Bulkeley (19 August 1911&ndash6 April 1996 was a United States Navy officer who received the Medal of Honor for actions in the
After he left, command of the defense of Bataan was handed over to Major General Jonathan M. Wainwright. Jonathan Mayhew "Skinny" Wainwright IV (August 23 1883 &ndash September 2 1953 was a career American army officer and the commander of Allied forces MacArthur was unwilling to leave control to Wainwright, and tried to run the battle from three thousand miles away. He ordered his men not to retreat, but General Edward P. King disobeyed orders by surrendering when he saw that the situation was hopeless. Edward P King (1884 - 1958 was a Major General in the United States Army who gained prominence for leading the defense of the Bataan Peninsula in the This surrender led to the Bataan Death March, in which over 5,000 Filipinos and 1,000 Americans died. The Bataan Death March (also known as The Death March of Bataan) took place in the Philippines in 1942 and was later accounted as a Japanese war 
MacArthur reached Mindanao on March 13 and boarded a B-17 Flying Fortress bomber three days later; on March 17, he arrived at Batchelor Airfield in Australia's Northern Territory, about 60 miles (100 km) south of Darwin, before flying to Alice Springs, where he took the Ghan railway through the Australian outback to Adelaide. The House of Representatives is one of the two houses (chambers of the Parliament of Australia; it is the Lower house, the Upper house being the Senate Mindanao is the second largest and easternmost Island in the Philippines. Events 1138 - Cardinal Gregorio Conti is elected Antipope as Victor IV, succeeding Anacletus II. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Events 45 BC - In his last victory Julius Caesar defeats the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Pompey the Younger Batchelor Airfield, was an airfield built during World War II at Batchelor Northern Territory, Australia History The airfield accommodated many The Northern Territory is a federal territory of Australia, occupying much of the center of the mainland continent as well as the central northern regions Alice Springs is the second largest town in the Northern Territory of Australia. "Railroad" and "Railway" both redirect here For other uses see Railroad (disambiguation. Outback or the Outback refers to remote arid areas of Australia, although the term colloquially can refer to any lands outside of the main Urban areas Adelaide is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of South Australia, and is the fifth largest city in Australia with a His famous speech, in which he said, "I came out of Bataan and I shall return", was first made at Terowie (a small railway township in South Australia) on March 20. Terowie is a small town north of Adelaide, in northern South Australia. South Australia is a state of Australia in the southern central part of the country Events 1600 - The Linköping Bloodbath takes place on Maundy Thursday in Linköping, Sweden. Upon his arrival in Adelaide, MacArthur abbreviated this to the now-famous, "I came through and I shall return" that made headlines; Washington asked MacArthur to amend his promise to, "We shall return. " He ignored the request.  Also, during this period, President Quezon decorated MacArthur with the Distinguished Conduct Star. This is awarded by the Chief of Staff, AFP to military personnel of the AFP and friendly allied armed forces for conspicuous courage and gallantry in the face of an armed enemy
For his leadership in the defense of the Philippines, MacArthur was awarded the Medal of Honor (1 April 1942). The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States government.  Arthur and Douglas MacArthur were the first father and son to be awarded the Medal of Honor. (They remained the only pair until 2001 when Theodore Roosevelt was awarded one posthumously for his service during the Spanish American War. Theodore Roosevelt (ˈroʊzəvɛlt October 27 1858 January 6 1919 also known as T Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. had earned one posthumously for his service during World War II). Theodore Roosevelt Jr or Theodore Roosevelt II (November 13 1887-July 12 1944 was an American political and business leader a Medal of Honor recipient who
MacArthur was appointed Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in the Southwest Pacific Area (SWPA). The South West Pacific was one of two theatres of World War II in the Pacific region between 1942 and 1945. Australian Prime Minister John Curtin put MacArthur in command of the Australian military, which — following the isolation of the Philippines — was numerically larger than MacArthur's American forces, but to the Australians' chagrin most were deployed thousands of miles away, in North Africa, defending Great Britain in that struggle with the Axis powers. John Joseph Curtin (8 January 1885 &ndash 5 July 1945 Australian politician and 14th Prime Minister of Australia, led Australia when the Australian mainland came under direct The Allied force under MacArthur's command included a small number of personnel from the Netherlands East Indies and other countries. See http//enwikipediaorg/wiki/WikipediaFootnotes for an explanation of how to generate footnotes