The Doolittle Raid, 18 April 1942, was the first air raid by the United States to strike the Japanese home island of Honshū during World War II. Events 1025 - Bolesław Chrobry is crowned in Gniezno, becoming the first King of Poland. Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Strategic bombing is a Military strategy used in a Total war with the goal of defeating an enemy nation-state by destroying its economic ability to wage war rather The United States of America —commonly referred to as the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. or Honshu is the largest Island of Japan. The nation's main island, it is south of Hokkaidō across the Tsugaru Strait, north of World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including It demonstrated that the Japanese home islands were vulnerable to Allied air attack, and provided an expedient means for U. The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis powers during the Second World War. S. retaliation for Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941. The attack on Pearl Harbor (or Hawaii Operation, as it was called by the Imperial General Headquarters) was a surprise Military strike conducted by Events 43 BC - Marcus Tullius Cicero assassinated 1696 - Connecticut Route 108, one of the oldest highways Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Doolittle Raid was the only time that United States Army Air Forces bombers were launched from a U.S. Navy aircraft carrier on a combat mission. The United States Army Air Forces ( USAAF) was the military aviation arm of the United States of America during and immediately after World War II. An aircraft carrier is a Warship designed with
The raid was planned and led by Lieutenant Colonel James "Jimmy" Doolittle, with the North American B-25B Mitchell the airplane selected to carry out the mission. Lieutenant Colonel ( Lieutenant-Colonel in English from the French grade 's spelling is a rank of Commissioned officer in the armies General James Harold "Jimmy" Doolittle USAF (14 December 1896 &ndash 27 September 1993 was an American Aviation pioneer North American Aviation was a major US Aircraft manufacturer, responsible for a number of historic aircraft including the T-6 Texan trainer the The plan was to launch them from a carrier, hit military targets in Japan, and fly on to land in China. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National
All 16 aircraft were lost on the mission, and 11 crewmen were either killed or captured. The crews of 13 aircraft, however, were recovered and returned to the United States, and a 14th crew interned by the Soviet Union eventually made its way home in 1943. While the military significance of the raid was minimal, it proved to be a substantial morale booster for Americans.
The raid had its roots in the mind of Navy Captain Francis Low, who early in the war surmised that, under the right conditions, twin-engined Army bombers could be successfully launched from an aircraft carrier. It was subsequently planned and led by Doolittle, already a famous civilian aviator and aeronautical engineer before the war. Aerospace engineering is the branch of Engineering behind the design construction and science of Aircraft and Spacecraft.
Requirements for the aircraft for a cruising range of 2,400 miles (3,900 km) with a 2,000 pound (900 kg) bomb load resulted in the selection of the North American B-25B Mitchell to carry out the mission. North American Aviation was a major US Aircraft manufacturer, responsible for a number of historic aircraft including the T-6 Texan trainer the The B-26 Marauder and B-23 Dragon were also considered, but the B-26 had questionable takeoff characteristics from a carrier deck, and the B-23's wingspan was nearly 50% greater than the B-25's, reducing the number that could be taken aboard a carrier and posing risks to the ship's island. See A-26 Invader for the plane known as the B-26 from 1948 to 1962 WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout An aircraft carrier is a Warship designed with Subsequent tests with B-25s indicated it could be launched from a carrier, hit military targets in Japan, and fly on to land in China. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Negotiations with the Soviet Union (which was not at war with Japan) to land in Vladivostok, shortening the flight by 600 miles (1,000 km), were fruitless. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Vladivostok ( is Russia 's largest port city on the Pacific Ocean and the administrative center of Primorsky Krai. 
When planning indicated that the B-25 was the aircraft best meeting all specifications of the mission, three were loaded aboard the aircraft carrier USS Hornet at Norfolk, Virginia, and subsequently flown off the deck without difficulty on February 2, 1942. Doolittle Raid April 1942 See also Doolittle Raid Hornet arrived at Alameda California 20 March 1942. Norfolk is an Independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States Events 962 - Translatio imperii: Pope John XII crowns Otto I Holy Roman Emperor, the first Holy Roman Emperor Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The raid was immediately approved and the 17th Bomb Group (Medium) chosen to provide the pool of crews from which volunteers would be recruited. In the spring of 1941, the 17th BG had been the first group to receive B-25s, with all four of its squadrons equipped with the bomber by September, and it not only was the first medium bomb group of the Army Air Corps, but it also had the most experienced B-25 crews. Its first assignment following the entry of the United States into the war was to the U. S. Eighth Air Force. Eighth Air Force is a Numbered Air Force (NAF of the United States Air Force Air Combat Command (ACC 
The 17th BG, then flying antisubmarine patrols from Pendleton, Oregon, was immediately moved cross-country to Lexington County Army Air Base, Columbia, South Carolina, ostensibly to fly similar patrols off the east coast of the United States, but in actuality to prepare for the mission against Japan. Pendleton (ˈpɛnəltɨn is a city in Umatilla County, Oregon, United States. Columbia Metropolitan Airport is the main airport for Columbia, South Carolina, located in the suburb of West Columbia. Columbia is the state capital and largest city in the US state of South Carolina. The group officially arrived in Columbia on February 9, where its combat crews were offered the opportunity to volunteer for an "extremely hazardous" but unspecified mission. On February 17 the group was officially detached from the Eighth Air Force.
