|Sir Donald Bradman|
|Full name||Sir Donald George Bradman|
|Nickname||The Don, The Boy from Bowral, Braddles|
|Born||27 August 1908|
|Cootamundra, New South Wales, Australia|
|Died||25 February 2001 (aged 92)|
|Kensington Park, Adelaide, Australia|
|Height||5 ft 7 in (1. The Australian cricket team is the national cricket team of Australia. Events 479 BC - Greco-Persian Wars: Persian forces led by Mardonius are routed by Pausanias, the Spartan Year 1908 ( MCMVIII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Cootamundra is a town and Local Government Area in the South West Slopes region of New South Wales, Australia and within the Riverina For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Events 138 - The Emperor Hadrian adopts Antoninus Pius, effectively making him his successor Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. Kensington Park is a suburb of Adelaide in the City of Burnside. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. 70 m)|
|Bowling style||Right-arm leg break|
|Test debut (cap 124)||30 November 1928: v England|
|Last Test||18 August 1948: v England|
|Domestic team information|
|1927–1934||New South Wales|
|Batting average||99. Mike Powell cricketerjpg|thumb|200px| Warwickshire batsman Mike Powell]] A batsman in the sport of Cricket is depending on context Any Leg spin is a style of Spin bowling in Cricket. A leg spinner bowls right-arm with a Wrist spin action causing the ball to spin anti-clockwise at the point This is a list of cricketers who have played at least one Test match for Australia. Events 1700 - Battle of Narva — A Swedish army of 8500 men under Charles XII defeats Year 1928 ( MCMXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The England cricket team is the national cricket team which represents England and Wales. Events 293 BC - The oldest known Roman temple to Venus is founded starting the institution of Vinalia Rustica. Year 1948 ( MCMXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The England cricket team is the national cricket team which represents England and Wales. The Southern Redbacks are an Australian first class cricket team based in Adelaide, South Australia. The New South Wales Blues (referred to as the Speed Blitz Blues for sponsorship purposes are an Australian first class cricket team based in Test cricket is the longest form of the Sport of Cricket. It has long been considered the ultimate test of playing ability between cricketing nations First-class cricket refers to the class of Cricket matches of three or more days scheduled duration between two sides of eleven players and officially adjudged first-class by Batting average is a Statistic in both Cricket and Baseball measuring the performance of cricket batsmen and baseball hitters, respectively 94||95. 14|
|Bowling average||36. A delivery or ball in Cricket is a single action of Bowling a Cricket ball towards the Batsman. In the sport of Cricket the word wicket has several distinct meanings Meanings of wicket Set of stumps Primarily the wicket Bowling average is a Statistic measuring the performance of bowlers in the Sport of Cricket. 00||37. 97|
|5 wickets in innings||0||0|
|10 wickets in match||0||0|
Sir Donald George Bradman, AC (27 August 1908 – 25 February 2001), often called The Don, was an Australian cricketer, widely acknowledged as the greatest batsman of all time. An inning, or innings, is a fixed-length segment of a game in any of a variety of Sports &ndash most notably Cricket and Baseball during For other uses see Stump (disambiguation Stump is a term used in the Sport of Cricket where has three different meanings Events 1384 - The Hongwu Emperor of Ming China, Emperor Dong hears a case of a couple who tore paper money bills while fighting Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Order of Australia is an order of chivalry established by Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia on 14 February 1975 "for the purpose of according recognition Events 479 BC - Greco-Persian Wars: Persian forces led by Mardonius are routed by Pausanias, the Spartan Year 1908 ( MCMVIII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Events 138 - The Emperor Hadrian adopts Antoninus Pius, effectively making him his successor Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Cricket is a bat-and-ball team Sport that originated in England and is now played in more than 100 countries Mike Powell cricketerjpg|thumb|200px| Warwickshire batsman Mike Powell]] A batsman in the sport of Cricket is depending on context Any  Later in his career he was an administrator and writer on the game. Bradman is one of Australia's most popular sporting heroes, and his feats are held in the highest esteem by people all over the world; he had an "astonishing international reputation".  His career Test batting average of 99. Test cricket is the longest form of the Sport of Cricket. It has long been considered the ultimate test of playing ability between cricketing nations Batting average is a Statistic in both Cricket and Baseball measuring the performance of cricket batsmen and baseball hitters, respectively 94 has been assessed as the greatest statistical performance in any major sport. 