using the tags and the template below One of MacArthur's first tasks was to reassure Australians, who feared a Japanese invasion. The fighting at this time was predominantly in and around New Guinea and the Dutch East Indies. New Guinea, located just north of Australia, is the world's second largest island, having become separated from the Australian mainland when the area now known See http//enwikipediaorg/wiki/WikipediaFootnotes for an explanation of how to generate footnotes using the tags and the template below On July 20, 1942, SWPA headquarters was moved to Brisbane, Queensland, taking over the AMP Insurance Society building (later known as MacArthur Central). Events 1304 - Wars of Scottish Independence: Fall of Stirling Castle - King Edward I of England takes the last rebel stronghold Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Brisbane ( is the state capital of Queensland. Brisbane is the third most populous city in Australia and the most populous city of Queensland Queensland is a state of Australia, occupying the north-eastern corner of the mainland continent MacArthur Central is a building located on the north-east corner of Queen Street and Edward Street in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia In August 1942, after requesting a replacement for Brereton, MacArthur was finally given a new and fiercely aggressive air commander, Gen. George C. Kenney. George Churchill Kenney ( August 6, 1889 - August 9, 1977) was a United States Army Air Forces general during World War II Kenney and MacArthur immediately forged a close relationship. Allied airpower, which had up to this point been timid and inconclusive, was transformed by Kenney into a new and fearsome offensive weapon. Kenney would later develop low-level skip bombing techniques that his aviators would use to singlehandedly repulse a planned Japanese naval invasion of New Guinea in 1943, with thousands of Japanese casualties and dozens of ships sunk.
Australian successes at the Battle of Milne Bay and the Kokoda Track campaign came in late 1942, the first victories by Allied land forces anywhere against the Japanese. The Battle of Milne Bay ( Operation RE) was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II. This article concerns the World War II military campaign For more general information see the Kokoda Track article When it was reported the 32nd U.S. Infantry Division, an inexperienced National Guard unit, had proved incompetent in the Allied offensive against Buna and Gona, the major Japanese beachheads in northeastern New Guinea, MacArthur told U.S. I Corps commander, Robert L. Eichelberger, to assume direct control of the division:
Allied land forces commander, General Thomas Blamey, did not want the 41st U.S. Infantry, another inexperienced National Guard division, to reinforce the Gona assault, and requested 21st Australian Infantry Brigade be sent instead, as "he knew they would fight". Field Marshal Sir Thomas Albert Blamey GBE, KCB, CMG, DSO, ED, ( 24 January 1884 – 27 The 41st Infantry Division was composed of National Guard units from Idaho, Montana, Oregon, North Dakota and Washington  This was done but a regiment of the 41st later went to Gona.
In March 1943, the Joint Chiefs of Staff approved MacArthur's plan, Operation CARTWHEEL, which aimed to capture the major Japanese base at Rabaul by taking strategic points to use as forward bases. The Joint Chiefs of Staff ( JCS) is a group comprising the Chiefs of service of each major branch of the Armed services in the United States armed forces Operation Cartwheel (1943–1944 was the major Military strategy for the Allies in the Pacific theater of World War II. Rabaul is a township in East New Britain province Papua New Guinea. During 1944 this was modified so as to bypass Rabaul and other heavily-defended Japanese bases, allowing the Japanese forces there to "wither on the vine. " Initially, the majority of MacArthur's land forces were Australian, but increasing numbers of U. S. troops arrived in the theater, including Marines, the Sixth Army (Alamo Force), and later the Eighth Army. Marines (from the English adjective marine, meaning of the sea, from Latin language mare, meaning sea via French adjective The Sixth United States Army was a Field army of the United States Army
MacArthur's advancement of land forces westward along the 1,500 mile (2,400 km) northern coast of New Guinea was sequenced specifically for terrain selected on the basis of its ability to be made into landing strips for tactical support aircraft. By advancing in leaps always within the range of his fighter-bombers (typically P-38 Lightnings), he could maintain air superiority over his land operations. This provided critical close air support and also denied the enemy sea and airborne resupply, effectively cutting the Japanese forces off as they were under attack. In Military tactics, close air support ( CAS) is defined as air action by fixed or rotary winged aircraft against hostile targets that are in close proximity to MacArthur's strategy of maneuver, offensive air-strikes, and force avoidance would eventually pay off - unlike the ground forces in the Central Pacific theater, infantry troops in operations under MacArthur's command consistently suffered fewer casualties.