Initial planning called for 20 aircraft to fly the mission, and 24 of the group's B-25B Mitchell bombers were diverted to the Mid-Continent Airlines modification center in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Mid-Continent Airlines operated in the central United States through the 1930s until merging with Braniff Airlines in 1952 Modifications included:
Two bombers also had cameras mounted to record the results of bombing. 
The 24 crews selected picked up the modified bombers in Minneapolis and flew them to Eglin Field, Florida, beginning 1 March 1942. Eglin Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located southwest of Valparaiso in Okaloosa County, Florida, United States Florida ( is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States, bordering Alabama to the northwest and Georgia to the Events 86 BC - Lucius Cornelius Sulla, at the head of a Roman Republic army enters in Athens, removing the Tyrant Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. There the crews received intensive training for three weeks in carrier deck takeoffs, low-level and night flying, low altitude bombing, and over water navigation. Lt. Col Doolittle stated in his after action report that an operational level of training was reached despite several days when flying was not possible because of rain and fog. One aircraft was heavily damaged in a takeoff accident and another taken off the mission because of a nose wheel shimmy that could not be repaired in time. 
On 25 March, the remaining 22 B-25s took off from Eglin for McClellan Field, California. Events 1199 - Richard I is wounded by a crossbow bolt while fighting France which leads to his death on April 6. McClellan Air Force Base (1935-2001 is a former front-line United States Air Force base located 7 miles Northeast of Sacramento California. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. They arrived on 27 March for final modifications at the Sacramento Air Depot. Events 196 BC - Ptolemy V ascends to the throne of Egypt. 1309 - Pope Clement V excommunicates A total of 16 B-25s were subsequently flown to Alameda, California, on 31 March. Naval Air Station Alameda ( NAS Alameda) was a United States Navy Naval Air Station in Alameda California, on San Francisco Bay Events 307 - After divorcing his wife Minervina, Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of the retired Roman Emperor Fifteen raiders would be the mission force and a 16th aircraft, by last minute agreement with the Navy, would be squeezed onto the deck to be flown off shortly after departure from San Francisco to provide feedback to the Army pilots about takeoff characteristics. (The 16th bomber was made part of the mission force instead. )
In order of launching, the 16 aircraft were:
|AAF serial #||Nickname||Sqdn||Target||Pilot||Disposition|
|40-2344||34th BS||Tokyo||Lt. Col. James H. Doolittle||crashed Chuchow, China|
|40-2292||37th BS||Tokyo||Lt. Administration The Prefecture-level city of Quzhou administers 2 districts, 1 County-level city, and 3 counties. Travis Hoover||crashed Ningpo, China|
|40-2270||Whiskey Pete||95th BS||Tokyo||Lt. Ningbo ( literally "Tranquil Waves" is a Seaport with sub-provincial administrative status. Robert M. Gray||crashed Chuchow, China|
|40-2282||95th BS||Tokyo||Lt. Everett W. Holstrom||crashed Shangjao, China|
|40-2283||95th BS||Tokyo||Capt. David M. Jones||crashed Chuchow, China|
|40-2298||The Green Hornet||95th BS||Tokyo||Lt. Dean E. Hallmark||crashed Nanchang, China|
|40-2261||The Ruptured Duck||95th BS||Tokyo||Lt. Ted W. Lawson||ditched Shangchow, China|
|40-2242||95th BS||Tokyo||Capt. Nanchang ( is the capital of Jiangxi Province in southeastern China. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Edward J. York||interned Vladivostok, Russia|
|40-2303||Whirling Dervish||34th BS||Tokyo||Lt. Vladivostok ( is Russia 's largest port city on the Pacific Ocean and the administrative center of Primorsky Krai. Harold F. Watson||crashed Nanchang, China|