The story of the young Bradman practising alone with a cricket stump and a golf ball is part of Australian folklore. Australian folklore refers to the Folklore and Urban legends of Australia.  Bradman’s meteoric rise from bush cricket to the Australian Test team took just over two years. The bush is a term used for rural possibly lawless undeveloped land or country areas in many places such as Australia, New Zealand, Sub-Saharan Africa The Australian cricket team is the national cricket team of Australia. Before his 22nd birthday, he had set many records for high scoring, some of which stand even today, and became Australia's sporting idol at the height of the Great Depression. A controversial set of tactics, known as Bodyline, was specifically devised by the England team to curb his batting brilliance. For information about the British code name "Bodyline" for the WWII V-2 rocket, see Operation Crossbow. The England cricket team is the national cricket team which represents England and Wales.
During a 20-year playing career, Bradman consistently scored at a level that made him, in the words of former Australia captain Bill Woodfull, "worth three batsmen to Australia". The captain of a Cricket team is a player who during the course of a match has several additional roles and responsibilities over and above those of a regular player William Maldon "Bill" Woodfull OBE (22 August 1897 &mdash 11 August 1965 was an Australian Cricketer He captained both Victoria and  As a captain and administrator Bradman was committed to attacking, entertaining cricket; he drew spectators in record numbers. He found the constant adulation an anathema, however, and it affected how he dealt with others. The focus of attention on his individual performances strained relationships with some team-mates, administrators and journalists, who thought him aloof and wary.  After the Second World War, he made a dramatic comeback and in his final season captained an Australian team known as "The Invincibles". World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Australian cricket team in England in 1948 was captained by Don Bradman, who was making his fourth and final tour of England RC Robertson-Glasgow wrote of the English reaction to Bradman's retirement that, ". Raymond Charles 'Crusoe' Robertson-Glasgow (born July 15, 1901 at Murrayfield, Edinburgh, Scotland; died March 4, . . a miracle has been removed from among us. So must ancient Italy have felt when she heard of the death of Hannibal". Hannibal (Pronounced in Phoenician: Hanniba'al means " Ba'al is my grace " or " Ba'al has given me grace " 247 BC &ndash 
A complex, highly driven man, not given to close personal relationships, Bradman retained a pre-eminent position in the game by acting as an administrator, selector and writer for three decades following his retirement. Even after he became reclusive in his declining years his opinion was highly sought, and his status as a national icon was still recognised — more than 50 years after his retirement as a Test player, in 2001, the Australian Prime Minister John Howard called him the "greatest living Australian". The Prime Minister of Australia is the Head of government of the Commonwealth of Australia, holding office on commission from the Governor-General. See also Howard Government John Winston Howard AC (born 26 July 1939 was the 25th Prime Minister of Australia from 11 March  Bradman's image has appeared on postage stamps and coins, and he was the first living Australian to have a museum dedicated to his life.
Donald Bradman was the youngest child of George and Emily (nee Whatman) Bradman, and was born on 27 August 1908 at Cootamundra, New South Wales (NSW). Events 479 BC - Greco-Persian Wars: Persian forces led by Mardonius are routed by Pausanias, the Spartan Year 1908 ( MCMVIII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Cootamundra is a town and Local Government Area in the South West Slopes region of New South Wales, Australia and within the Riverina  He had a brother, Victor, and three sisters—Islet, Lilian and Elizabeth May.  When Bradman was about two-and-a-half years old, his parents moved to Bowral in the NSW Southern Highlands. Bowral is a town located in the Southern Highlands of New South Wales, Australia, in Wingecarribee Shire. The Southern Highlands, also locally referred to as the Highlands, is a geographical area in New South Wales, Australia, 103km south west of Sydney 
Bradman practiced batting incessantly during his youth. He invented his own solo cricket game, using a cricket stump for a bat, and a golf ball. For other uses see Stump (disambiguation Stump is a term used in the Sport of Cricket where has three different meanings A cricket bat is used by batsmen in the sport of Cricket. It is usually made of Willow wood A golf ball is a Ball designed to be used in the game of Golf.  A water tank, mounted on a curved brick stand, stood on a paved area behind the family home. When hit into the curved brick facing of the stand, the ball rebounded at high speed and varying angles—and Bradman would attempt to hit it again. This form of practice developed his timing and reactions to a high degree. 