Allied forces under MacArthur's command, covered by aircraft from Halsey's carriers, landed at Leyte Island on October 20, 1944 - thereby fulfilling MacArthur's vow to return to the Philippines. Fleet Admiral William Frederick Halsey Jr, GBE, USN, ( October 30, 1882 &ndash August 16, 1959) (called "Bill An aircraft carrier is a Warship designed with The Battle of Leyte in the Pacific campaign of World War II was the invasion and conquest of Leyte in the Philippines by American Events 1740 - Maria Theresa takes the throne of Austria. France, Prussia, Bavaria and Saxony Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Philippines campaign of 1944–45 was the Allied campaign to defeat Japanese forces occupying The Philippines, during World War II. The carriers were tied up for months providing air support until the rainy season ended (something which MacArthur doubtless should have foreseen, after living in the islands for a decade). Only then could MacArthur's engineers build airstrips on shore. He consolidated his hold on the archipelago after heavy fighting in the Battle of Luzon and Battle of Manila. The Battle of Luzon, on the island of Luzon, home to the Filipino capital Manila. The Battle for Manila from 3 February to 3 March 1945, fought by American, Filipino and Japanese forces was part Despite a massive Japanese naval counterattack in the Battle of Leyte Gulf, Japanese forces were unable to stop the invasion or do more than slow the reconquest of the islands. The Battle of Leyte Gulf, also called the "Battle for Leyte Gulf" the "Battles for Leyte Gulf" and formerly as the "Second Battle of the Philippine In a foretaste of things to come, MacArthur made full use of amphibious and combined operations, while utilizing paratroop, motorized infantry, and even indigenous guerrilla forces for special operations and to multiply his force advantage. With the reconquest of the islands, MacArthur moved his headquarters to Manila, where he announced his plan for the invasion of Japan (Operation Downfall), to commence 1 November 1945. Operation Downfall was the overall Allied plan for the invasion of Japan near the end of World War II. The invasion was pre-empted by Japan's capitulation. On 2 September, MacArthur received the formal Japanese surrender aboard the U.S.S. Missouri, thus ending World War II. Events 44 BC - Pharaoh Cleopatra VII of Egypt declares her son co-ruler as Ptolemy XV Caesarion. The Japanese Instrument of Surrender was the written agreement that established the Armistice ending the Pacific War and with it World War II. USS Missouri may refer to, was a sidewheel Frigate launched in 1841 and lost to fire in August 1843 Missouri
MacArthur was ordered on August 29 to exercise authority through the Japanese government machinery, including Emperor Hirohito. At the end of World War II, Japan was occupied by the Allied Powers, led by the United States with contributions also from Australia, British also known as, (April 29 1901 – January 7 1989 was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order reigning from December 25 1926 until his death Events 708 - Copper coins are minted in Japan for the first time (Traditional Japanese date: August 10, 708) also known as, (April 29 1901 – January 7 1989 was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order reigning from December 25 1926 until his death  Some believe MacArthur may have made his greatest contribution to history in the next five and a half years, as Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers in Japan (SCAP). Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers ( SCAP) was the title held by General Douglas MacArthur during the Occupation of Japan following World War II
However, some historians criticize his work to exonerate Emperor Showa and all members of the imperial family implicated in the war (including Princes Chichibu, Asaka, Takeda, Higashikuni and Hiroyasu) from criminal prosecutions. also known as, (April 29 1901 – January 7 1989 was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order reigning from December 25 1926 until his death Background and Family Born at Aoyama Detached Palace in Tokyo, the second son of Crown Prince Yoshihito (later Emperor Taishō) and Crown Princess of Japan ( 3 March 1909 – 11 May 1992) was the second and last heir of the Takeda-no-miya ōke branch of the Japanese was the 30th Prime Minister of Japan from 17 August 1945 to 9 October 1945 for a period of 54 days was a scion of the Japanese imperial family and was a career naval officer who served as chief of staff of the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1932 to 1941  As soon as November 26, 1945, MacArthur confirmed to admiral Mitsumasa Yonai that the emperor's abdication would not be necessary. Events 43 BC - The Second Triumvirate alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus ("Octavian" later "Caesar Augustus" Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar ( 2 March 1880 - 20 April 1948) was an Admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy, and Politician.  MacArthur exonerated Hirohito and ignored the advice of many members of the imperial family and Japanese intellectuals who publicly asked for the abdication of the Emperor and the implementation of a regency. For example, prince Mikasa (Takahito), Hirohito's youngest brother, even stood up in a meeting of the private council, in February 1946, and urged his brother to take responsibility for defeat while the well-known poet Tatsuji Miyoshi wrote an essay in the magazine Shinchô titled "The Emperor should abdicate quickly. Early life Prince Takahito was born at the Kokyo Imperial Palace in Tokyo, in the third year of his father's reign and a full fifteen years after the birth of was a Japanese poet, Literary critic, and literary editor active in Showa period Japan. "