|40-2250||89th RS||Tokyo||Lt. Richard O. Joyce||crashed Chuchow, China|
|40-2249||Hari Kari-er||89th RS||Yokohama||Capt. C. Ross Greening||crashed Chuchow, China|
|40-2278||Fickle Finger||37th BS||Yokohama||Lt. William M. Bower||crashed Chuchow, China|
|40-2247||The Avenger||37th BS||Yokosuka||Lt. Edgar E. McElroy||crashed Nanchang, China|
|40-2297||89th RS||Nagoya||Maj. John A. Hilger||crashed Shangjao, China|
|40-2267||TNT||89th RS||Kobe||Lt. Donald G. Smith||ditched Shangchow, China|
|40-2268||Bat Out of Hell||34th BS||Nagoya||Lt. William G. Farrow||crashed Ningpo, China|
On 1 April, the 16 modified bombers, their five-man crews and Army maintenance personnel, totalling 71 officers and 130 enlisted men, were loaded onto USS Hornet at Alameda. Events 527 - Byzantine Emperor Justin I names his nephew Justinian I as co-ruler and successor to the throne Doolittle Raid April 1942 See also Doolittle Raid Hornet arrived at Alameda California 20 March 1942. Each aircraft carried four specially-constructed 500-pound (225 kg) bombs. Three of these were high-explosive munitions, and one was a bundle of incendiaries. The incendiaries were long tubes, wrapped together in order to be carried in the bomb bay, but designed to separate and scatter over a wide area after release. The older name of the Indian city of Mumbai, is correctly spelled " Bombay " Five of these bombs had Japanese "friendship" medals wired to them - medals awarded by the Japanese government to U. S. servicemen before the war.  To decrease weight (and thus increase range), the bombers' armament was reduced. Each bomber launched with two .50-calibre (12.7 mm) machine guns in an upper turret and a .30-caliber (7.6 mm) machine gun in the nose. A light machine gun or LMG is a Machine gun that is generally lighter than other machine guns of the same period and is usually designed to be carried Two wooden, simulated gun barrels mounted in the tail cones were intended to discourage Japanese air attacks from that direction, and were cited afterward by Doolittle as being particularly effective.  The aircraft were clustered closely and tied down on the Hornet's flight deck in the order of their expected launch.
The Hornet and Task Force 18 left the port of Alameda at 10:00 on 2 April in a thick fog and a few days later rendezvoused with Task Force 16, commanded by Vice Admiral William F. Halsey, Jr.: the carrier USS Enterprise and its escort of cruisers and destroyers in the mid-Pacific Ocean north of Hawaii. Events 68 - Galba, Governor of Hispania, names himself legatus senatus populique Romani, breaking the line of Vice Admiral is a naval rank equivalent to Lieutenant General in seniority Fleet Admiral William Frederick Halsey Jr, GBE, USN, ( October 30, 1882 &ndash August 16, 1959) (called "Bill Initial operations Enterprise was launched on 3 October 1936 at Newport News Shipbuilding, sponsored by Lulie Swanson wife of Secretary of the A cruiser is a large type of Warship, which had its prime period from the late 19th century to the end of the Cold War. In naval terminology a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance Warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, Convoy The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth 's Oceanic divisions The State of Hawaii ( or həˈwaɪʔiː Hawaiian: Mokuāina o Hawaii) is a state in the United States located on an Archipelago in the The Enterprise's fighters and scout planes would provide protection for the entire task force in the event of a Japanese air attack, since the Hornet's fighters were stowed below decks to allow the B-25s to use the flight deck. The combined force, two carriers, three heavy cruisers, one light cruiser, eight destroyers, and two fleet oilers, then proceeded in radio silence towards their intended launch point in enemy-controlled waters east of Japan.