In more formal cricket, he hit his first century at the age of 12, playing for Bowral Public School against Mittagong High School. In the Sport of Cricket, a Batsman reaches his century when he scores 100 or more runs in the Innings. Mittagong (postcode 2575 is a town with a population of approximately 6000 in the Southern Highlands region of New South Wales, Australia, in 
In 1920–21, Bradman acted as scorer for the local Bowral team, captained by his uncle George Whatman, and once filled in when the team was short of players, scoring 37 not out. Scoring in cricket matches involves citing two facts the number of runs scored by each team and the number of wickets each has lost During the season, Bradman's father took him to the Sydney Cricket Ground (SCG) to watch the fifth Ashes Test match. The Sydney Cricket Ground (SCG is a sports Stadium in Sydney. The Ashes is a Test cricket series played between England and Australia. Test cricket is the longest form of the Sport of Cricket. It has long been considered the ultimate test of playing ability between cricketing nations On that day, Bradman formed an ambition. "I shall never be satisfied", he told his father, "until I play on this ground. " Bradman left school in 1922 and went to work for a local real estate agent who encouraged his sporting pursuits by giving him time off when necessary. This article focuses on US practice for other definitions and practices in other countries see the more general Real Estate or Real property articles For two years, Bradman gave up cricket in favour of tennis, but resumed playing cricket in 1925–26. 
Bradman became a regular selection for the Bowral team; several outstanding performances earned him the attention of the Sydney daily press. A newspaper is a written Publication containing News, information and Advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called Newsprint. Competing on matting-over-concrete pitches, Bowral played other rural towns in the Berrima District competition. A Cricket pitch is the central strip of the Cricket field between the Wickets The pitch is 1 chain or 22 yards (20 Dharawal Aborigines They Against Wingello, a team that included the future Test bowler Bill O'Reilly, Bradman made 234. Wingello is a village in the Southern Highlands of New South Wales, Australia Test cricket is the longest form of the Sport of Cricket. It has long been considered the ultimate test of playing ability between cricketing nations Muralijpg|thumb|250px|right|The world's leading off-spin bowler Muttiah Muralitharan sends down a delivery]] A bowler in the Sport of Cricket is usually William Joseph "Bill" O'Reilly, often known as Tiger O'Reilly, (born 20 December 1905 in White Cliffs New South Wales; died 6 October 1992 in Sydney  In the competition final against Moss Vale, which extended over five consecutive Saturdays, Bradman scored 320 not out. Moss Vale is a town in the Southern Highlands of New South Wales, Australia, in Wingecarribee Shire.  During the following Australian winter (1926), an ageing Australian team lost The Ashes in England, and a number of Test players retired. England won the 1926 Ashes series against Australia England won the last test of the series after the first four test matches were drawn 1st Test (Nottingham &mdash drawn The Ashes is a Test cricket series played between England and Australia. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Test cricket is the longest form of the Sport of Cricket. It has long been considered the ultimate test of playing ability between cricketing nations  The New South Wales Cricket Association began a hunt for new talent. The New South Wales Cricket Association (NSWCA is a sporting club who administer Cricket in New South Wales, based at the Sydney Cricket Ground. Mindful of Bradman's big scores for Bowral, the association wrote to him, requesting his attendance at a practice session in Sydney. He was subsequently chosen for the "Country Week" tournaments at both cricket and tennis, to be played during separate weeks. His boss presented him with a ultimatum: he could only have one week away from work, so he had to choose between the two sports.  He chose cricket.
Bradman's performances during Country Week elicited an invitation to play grade cricket in Sydney for St George in the 1926–27 season. Sydney Grade Cricket is a Cricket competition played in Sydney Australia. Sydney (ˈsɪdniː is the most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 4 He scored 110 on his debut, making his first century on a turf wicket.  On January 1, 1927, New Years day, he turned out for the NSW second team. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1927 ( MCMXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The New Year is an event that happens when a Culture celebrates the end of one Year and the beginning of the next year For the remainder of the season, Bradman travelled the 130 kilometres (81 mi) from Bowral to Sydney every Saturday to play for St George. 