According to Bix, "months before the Tokyo tribunal commenced, MacArthur's highest subordinates were working to attribute ultimate responsibility for Pearl Harbor to Hideki Tojo" Citing the debates between Truman, Eisenhower and MacArthur, Bix argues that "immediately on landing in Japan, Bonner Fellers went to work to protect Hirohito from the role he had played during and at the end of the war. " and "allowed the major war criminal suspects to coordinate their stories so that the Emperor would be spared from indictment"
According to John Dower, "This successful campaign to absolve the Emperor of war responsibility knew no bounds. Hirohito was not merely presented as being innocent of any formal acts that might make him culpable to indictment as a war criminal. He was turned into an almost saintly figure who did not even bear moral responsibility for the war. " "With the full support of MacArthur's headquarters, the prosecution functioned, in effect, as a defense team for the emperor. "
As Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, MacArthur also gave immunity to Shiro Ishii and all members of the bacteriological research units in exchange for germ warfare data based on human experimentation. Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers ( SCAP) was the title held by General Douglas MacArthur during the Occupation of Japan following World War II was a Microbiologist and the Lieutenant general of Unit 731, a Biological warfare unit of the Imperial Japanese Army during the Second was a covert biological and Chemical warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during Human subject research (HSR or human subject use (HSU involves the use of human beings as research subjects On 6 May 1947, he wrote to Washington that «additional data, possibly some statements from Ishii probably can be obtained by informing Japanese involved that information will be retained in intelligence channels and will not be employed as "War Crimes" evidence. »  The deal was concluded in 1948. 
MacArthur and his GHQ staff helped a devastated Japan rebuild itself, institute a democratic government, and chart a course that made Japan one of the world's leading industrial powers. The U. S. was firmly in control of Japan to oversee its reconstruction, and MacArthur was effectively the interim leader of Japan from 1945 until 1948. In 1946, MacArthur's staff drafted a new constitution that renounced war and reduced the emperor to a figurehead; this constitution remains in use in Japan to this day. The has been the founding legal document of Japan since 1947 The constitution provides for a Parliamentary system of government and guarantees certain fundamental rights The of Japan is the country's Monarch. He is the head of the Japanese Imperial Family. He also pushed the Japanese Diet into adopting a decentralization plan to break apart the large Japanese companies (zaibatsu) and foster the first Japanese labor unions. is a Japanese term referring to industrial and financial business conglomerates in the Empire of Japan, whose influence and size allowed for control over significant
"The Japanese people since the war have undergone the greatest reformation recorded in modern history. With a commendable will, eagerness to learn, and marked capacity to understand, they have from the ashes left in war’s wake erected in Japan an edifice dedicated to the supremacy of individual liberty and personal dignity, and in the ensuing process there has been created a truly representative government committed to the advance of political morality, freedom of economic enterprise, and social justice. " - General Douglas MacArthur's Address to Congress of the United States, April 19, 1952
These reconstruction plans alarmed many in the U. S. Defense and State Departments, believing they conflicted with the prospect of Japan (and its industrial capacity) as a bulwark against the spread of communism in Asia.  Some of MacArthur's reforms, such as his labor laws, were rescinded in 1948 when his unilateral control of Japan was ended by the increased involvement of the State Department. MacArthur handed over power to the newly-formed Japanese government in 1949 and remained in Japan until relieved by President Truman on April 11, 1951. Events 491 - Flavius Anastasius becomes Byzantine Emperor, with the name of Anastasius I. Year 1951 ( MCMLI) was a Common year starting on Monday. Events of 1951 January Truman replaced SCAP leader MacArthur with General Matthew Ridgway of the U. Matthew Bunker Ridgway ( March 3, 1895 &ndash July 26, 1993) was a United States Army General. S. Army. By 1952, Japan was a sovereign nation under the democratic constitution MacArthur had pushed for, which had been in effect since 1947.