On the morning of 18 April, at a distance of about 650 miles (1,050 km) from Japan, the task force was sighted by a Japanese picket boat No. Events 1025 - Bolesław Chrobry is crowned in Gniezno, becoming the first King of Poland. 23 Nitto Maru which radioed an attack warning to Japan.  Although the boat was destroyed by gunfire from the cruiser USS Nashville, Doolittle and Hornet skipper Captain Marc Mitscher decided to launch the B-25s immediately—10 hours early and 170 miles (275 km) farther from Japan than planned. Admiral Marc Andrew "Pete" Mitscher ( 26 January 1887 – 3 February 1947) was a Vice-admiral in the United After respotting to allow for engine start and run-ups, Doolittle's aircraft had 467 ft (142 metres) of takeoff distance.  Despite the fact that none of the B-25 pilots, including Doolittle, had ever taken off from a carrier before, all 16 aircraft launched safely between 08:20 and 09:19. (The 16th B-25 had been included only as a reserve, intended to fly along as an observation and photographic platform, but when the mission was compromised, Doolittle made a command decision to utilize the reserve aircraft. )
They then flew towards Japan in sections of three-four aircraft before changing to single-file at wavetop level to avoid detection.  The aircraft began arriving over Japan about noon (Tokyo time; six hours after launch) and bombed 10 military and industrial targets in Tokyo, two in Yokohama, and one each in Yokosuka, Nagoya, Kobe and Osaka. officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and located on the eastern side of the main island Honshū. is the capital of Kanagawa Prefecture, located in the Kantō region of the main island of Honshū and is a major commercial hub of the Greater Tokyo Area is a city located in Kanagawa, Japan. It is located at the mouth of Tokyo Bay in the Miura Peninsula, and the city stretches across is the third-largest incorporated city and the fourth most populous urban area in Japan. is the capital city of Hyōgo Prefecture and a prominent port city in Japan with a population of about 1 is a city in Japan, located at the mouth of the Yodo River on Osaka Bay, in the Kansai region of the main island of Honshū Although some B-25s encountered light anti-aircraft fire and a few enemy fighters over Japan, no bomber was shot down. Only the B-25 of Lt. Richard O. Joyce received any battle damage, minor hits from anti-aircraft fire. 
Fifteen of the 16 aircraft then proceeded southwest along the southern coast of Japan and across the East China Sea towards eastern China, where five recovery bases supposedly awaited them. The East China Sea is a Marginal sea east of China. It is a part of the Pacific Ocean and covers an area of 1249000 km²  One B-25, extremely low on fuel, headed instead for the closer land mass of Russia.
The raiders faced several unforeseen challenges during their flight to China: night was approaching, the aircraft were running low on fuel, and the weather was rapidly deteriorating. As a result of these problems, the crews realized they would probably not be able to reach their intended bases in China, leaving them the option of either bailing out over eastern China or crash landing along the Chinese coast. Fifteen aircraft reached the Chinese coast after 13 hours of flight and crash landed or bailed out; the crew who flew to Russia landed 40 miles (65 km) beyond Vladivostok, where their B-25 was confiscated and the crew interned until they managed to escape through Iran in 1943. Vladivostok ( is Russia 's largest port city on the Pacific Ocean and the administrative center of Primorsky Krai. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. It was the longest combat mission ever flown by the B-25 Mitchell medium bomber, averaging approximately 2,250 miles (3,600 km).
Doolittle and his crew, after safely parachuting into China, received assistance from Chinese soldiers and civilians as well as John Birch, an American missionary in China. John Morrison Birch ( May 8, 1918 &ndash August 25, 1945) was an American Military Intelligence Officer and a Baptist A missionary is a member of a Religion who works to convert those who do not share the missionary's faith someone who proselytizes. As did the others who participated in the mission, Doolittle had to bail out but fortunately landed in a heap of dung (saving a previously injured ankle from breaking) in a rice paddy in China near Chuchow (Quzhou). Administration The Prefecture-level city of Quzhou administers 2 districts, 1 County-level city, and 3 counties. Doolittle thought that the raid had been a terrible failure because the aircraft were lost, and that he would be court-martialed upon his return. Doolittle subsequently recommended Birch for intelligence work with General Chennault's Flying Tigers. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout
Following the Doolittle Raid, most of the B-25 crews that came down in China eventually made it to safety with the help of Chinese civilians and soldiers. The Chinese people who helped them, however, paid dearly for sheltering the Americans. The Japanese military began the Zhejiang-Jiangxi Campaign to intimidate the Chinese from helping downed American airmen. The Zhejiang-Jiangxi Campaign ( Japanese: 浙贛作戦) refers to a campaign by the China Expeditionary Army of the Japanese Imperial Army under The Japanese killed an estimated 250,000 civilians while searching for Doolittle’s men.  The crews of two aircraft (10 men in total) were unaccounted for; Hallmark's crew (sixth off) and Farrow's crew (last off). On 15 August 1942, the United States learned from the Swiss Consulate General in Shanghai that eight of the missing crew members were prisoners of the Japanese at Police Headquarters in that city (two crewmen had died in the crash landing of their aircraft). Events 778 - The Battle of Roncevaux Pass, at which Roland is killed Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Shanghai ( 上[[wikt 海|海]] is the largest city in China in terms of population and one of the largest urban areas in the world with over 20 million On 19 October 1942, the Japanese announced that they had tried the eight men and sentenced them to death, but that several of them had received commutation of their sentences to life imprisonment. Events 202 BCE - The Battle of Zama results in the defeat of Carthage and Hannibal. Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. No names or details were included in the broadcast. Japanese propaganda ridiculed the raid, calling it the "Do-nothing Raid," and boasted that several B-25s had been shot down. In fact, none had been lost to hostile action.