The next season continued the rapid rise of the "Boy from Bowral".  Selected to replace the unfit Archie Jackson in the NSW team, Bradman made his first-class debut at the Adelaide Oval, aged 19. Archibald ("Archie" Jackson (5 September 1909 &ndash 16 February 1933 was an Australian Cricketer who played eight Test matches as a specialist The New South Wales Blues (referred to as the Speed Blitz Blues for sponsorship purposes are an Australian first class cricket team based in First-class cricket refers to the class of Cricket matches of three or more days scheduled duration between two sides of eleven players and officially adjudged first-class by The Adelaide Oval is a sports ground in Adelaide, South Australia. His innings of 118 featured what soon became his trademarks—fast footwork, calm confidence and rapid scoring.  In the final match of the season, he made his first century at the SCG, against the Sheffield Shield champions Victoria. The Victorian Bushrangers is an Australian cricket team based in Melbourne, that represents the state of Victoria. Despite his potential, Bradman was not chosen for the Australian second team to tour New Zealand. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island 
Bradman decided that his chances for Test selection would be improved by moving to Sydney for the 1928–29 season, when England were to tour in defence of the Ashes. The England cricket team is the national cricket team which represents England and Wales. This article describes the history of Australian cricket from the 1918-19 season until 1930 The Ashes is a Test cricket series played between England and Australia. Initially, he continued working in real estate, but later took a promotions job with the sporting goods retailer Mick Simmons Ltd. In the first match of the Sheffield Shield season, he scored a century in each innings against Queensland and then made 87 and 132 not out against England. The Queensland Bulls are the Brisbane -based Queensland representative Cricket team in Australia's domestic cricket tournaments Sheffield This earned him selection for the first Test at Brisbane. The 'Gabba is a major sports Stadium in the Queensland capital of Brisbane. 
Playing in only his tenth first-class match, Bradman—nicknamed "Braddles" by his teammates—found his initial Test a harsh learning experience. Caught on a sticky wicket, Australia were all out for 66 in the second innings and lost by 675 runs. "Sticky Wicket" was episode twenty-one of the first season of the TV series M*A*S*H.  Following scores of eighteen and one, the selectors dropped Bradman to twelfth man for the second Test. Cricket is a team sport played between two teams of eleven It is known for its rich terminology An injury to Bill Ponsford early in the match required Bradman to field as substitute while England amassed 636, following their 863 runs in the first Test. William Harold Ponsford ( 19 October 1900 &mdash 6 April 1991) was a Cricketer who played for Victoria and Australia RS Whitington wrote, ". . . he had scored only nineteen himself and these experiences appear to have provided him with food for thought".  Recalled for the third Test at Melbourne, Bradman scored 79 and 112 to become the youngest player to make a Test century, although the match was still lost. Another loss followed in the fourth Test. Bradman reached 58 in the second innings and appeared set to guide the team to victory when he was run out.  It was to be the only run out of his Test career and the losing margin was just 12 runs. For the term run out, used in equestrian sport see Refusal Run out is a method of dismissal in the Sport 
The improving Australians did manage to win the fifth and final Test. Bradman top-scored with 123 in the first innings, and was at the wicket in the second innings when his captain Jack Ryder hit the winning runs. Jack Ryder may refer to Jack Ryder (actor - British EastEnders actor Jack Ryder (cricketer - Australian cricketer Frederick Bradman completed the season with 1,690 first-class runs, averaging 93. Batting average is a Statistic in both Cricket and Baseball measuring the performance of cricket batsmen and baseball hitters, respectively 88, and his first multiple century in a Sheffield Shield match, 340 not out against Victoria, set a new ground record for the SCG.  Bradman averaged 113. 28 in 1929–30.  In a trial match to select the team to tour England, he was last man out in the first innings for 124. As his team followed on, the skipper Bill Woodfull asked Bradman to keep the pads on and open the second innings. Follow-on is a term used in the Sport of Cricket to describe a situation where the team that bats second is forced to take its second batting innings immediately after William Maldon "Bill" Woodfull OBE (22 August 1897 &mdash 11 August 1965 was an Australian Cricketer He captained both Victoria and In Cricket a wide range of equipment is required Cricket clothing is slightly loose fitting so that it is comfortable By stumps, he was 205 not out, on his way to 225. For other uses see Stump (disambiguation Stump is a term used in the Sport of Cricket where has three different meanings Against Queensland at the SCG, Bradman set a world record for first-class cricket by scoring 452 not out; he made his runs in only 415 minutes. 
. Percy George Herbert Fender (born 22 August 1892 in Balham, London, died 15 June 1985 in Exeter, Devon . . he will always be in the category of the brilliant, if unsound, ones. Promise there is in Bradman in plenty, though watching him does not inspire one with any confidence that he desires to take the only course which will lead him to a fulfilment of that promise. He makes a mistake, then makes it again and again; he does not correct it, or look as if he were trying to do so. He seems to live for the exuberance of the moment.