In late 1945, Allied military commissions in various cities of the Orient tried 4,000 Japanese officers for war crimes. War crimes are "violations of the laws or customs of war" including but not limited to "murder the ill-treatment or deportation of civilian residents of an occupied About 3,000 were given prison terms and 920 executed; the charges included the Rape of Nanking, the Bataan Death March, and the sack of Manila. The Bataan Death March (also known as The Death March of Bataan) took place in the Philippines in 1942 and was later accounted as a Japanese war The Manila massacre refers to the February 1945 atrocities conducted against Filipino civilians in Manila, Philippines by retreating Japanese The trial in Manila of General Yamashita Tomoyuki, Japanese commander in the Philippines from 1944, was under MacArthur's direction and has been particularly criticized. General was a General of the Japanese Imperial Army during the World War II. General Yamashita was hanged for the massacre of Manila which he had not ordered and of which he was probably unaware. It was ordered by Vice Admiral Sanji Iwabuchi who was nominally subordinate to General Yamashita. Iwabuchi had killed himself as the battle for Manila was ending.
In 1945, as part of the surrender of Japan, the United States agreed with the Soviet Union to divide the Korean peninsula into two occupation zones at the 38th parallel north. The Korean War refers to a period of military conflict between North Korean and South Korean regimes with major hostilities lasting from June 25 1950 until the The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Physical geography See also Geography of North Korea, Geography of South Korea Mountains cover 70 percent of the Korean Peninsula and arable plains are The 38th parallel north is a Circle of latitude that is 38 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. This resulted in the creation of two states: the western-aligned Republic of Korea (ROK) (often referred to as "South Korea"), and the Soviet-aligned and Communist Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) (generally referred to as "North Korea"). South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based North Korea is the commonly used short form name for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (or DPRK) a State located in East Asia, After the surprise attack by the DPRK on June 25, 1950, started the Korean War, the United Nations Security Council authorized a United Nations (UN) force to help South Korea. Events 524 - Battle of Vézeronce, the Franks defeat the Burgundians Year 1950 ( MCML) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security MacArthur, as US theater commander, became commander of the UN forces. In September, despite lingering concerns from superiors, MacArthur's army and marine troops made a daring and successful combined amphibious landing at Inchon, deep behind North Korean lines. The Battle of Incheon (인천 상륙 작전 Incheon Sangryuk Jakjeon; Code name: Operation Chromite) was an amphibious invasion and battle of Launched with naval and close air support, the daring landing outflanked the North Koreans, forcing them to retreat northward in disarray. UN forces pursued the DPRK forces, eventually approaching the Yalu River border with the China. The Yalu River ( Chinese) or the Amnok River ( Korean) is a River on the border between China and North Korea. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES MacArthur boasted: "The war is over. The Chinese are not coming. . . The Third Division will be back in Fort Benning for Christmas dinner. "
With the DPRK forces largely destroyed, troops of the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) quietly crossed the Yalu River. The People's Liberation Army ( PLA) ( is the unified Military organization of all land sea and air forces of the People's Republic of China. Chinese foreign minister Zhou Enlai issued warnings via India's foreign minister, Krishna Menon, that an advance to the Yalu would force China into the war. Zhou Enlai ( (5 March 1898 – 8 January 1976 was the first Premier of the People's Republic of China, serving from 1949 until his death in January 1976 India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Vengalil Krishnan Krishna Menon ( 3 May 1897 - 6 October 1974) was an Indian nationalist and politician When questioned about this threat by President Truman and Secretary of State Dean Acheson, MacArthur dismissed it completely. Dean Gooderham Acheson ( April 11, 1893 — October 12, 1971) was an American statesman and lawyer as United States MacArthur's staff ignored battlefield evidence that PLA troops had entered North Korea in strength. The Chinese moved through the snowy hills, struck hard, and routed the UN forces, forcing them on a long retreat.  Calling the Chinese attack the beginning of "an entirely new war," MacArthur repeatedly requested authorization to strike Chinese bases in Manchuria, inside China. Manchuria ( Romanized Manchu: Manju,, Маньчжурия Mongolian: Манж is a historical name given to a vast geographic region in northeast Truman was concerned that such actions would draw the Soviet Union into the conflict and risk nuclear war.