After the war, the complete story of the two missing crews was uncovered in a war crimes trial held in Shanghai. War crimes are "violations of the laws or customs of war" including but not limited to "murder the ill-treatment or deportation of civilian residents of an occupied Shanghai ( 上[[wikt 海|海]] is the largest city in China in terms of population and one of the largest urban areas in the world with over 20 million The trial opened in February 1946 to try four Japanese officers for mistreatment of the eight captured crewmen. Two of the missing crewmen, Sgt. William J. Dieter and Cpl. Donald E. Fitzmaurice, had died when their B-25 crashed off the coast of China. The other eight, Lieutenants Dean E. Hallmark, Robert J. Meder, Chase J. Nielsen, William G. Robert John Meder (b August 23 1917 in Cleveland Ohio - d December 1 1943 in Kiangwan Prison Nanking China Chase Jay Nielsen (January 14 1917 - March 23 2007 was a career officer in the U Farrow, Robert L. Hite, and George Barr; and Corporals Harold A. Spatz and Jacob DeShazer were captured. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout In addition to being tortured and starved, these men contracted dysentery and beriberi as a result of the poor conditions under which they were confined. Dysentery (formerly known as flux or the bloody flux) is an infection of the digestive system that results in severe Diarrhea containing mucus and blood Beriberi (pronounced Berry-berry) is a Nervous system ailment caused by Thiamine (vitamin B1 deficiency On 28 August 1942, pilot Hallmark, pilot Farrow and gunner Spatz were given a mock trial by the Japanese, although the airmen were never told the charges against them. Events 475 - The Roman General Orestes forces western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos to flee his Capital Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. A kangaroo court or kangaroo trial, sometimes likened to a Drumhead court-martial or Drumhead trial, is a sham Legal proceeding or Court On 14 October 1942, these three crewmen were advised that they were to be executed the next day. Events 1066 - Norman Conquest: Battle of Hastings - In England on Senlac Hill seven miles from Hastings, the forces Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. At 16:30 on 15 October 1942, the three were taken by truck to Public Cemetery Number 1 outside of Shanghai and put before a firing squad. Events 533 - Byzantine General Belisarius makes his formal entry into Carthage, having conquered it from the Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
The other five captured airmen remained in military confinement on a starvation diet, their health rapidly deteriorating. In April 1943, they were moved to Nanking where, on 1 December 1943, Meder died. ( Chinese: 南京 Romanizations Nánjīng ( Pinyin) Nan-ching ( Wade-Giles Events 800 - Charlemagne judges the accusations against Pope Leo III in the Vatican Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The remaining four men (Nielsen, Hite, Barr and DeShazer) eventually began receiving slightly better treatment from their captors and were even given a copy of the Bible and a few other books. Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin They survived until they were freed by American troops in August 1945. The four Japanese officers who were tried for war crimes against the eight Doolittle Raiders were all found guilty. Three of them were sentenced to hard labor for five years and the fourth to a nine-year sentence. DeShazer eventually became a missionary and returned to Japan in 1948, where he served in that capacity for over 30 years.
Of the group, only Hite is still alive. Barr died of cancer in 1967, Nielsen in 2007 and Jacob DeShazer died 15 March 2008. Events 44 BC - Julius Caesar, Dictator of the Roman Republic, is stabbed to death by Marcus Junius Brutus, 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common
One other Doolittle Raid crewman was lost on the mission. Corporal Leland D. Faktor (flight engineer/gunner with Gray) was killed during his bailout attempt over China, the only man on his crew to be lost.