With England favourites to win the 1930 Ashes series, if the Australians were to exceed expectations, their young batsmen, Bradman and Jackson needed to prosper. With his elegant batting technique, Jackson appeared the brighter prospect of the pair.  However, Bradman began the tour with 236 at Worcester and went on to score 1,000 first-class runs by the end of May, the fifth player (and first Australian) to achieve this rare feat. New Road Worcester, England has been the home of Worcestershire County Cricket Club since 1899  In his first Test appearance in England, Bradman hit 131 in the second innings but England won the game. His batting reached a new level in the second Test at Lord's where he scored 254 as Australia won and levelled the series. Lord's Cricket Ground (generally known as Lord's) is a cricket Later in life, Bradman rated this the best innings of his career as, "practically without exception every ball went where it was intended to go".  Wisden noted his fast footwork and how he hit the ball "all round the wicket with power and accuracy", as well as faultless concentration in keeping the ball on the ground. Wisden Cricketers' Almanack (often referred to simply as Wisden or colloquially as "the Bible of Cricket" is by far the best 
In terms of runs scored, even this performance was soon surpassed. In the third Test, at Leeds, Bradman scored a century before lunch on the first day of the Test match to equal the performances of Victor Trumper and Charlie Macartney. Headingley Stadium is a sporting complex in the Leeds suburb of Headingley in West Yorkshire, England. Victor Thomas Trumper (born 2 November 1877 in Darlinghurst, Sydney, New South Wales, died 28 June 1915, Darlinghurst Charles George "Charlie" Macartney (27 June 1886 Maitland New South Wales – 9 September 1958 Little Bay, Sydney New South Wales) was an  In the afternoon, Bradman added another century between lunch and tea, before finishing the day on 309 not out. He remains the only Test player to pass 300 in one day’s play.  His eventual score of 334 was a world-record, exceeding the previous mark of 325 by Andy Sandham. Andrew Sandham ( 6 July 1890 in Streatham, London – 20 April 1982 in Westminster, London) was  Bradman dominated the Australian innings; the second-highest tally was 77 by Alan Kippax. Alan Falconer Kippax (25 May 1897 – 5 September 1972 was a Cricketer for New South Wales (NSW and Australia. Businessman Arthur Whitelaw later presented Bradman with a cheque for £1,000 in appreciation of his achievement.  The match ended in anti-climax as poor weather prevented a result, as it did in the fourth Test.
The dynamic nature of Bradman’s batting contrasted sharply with his quiet, solitary off-field demeanour. He was described as aloof from his teammates and he did not offer to buy them a round of drinks, let alone share the money given to him by Whitelaw.  Bradman spent a lot of his free time alone, writing, as he had sold the rights to a book. In the deciding Test at The Oval England made 405. The Oval PavilionJPG|250px|right|thumb|The Members Pavilion]] The Oval is an international Cricket ground in Kennington, London During an innings stretching over three days due to intermittent rain, Bradman made yet another large century, this time 232, which helped give Australia a big lead of 290 runs. In a crucial partnership with Archie Jackson, Bradman battled through a difficult session when England fast bowler Harold Larwood bowled short on a pitch enlivened by the rain. Fast bowling, sometimes known as pace bowling, is one of the two main approaches to bowling in the Sport of Cricket. Harold Larwood ( November 14, 1904 - July 22, 1995) was an English Cricket player an extremely quick and accurate fast In the Sport of Cricket, a bouncer (or bumper) is a type of delivery, usually bowled by a fast bowler. Wisden gave this period of play only a passing mention:
On the Wednesday morning the ball flew about a good deal, both batsmen frequently being hit on the body . . . on more than one occasion each player cocked the ball up dangerously but always, as it happened, just wide of the fieldsmen.
A number of English players and commentators noted Bradman’s discomfort in playing the short, rising delivery. In the Sport of Cricket, a bouncer (or bumper) is a type of delivery, usually bowled by a fast bowler.  The revelation came too late for this particular match, but was to have immense significance in the next Ashes series. Australia won the match by an innings and regained the Ashes. The victory made an impact in Australia. With the economy sliding toward depression and unemployment rapidly rising, the country found solace in sporting triumph. Unemployment occurs when a person is available to work and currently seeking work but the person is without work. The story of a self-taught 22-year-old from the bush who set a series of records against the old rival made Bradman a national hero.  The statistics Bradman achieved on the tour in general and in the Test matches in particular, broke records for the day and some have stood the test of time. In all, Bradman scored 974 runs at an average of 139. 14 during the Test series, with four centuries, including two double hundreds and a triple.  To this day, no-one has matched or exceeded 974 runs or three double centuries in one Test series; the 974 runs exceeds the second-best performance by 69 runs and was achieved in two fewer innings.  Bradman's first-class tally, 2,960 runs (at 98. 66 with 10 centuries), was another enduring record: the most by any overseas batsman on a tour of England. 