In April 1951, MacArthur's habitual disregard of his superiors led to a crisis. He sent a letter to Representative Joe Martin (R-Massachusetts), the House Minority Leader, disagreeing with President Truman's policy of limiting the Korean war to avoid a larger war with China. The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. Joseph William Martin Jr ( November 3, 1884 - March 6, 1968) was a Republican Congressman and Speaker of the House Party leaders of the United States House of Representatives are elected by their respective parties in a closed-door (private Caucus. He also sent an ultimatum to the Chinese Army which destroyed President Truman's cease-fire efforts. This, and similar letters and statements, were seen by Truman as a violation of the American constitutional principle that military commanders are subordinate to civilian leadership, and usurpation of the President's authority to make foreign policy. A commander-in-chief is the Commander of a nation's Military forces or significant element of those forces MacArthur had ignored this principle out of necessity while SCAP in Japan. MacArthur at this time had not been back to the United States for eleven years. 
By this time President Truman decided MacArthur was insubordinate, and relieved him of command on April 11, 1951, leading to a storm of controversy.  MacArthur was succeeded by General Matthew Ridgway, and eventually by General Mark Wayne Clark, who signed the armistice which ended the Korean War. Matthew Bunker Ridgway ( March 3, 1895 &ndash July 26, 1993) was a United States Army General. Mark Wayne Clark ( May 1, 1896 – April 17, 1984) was an American general during World War II and the Korean War
MacArthur returned to Washington, D. C. (his first time in the continental U. S. in 11 years), where he made his last public appearance in a farewell address to the U.S. Congress, interrupted by thirty ovations. The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses  In his closing speech, he recalled: "Old soldiers never die; they just fade away. " "And like the old soldier of that ballad, I now close my military career and just fade away — an old soldier who tried to do his duty as God gave him the light to see that duty. Good-bye. "
On his return from Korea, after his relief by Truman, MacArthur encountered massive public adulation, which aroused expectations that he would run for the presidency as a Republican in the 1952 election. The United States presidential election of 1952 took place in an era when the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union was in one of its most tense However, a U.S. Senate Committee investigation of his removal (which largely vindicated the actions taken by President Truman), chaired by Richard Russell, contributed to a marked cooling of the public mood, and hopes for a MacArthur presidential run died away. The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives Richard Brevard Russell Jr ( November 2, 1897 – January 21, 1971) was an American Democratic Party politician who MacArthur, in Reminiscences, repeatedly stated he had no political aspirations.
In the 1952 Republican presidential nomination contest, MacArthur was not a candidate and instead endorsed Senator Robert Taft of Ohio; rumors were rife Taft offered the vice presidential nomination to MacArthur. Robert Alphonso Taft ( September 8, 1889 - July 31, 1953) of the Taft political family of Ohio, was a Republican Taft did persuade MacArthur to be the keynote speaker at the convention. The speech was not well received. Taft lost the nomination to Eisenhower; MacArthur was silent during the campaign, which Eisenhower won by a landslide. Once elected, Eisenhower consulted with MacArthur and adopted his suggestion of threatening the use of nuclear weapons to end the war. 
In 1956, U. S. Senator Joseph Martin introduced a proposal to elevate MacArthur to six star rank. This caused problems for President Eisenhower however, and the issue died in the Senate. MacArthur became head of Remington Rand Corporation and spent the remainder of his life in New York. Remington Rand (1927–1955 was an early American Computer manufacturer best known as the original maker of the UNIVAC I, and now part of Unisys New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous
MacArthur and his second wife, Jean Marie Faircloth MacArthur, spent the last years of their life together in the penthouse of the Waldorf Towers (a part of the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel), a gift from Conrad Hilton, the owner of the hotel. Jean Marie Faircloth MacArthur ( December 28, 1898 - January 22, 2000) was the second wife of U The Waldorf-Astoria Hotel is a famously luxurious hotel in New York Conrad Nicholson Hilton Sr ( December 25, 1887 – January 3, 1979) was an American Hotelier and founder of the Hilton Hotel
The Waldorf became the setting for an annual birthday party on January 26, thrown by the general's former deputy chief engineer, Major General Leif J. Sverdrup. Leif Johan Sverdrup (b 1898 &ndash d1976 was a Norwegian American Civil engineer and military officer with the U At the 1960 celebration for MacArthur's 80th, many of his friends were startled by the general's obviously deteriorating health; the next day he collapsed and was rushed into surgery at St. Luke's hospital to control a severely swollen prostate. 