Immediately following the raid, Doolittle told his crew that he believed the loss of all 16 aircraft, coupled with the relatively minor damage the aircraft had inflicted on their targets, had rendered the attack a failure, and that he expected a court martial upon his return to the United States. A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a Military court. These military courts can determine Punishments for members of the Military subject Instead, the raid bolstered American morale to such an extent that Doolittle was awarded the Medal of Honor by President Roosevelt, and was promoted two grades to Brigadier General, skipping the rank of colonel. The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States government. The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by Brigadier General is the lowest ranking General Officer in some countries usually sitting between the ranks of Colonel and Major General. He went on to command the Twelfth Air Force in North Africa, the Fifteenth Air Force in the Mediterranean, and the Eighth Air Force in England during the next three years. North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Eighth Air Force is a Numbered Air Force (NAF of the United States Air Force Air Combat Command (ACC England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland
In addition to Doolittle's award of the Medal of Honor, Corporal David J. Thatcher (a flight engineer/gunner on Lawson's crew) and 1st Lt. Thomas R. White (flight surgeon/gunner with Smith) each received the Silver Star for their efforts in helping the wounded crew members of Lt. The Silver Star is the third highest military decoration that can be awarded to a member of any branch of the United States Armed Forces. Lawson's crew evade Japanese troops in China. All 80 Raiders received the Distinguished Flying Cross and those who were killed, wounded or injured as a result of the raid also received the Purple Heart. The Distinguished Flying Cross is a medal awarded to any officer or enlisted member of the United States armed forces who distinguishes himself or herself in The Purple Heart is a United States military decoration awarded in the name of the President to those who have been wounded or killed while serving In addition, every Doolittle Raider received a decoration from the Chinese government.
Twenty-eight of the crewmen remained in the China Burma India theater flying missions, most for more than a year. China Burma India Theater (CBI (later IBT or India-Burma theater was the name used by the United States Army for its forces operating in conjuction with Allied air Five were killed in action. Killed in action ( KIA or K I A) is a casualty classification generally used by militaries to describe the deaths of their own forces by other Nineteen crew members flew combat missions from North Africa after returning to the United States, with four killed in action and four becoming prisoners of war. Nine crew members served in the European Theater of Operations, one killed in action. The European Theater of Operations (ETO is the term used in the United States to refer to US operations north of Italy and Altogether 12 of the survivors died in air crashes within 15 months of the raid. Two survivors were separated from the USAAF in 1944 due to the severity of their injuries. 
The 17th Bomb Group, from which the Doolittle Raiders had been recruited, received replacement crews and transferred to Barksdale Army Air Field in June 1942, where it converted to B-26 Marauder medium bombers. Barksdale Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located three Nautical miles (6 km) east of the Central business district of See A-26 Invader for the plane known as the B-26 from 1948 to 1962 In November 1942 it deployed overseas to North Africa, where it operated in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations with the Twelfth Air Force for the remainder of the war.
Compared to the devastating B-29 Superfortress attacks against Japan later in the war, the Doolittle raid did little material damage. Eight primary and five secondary targets were struck, and the Japanese reported that the two planes whose crews were captured had also struck their targets. At least one bomb from the plane of Lt. Edgar E. McElroy struck the Japanese aircraft carrier Ryūhō. Hanzo missed identifiershipconverted --> Routine missions At 910 AM on December 12, the Ryūhō was hit by a single torpedo on the starboard  Nevertheless, when the news of the raid was released, American morale soared from the depths to which it had plunged following the Pearl Harbor attack and Japan's subsequent territorial gains. It was important for Americans to know that a military response had been undertaken.