Bradman was unprepared for the intensity of his reception in Australia; he became a "reluctant hero".  Mick Simmons wanted to cash in on their employee’s newly won fame. They asked Bradman to leave his teammates and attend official receptions they organised in Adelaide, Melbourne, Goulburn, his hometown Bowral and Sydney, where he received a brand new custom-built Chevrolet. Adelaide is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of South Australia, and is the fifth largest city in Australia with a Melbourne ( is the second most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 3 Goulburn is a provincial City in the Southern Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia in Goulburn Mulwaree Council. Chevrolet (ˌʃɛvroʊˈleɪ - French origin (also known as Chevy) is a Brand of Automobile, produced by General Motors (GM At each stop, Bradman received a level of adulation that "embarrassed" him. This focus on an individual in a team game, ". . . permanently damaged relationships with his contemporaries".  Commenting on Australia's victory, the team's vice-captain Vic Richardson said, ". Victor York Richardson OBE (7 September 1894 &ndash 30 October 1969 was an Australian Cricketer and outstanding all-round sportsman . . we could have played any team without Bradman, but we could not have played the blind school without Clarrie Grimmett". Clarence Victor "Clarrie" Grimmett ( December 25, 1891 - May 2, 1980) was a Cricketer although born in New Zealand 
In 1930–31, against the first West Indian side to visit Australia, Bradman’s scoring was more sedate than in England—although he did make 223 in 297 minutes in the third Test at Brisbane and 152 in 154 minutes in the following Test at Melbourne. The West Indian cricket team, also known colloquially as The Windies or The West Indies, is a multi-national Cricket team representing  The South Africans did not get off so lightly in the summer of 1931–32. The South African cricket team, also known as The Proteas are a national Cricket team representing South Africa For NSW against the tourists, he made 30, 135 and 219. In the Test matches, he scored 226 (277 minutes), 112 (155 minutes), 2 and 167 (183 minutes); in the fourth Test at Adelaide, his 299 not out at Adelaide set a new record for the highest score in a Test in Australia.  Australia won nine of the ten Tests played over the two series.
In 15 Test matches since the beginning of 1930, Bradman had now scored 2,227 runs at an average of 131.  He had scored centuries in 10 of his 18 innings, and extended 6 of those beyond 200.  His scoring rate was 42 runs per hour, with 856 (or 38. 5%) scored in boundaries.  Significantly, he had not hit a six, which typified the Bradman attitude: if he hit the ball along the ground, then it could not be caught. During this phase of his career, his youth and natural fitness allowed him to adopt a "machine-like" approach to batting. The South African fast bowler Sandy Bell described bowling to him as, "heart-breaking . Alexander John Bell ( 15 April 1906 &ndash 1 August 1985) also known as Sandy Bell, was a South African Cricketer . . with his sort of cynical grin, which rather reminds one of the Sphinx . . . he never seems to perspire". 
Between these two seasons, Bradman seriously contemplated playing professional cricket in England with the Lancashire League club Accrington, a move that according to the rules of the day, would have ended his Test career. The Lancashire League is a competitive league of local Cricket clubs drawn from the small to middle-sized mill towns mainly but not exclusively of East Lancashire Honours 1st XI League Winners - 6 - 1914 1915 1916 1961 1975 2008 Worsley Cup Winners - 4 - 1936 1970 1986  A consortium of three Sydney businesses offered an alternative. They devised a two-year contract whereby Bradman wrote for Associated Newspapers, broadcast on Radio 2UE and promoted the menswear retailing chain FJ Palmer and Son. 2UE is a commercial radio station in Sydney, Australia owned by Fairfax Media.  However, the contract increased Bradman’s dependence on his public profile, making it more difficult to maintain the privacy that he ardently desired. 