After his recovery, MacArthur methodically carried out the closing act of a long life. He visited the White House for a final reunion with Eisenhower. Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14 1890 – March 28 1969 was President of the United States from 1953 until 1961 and a five-star general  In 1961 he made a spectacular "sentimental journey" to the Philippines, where he was decorated by President Carlos P. Garcia with the Philippine Legion of Honor, rank of Chief Commander. Carlos Polistico Garcia ( November 4, 1896 – June The Philippine Legion of Honor was established by President Manuel Roxas, through Philippine Army Circular No MacArthur also accepted a $900,000 advance from Henry Luce for the rights to his memoirs, and began writing the volume that would eventually be published as Reminiscences. Henry Robinson Luce ( April 3, 1898 &ndash February 28, 1967) was an influential American publisher 
President John F. Kennedy solicited MacArthur's counsel in 1961. John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29 1917&ndashNovember 22 1963 often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of The first of two meetings was shortly after the Bay of Pigs Invasion. The Bay of Pigs Invasion (aka Playa Girón) was an unsuccessful attempt by a U MacArthur was extremely critical of the Pentagon and its military advice to Kennedy. MacArthur also cautioned the young President to avoid a U. S. military build-up in Vietnam, pointing out domestic problems should be given a much greater priority. Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially Shortly prior to his death he gave similar advice to the new President, Lyndon Johnson.
In 1962, West Point honored the increasingly frail MacArthur with the Sylvanus Thayer Award, an award for outstanding service to the nation; the year before, the award had gone to Eisenhower. The Sylvanus Thayer Award is an award that is given each year by the United States Military Academy at West Point MacArthur's speech to the cadets in accepting the award was, to all intents and purposes, the last great public moment of a very public life; its theme was Duty, Honor, Country. The speech was recorded, and even in MacArthur's old and faltering voice, it is still possible to hear the mesmerizing presence and towering ego which drove him throughout his career. His stirring final passage sounds like a voice from another age:
The shadows are lengthening for me. The twilight is here. My days of old have vanished, tone and tint. They have gone glimmering through the dreams of things that were. Their memory is one of wondrous beauty, watered by tears, and coaxed and caressed by the smiles of yesterday. I listen vainly, but with thirsty ears, for the witching melody of faint bugles blowing reveille, of far drums beating the long roll. In my dreams I hear again the crash of guns, the rattle of musketry, the strange, mournful mutter of the battlefield. But in the evening of my memory, always I come back to West Point. Always there echoes and re-echoes: Duty, Honor, Country. Today marks my final roll call with you, but I want you to know that when I cross the river my last conscious thoughts will be of The Corps, and The Corps, and The Corps. I bid you farewell. "
MacArthur spent the last years of his life finishing his memoirs; he died on April 5th 1964, of biliary cirrhosis, before their publication in book form - they had begun to appear in serialized form in Life Magazine in the months just prior to his death. Primary biliary cirrhosis is an Autoimmune disease of the Liver marked by the slow progressive destruction of the small bile ducts ( Bile canaliculi) within After he died, his wife Jean continued to live in the Waldorf Towers penthouse until her own death. The couple are entombed together in downtown Norfolk, Virginia; their burial site is in the rotunda of a memorial building/museum (formerly the Norfolk City Hall) dedicated to his memory, and there is a major shopping mall (MacArthur Center) named for him across the street from the memorial. Norfolk is an Independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States According to the museum, General MacArthur said he chose to be buried in Norfolk because of his mother's ancestral ties to the city.
MacArthur wanted his family to remember him for more than being a soldier. He said, "By profession I am a soldier and take pride in that fact. But I am prouder—infinitely prouder—to be a father. A soldier destroys in order to build; the father only builds, never destroys. The one has the potentiality of death; the other embodies creation and life. And while the hordes of death are mighty, the battalions of life are mightier still. It is my hope that my son, when I am gone, will remember me not from the battle but in the home repeating with him our simple daily prayer, 'Our Father who art in heaven. "
MacArthur's nephew, Douglas MacArthur II (a son of his brother Arthur) served as a diplomat for several years, including the post of Ambassador to Japan and several other countries. Douglas MacArthur II ( July 5, 1909 – November 15, 1997) was an American diplomat
In 1945, MacArthur gave his treasured Gold Castles insignia, a personal possession, to his chief engineer, Jack Sverdrup. Gold Castles is the name of the 14K gold insignia pin handed down from General Douglas MacArthur to his chief engineer Major General Leif J Leif Johan Sverdrup (b 1898 &ndash d1976 was a Norwegian American Civil engineer and military officer with the U They are currently worn by the Chief of Engineers as a tradition. The Chief of Engineers commands the US Army Corps of Engineers.