The raid also had a strategic impact, though it was not understood at the time, in that it caused the Japanese to recall some fighter units back to the home islands for defense. They did not understand how American aircraft could attack from such a distance and assumed that America had developed a new, extremely long-range aircraft, when in reality, American forces knew it would essentially be a one-way trip. This assumption that the home islands were vulnerable to air attack strengthened Admiral Yamamoto's resolve to carry out military action against Midway Island. Fleet Admiral ( 4 April 1884 – 18 April 1943) was the Commander-in-chief of the Combined Fleet during World War II a These reassignments subsequently weakened Japan's air capabilities against the Allies at the Battle of Midway and later Pacific Theater campaigns. The Battle of Midway was a major Naval battle, widely regarded as the most important one of the Pacific Campaign of World War II. The Pacific Theater of Operations (PTO was the World War II military activity in the Pacific Ocean and the countries bordering it a geographic scope
The Doolittle Raiders have held an annual reunion almost every year since the late 1940s. The high point of each reunion is a solemn, private ceremony in which the surviving Raiders perform a roll call, then toast their fellow Raiders who passed away during the previous year. Specially-engraved silver goblets, one for each of the 80 Raiders, are used for this toast. The goblets of those who have died are inverted. When only two Raiders remain alive, they will drink a final toast using the vintage 1896 bottle of Hennessy cognac which has accompanied the goblets to each Raider reunion since 1960. Jas Hennessy & Co, or more simply Hennessy, is a prominent French winery and co-leader of the prestigious Luxury goods company LVMH. Cognac is a commune in the French département of Charente, of which it is a sub-prefecture. Only 11 Raiders are still alive; nine are in their early 90s and two are in their late 80s. Only eight were able to attend the 64th anniversary reunion held in Dayton, Ohio, in April 2006. Dayton is a city in southwestern Ohio, United States. It is the County seat and largest city of Montgomery County. Seven were able to attend the 65th anniversary in April 2007 in San Antonio, Texas. Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. Six of the Raiders were able to attend the 66th anniversary in April 2008 in Dallas, Texas:
The bottle of cognac and the goblets had been maintained by the United States Air Force Academy on display in Arnold Hall, the cadet social center. The United States Air Force Academy ( USAFA or Air Force) is an accredited college for the undergraduate education of officers for the United States Air On 19 April 2006, the memorabilia were transferred to the National Museum of the United States Air Force. Events 1012 - Martyrdom of Alphege in Greenwich London. 1529 - At the Second Diet of Speyer Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The National Museum of the United States Air Force (formerly the United States Air Force Museum) is the official National Museum of the United States Air 
The United States Navy named one of its aircraft carriers after the fictional location, USS Shangri-La, as an obvious reference to the Doolittle Raid. World War II service She was laid down by the Norfolk Navy Yard, at Portsmouth Virginia, on 15 January The name referred to the recently lost USS Hornet. Doolittle Raid April 1942 See also Doolittle Raid Hornet arrived at Alameda California 20 March 1942. President Roosevelt had answered a reporter's question by saying that the raid had come from "Shangri-La", which was the name of the mysterious place of perpetual youth in the Himalayas in the popular book and movie of the time, Lost Horizon. Shangri-La is a fictional place described in the 1933 Novel Lost Horizon by British author James Lost Horizon is a 1933 Novel by English writer James Hilton. It is best remembered as the origin of Shangri-La, a fictional utopian 
The most extensive display of Doolittle Raid memorabilia can be seen at the National Museum of the United States Air Force (on Wright-Patterson Air Force Base) in Dayton, Ohio. The National Museum of the United States Air Force (formerly the United States Air Force Museum) is the official National Museum of the United States Air The National Museum of the United States Air Force (formerly the United States Air Force Museum) is the official National Museum of the United States Air Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located in Greene and Montgomery counties eight miles (13 km) northeast of Dayton is a city in southwestern Ohio, United States. It is the County seat and largest city of Montgomery County. The centerpiece is a like-new B-25, which is painted and marked as Doolittle's aircraft (although it is actually a B-25D). The bomber, which North American Aviation presented to the Raiders in 1958, rests on a reproduction of the USS Hornet's flight deck. North American Aviation was a major US Aircraft manufacturer, responsible for a number of historic aircraft including the T-6 Texan trainer the The scene is made even more realistic through the use of several authentically-dressed mannequins surrounding the aircraft; these include representations of Doolittle, USS Hornet skipper Captain Marc Mitscher, and groups of Army and Navy personnel loading the aircraft's bombs and ammunition. Admiral Marc Andrew "Pete" Mitscher ( 26 January 1887 – 3 February 1947) was a Vice-admiral in the United
Other highlights of the exhibit are the silver goblets used by the Raiders at each of their annual reunions; pieces of flight clothing and personal equipment; a parachute used by one of the Raiders in his bailout over China; and group photographs of all 16 crews. Many other interesting items are also included in this unique collection.
The recently-opened Pacific Aviation Museum on Ford Island, Oahu, Hawaii also features a 1942 exhibit in which the centerpiece is a restored B-25 in the markings of "The Ruptured Duck" used on the Doolittle Raid. The National Air and Space Museum (NASM of the Smithsonian Institution is a museum in Washington D Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D The Pacific Aviation Museum is located on Ford Island, located in the middle of Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Ford Island is located in the middle of Pearl Harbor Hawaii. It is connected to the main island by the Ford Island Bridge. Oahu (usually Oahu outside Hawaiian and Hawaiian English) known as ''"The Gathering Place", is the third largest of the The State of Hawaii ( or həˈwaɪʔiː Hawaiian: Mokuāina o Hawaii) is a state in the United States located on an Archipelago in the WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout 
On 21 April 1992, in harmony with other World War II 50th Anniversary festivities, USS Ranger (CV-61) participated in the commemorative re-enactment of the Doolittle Raid on Tokyo, Japan. Construction and trials Ranger was the first Aircraft carrier in the world to be laid down as an angled-deck ship (her elder sisters Forrestal and Two World War II-era B-25 bombers were craned on board and over 1,500 guests (including national, local and military media) were embarked to witness the two vintage warbirds thunder down Ranger's flight deck and take off.