MacArthur is viewed as a controversial figure. His handling of Japan after World War II led to Japan's economic transformation and was generally applauded. However, the fact he chose to protect some major leaders of the Showa regime in World War II is sometimes criticized. Also, his actions during the Korean War remain highly controversial.
His reputation for self-promotion has earned him many detractors. But defenders have claimed "MacArthur's Communiqué was criticized, ridiculed, or lamented by many. Most critics fail to understand that MacArthur did not write the communiqué for the benefit of the troops, the press or the politicians in Canberra, London and Washington. He wrote it for the American public, whose opinion could influence political forces in decisions of strategic planning and control. He wrote his communiqué to focus the attention of the American people on SWPA and its needs. . . To interpret the communiqué, and all other aspects of MacArthur's activities, in terms of pure, unrestrained ego is a gross oversimplification and underestimation of the General's complex character and of his intellectual capacity. " MacArthur's public pressure campaign to improve Washington's logistical support for the Pacific War was somewhat successful, and combined with the influence of his sometime rival Admiral Ernest King, MacArthur's efforts were largely responsible for the increased diversion of resources to the Pacific by 1943. Fleet Admiral Ernest Joseph King GCB ( November 23, 1878 &ndash June 25, 1956) was Commander in Chief United States 
MacArthur was enormously popular with the American public, even after his defeat in the Philippines, and across the United States streets, public works, children and even a dance step were named after him. Douglas MacArthur, United States Army General is remembered for his services in many places 
Samuel Escue Tillman
|Superintendents of the United States Military Academy|
1919 – 1922
Fred Winchester Sladen
Charles P. Summerall
|Chief of Staff of the United States Army|
1930 – 1935
|Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (SCAP), Japan|
1945 – 1951
Matthew B. Ridgway
Dwight D. Eisenhower
|Sylvanus Thayer Award recipient|
John J. McCloy
John F. Kennedy
|Persons who have lain in state or honor in the United States Capitol rotunda|
April 8–April 9, 1964
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||American Field Marshal/General of the Army|
|DATE OF BIRTH||January 26, 1880|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Little Rock, Arkansas|
|DATE OF DEATH||April 5, 1964|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Washington, D.C.|
The commanding officer of the United States Military Academy is its Superintendent. Charles Pelot Summerall (March 4 1867 - May 14 1955 was a US General who fought in World War I and served as Army Chief of Staff between The Chief of Staff of the United States Army ( CSA) is the highest ranking officer in the United States Army and is member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Malin Craig ( August 5, 1875 &ndash July 25, 1945) was a United States Army general. Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers ( SCAP) was the title held by General Douglas MacArthur during the Occupation of Japan following World War II Matthew Bunker Ridgway ( March 3, 1895 &ndash July 26, 1993) was a United States Army General. Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14 1890 – March 28 1969 was President of the United States from 1953 until 1961 and a five-star general The Sylvanus Thayer Award is an award that is given each year by the United States Military Academy at West Point John Jay McCloy ( March 31, 1895, Philadelphia Pennsylvania &ndash March 11, 1989, Stamford Connecticut) was a Lawyer John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29 1917&ndashNovember 22 1963 often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of Lying in state is a term used to describe the tradition in which a Coffin is placed on view to allow the public at large to pay their respects to the deceased The rotunda is the central rotunda of the United States Capitol, below the Capitol dome. Events 217 - Roman Emperor Caracalla is Assassinated (and succeeded by his Praetorian Events 193 - Septimius Severus is proclaimed Roman Emperor by the army in Illyricum (in the Balkans) Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar. Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10 1874 &ndash October 20 1964 was the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933 Events 1340 - King Edward III of England is declared King of France. Year 1880 ( MDCCCLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Little Rock is the Capital and the most populous city of the U Arkansas ( is a state located in the southern region of the United States. Events 456 - St Patrick returns to Ireland as a missionary bishop Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D