The Doolittle Raid was the subject of the 1944 feature film, Thirty Seconds over Tokyo. Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo is a 1944 MGM War film. It was directed by Mervyn LeRoy and produced by Sam Zimbalist. This was based on a book of the same title by Doolittle Raider pilot Captain Ted W. Lawson, who lost a leg and had other serious injuries as a result of a crash landing off the coast of China. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Spencer Tracy played Doolittle and Van Johnson portrayed Lawson. Spencer Tracy ( April 5, 1900 – June 10, 1967) was a two-time Academy Award -winning Actor of stage and Charles "Van" Johnson (born August 25, 1916) is an American film and television actor and dancer The movie is considered to be a reasonably accurate and unsensationalized depiction of the mission. The movie has the general approval of the Raiders (footage from the film was later used for the opening scenes of Midway). Midway is a 1976 War film made by The Mirisch Corporation and released by Universal Pictures.
The raid also inspired two other films. One was the 1943 RKO film Bombardier starring Randolph Scott and Pat O'Brien. Randolph Scott ( January 23, 1898 – March 2, 1987) was an American motion picture actor whose career spanned from 1928 Pat O'Brien is the name of Pat O'Brien (actor (1899&ndash1983 who appeared in Some Like It Hot and other films Pat O'Brien (New The climax of this movie is an attack on Japan by a group of B-17s. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The other film, The Purple Heart, made in 1944, starring Dana Andrews, was a fictional depiction based on a Japanese court martial of captured American airmen, from the Doolittle Raid. For other meanings see Purple Heart (disambiguation. The Purple Heart is a 1944 American War film Dana Andrews ( January 1 1909 - December 17 1992) was an American film actor
The 2001 film Pearl Harbor presented a heavily fictionalized version of the raid, with the attack portrayed as having destroyed an entire industrial area against withering antiaircraft gunfire and with many other technical inaccuracies. Pearl Harbor is a 2001 War film directed by Michael Bay. It features a large Ensemble cast, including Ben Affleck,
A highly fictionalized film in 1943, Destination Tokyo starring Cary Grant, tangentially involved the raid, concentrating on the fictional submarine USS Copperfin. Destination Tokyo is a War film produced and distributed by Warner Bros USS Copperfin is the fictitious submarine on which the 1943 movie Destination Tokyo was set The submarine's mission is to enter Tokyo Bay undetected and place a landing party ashore to obtain weather information vital to the upcoming Doolittle raid. is a bay in the southern Kantō region of Japan. Its old name was. The film suggests the raid did not launch until up-to-the-minute data was received. However, all the after-action reports indicated the raid launched without time for weather briefings because of the encounter with the picket ships. 
Many books were written about the Doolittle Raid after the war. Doolittle's Tokyo Raiders, by C. V. Glines, tells the complete story of the raid, including the unique experiences of each B-25 crew. Guests of the Kremlin, written by copilot Bob Emmens, describes his crew's adventures as internees in Russia after their landing in that country following the raid. Four Came Home, also by C. V. Glines, tells the story of Nielsen, Hite, Barr, and DeShazer, the Raiders who were held in POW camps for over three years. The First Heroes, by Craig Nelson, goes into great detail of the events leading up to the raid and the aftermath for all the pilots and their families.
A related VHS video with some excellent old clips of Doolittle and the flight preparations, along with the B-25s launching, is DeShazer, the story of missionary Sergeant Jake DeShazer of B-25 #16 (the last to launch from the Hornet). WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The video is based on "The Amazing Story of Sergeant Jacob De Shazer: The Doolittle Raider Who Turned Missionary by C. Hoyt Watson. At the end of both the video and the book, DeShazer after the war meets Mitsuo Fuchida, the commander and lead pilot of the Pearl Harbor attack. Mitsuo Fuchida ( 淵田美津雄( 3 December 1902 - 30 May 1976) was a Captain in the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service