Bradman’s chaotic wedding to Jessie Menzies in April 1932 epitomised these new and unwelcome intrusions into his private life. The church "was under siege all throughout the day . . . uninvited guests stood on chairs and pews to get a better view", police erected barriers that were broken down and many of those invited could not get a seat.  Just weeks later, Bradman joined a private team organised by Arthur Mailey to tour the United States and Canada. Arthur Alfred Mailey (3 January 1886 in Zetland New South Wales – 31 December 1967 in Kirrawee New South Wales) was an Australian Cricketer The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page He travelled with his wife, and the couple treated the trip as a honeymoon. Playing 51 games in 75 days, Bradman scored 3,779 runs at 102. 1, with 18 centuries. Although the standard of play was not high, the effects of the amount of cricket Bradman had played in the three years previous, together with the strains of his celebrity status, began to show on his return home. 
|As long as Australia has Bradman she will be invincible . For information about the British code name "Bodyline" for the WWII V-2 rocket, see Operation Crossbow. . . In order to keep alive the competitive spirit, the authorities might take a hint from billiards. English billiards, called simply billiards in many former British colonies and in Great Britain where it originated also known variously as the English game It is almost time to request a legal limit on the number of runs Bradman should be allowed to make. |
News Chronicle, London
Within the Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC), which administered English cricket at the time, few voices were more influential than "Plum" Warner's, who, when considering England's response to Bradman wrote that she "must evolve a new type of bowler and develop fresh ideas and strange tactics to curb his almost uncanny skill". Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC is a private members' club founded in 1787 Sir Pelham Francis Warner ( 2 October 1873 in Port of Spain, Trinidad - 30 January 1963 at West Lavington West Sussex Muralijpg|thumb|250px|right|The world's leading off-spin bowler Muttiah Muralitharan sends down a delivery]] A bowler in the Sport of Cricket is usually To that end, Warner orchestrated the appointment of Douglas Jardine as England captain in 1931, as a prelude to Jardine leading the 1932–33 tour to Australia, with Warner as team manager. Douglas Robert Jardine ( October 23, 1900 - June 18, 1958) was an English Cricketer and captain of the England  Remembering that Bradman had struggled against bouncers during his 232 at The Oval in 1930, Jardine decided to combine traditional leg theory with short-pitched bowling to combat Bradman. In the Sport of Cricket, a bouncer (or bumper) is a type of delivery, usually bowled by a fast bowler. The Oval PavilionJPG|250px|right|thumb|The Members Pavilion]] The Oval is an international Cricket ground in Kennington, London Leg theory is a bowling tactic in the Sport of Cricket. The term leg theory is somewhat archaic and seldom used any more but the basic tactic He settled on the Nottinghamshire fast bowlers Harold Larwood and Bill Voce as the spearheads for his tactics. Nottinghamshire County Cricket Club is one of the 18 major county clubs which make up the English domestic Cricket structure representing the historic county of Fast bowling, sometimes known as pace bowling, is one of the two main approaches to bowling in the Sport of Cricket. Harold Larwood ( November 14, 1904 - July 22, 1995) was an English Cricket player an extremely quick and accurate fast William Voce (born 8 August 1909, Annesley Woodhouse Nottinghamshire, England; died 6 June 1984, Lenton In support, the England selectors chose another three pacemen for the squad. Fast bowling, sometimes known as pace bowling, is one of the two main approaches to bowling in the Sport of Cricket. The unusually high number of fast bowlers caused a lot of comment in both countries and roused Bradman's own suspicions. 
Bradman had several other problems to deal with at this time. Among these were bouts of illness from an undiagnosed malaise which had begun during the tour of North America; and that the Australian Board of Control had initially refused permission for him to write a column for the Sydney Sun. Cricket Australia, formerly known as  Bradman, who had signed a two-year contract with the newspaper, threatened to withdraw from cricket to honour his contract when the board denied him permission to write; eventually, the paper released Bradman from the contract, in a victory for the Board.  In three first-class games against England before the Tests, Bradman averaged just 17. First-class cricket refers to the class of Cricket matches of three or more days scheduled duration between two sides of eleven players and officially adjudged first-class by Test cricket is the longest form of the Sport of Cricket. It has long been considered the ultimate test of playing ability between cricketing nations 16 in 6 innings.  Jardine decided to trial the new tactics in only one game, a fixture against an Australian XI at Melbourne. In this match, Bradman faced the leg theory and later warned local administrators that trouble was brewing if it continued.  He withdrew from the first Test at Sydney amid rumours that he had suffered a nervous breakdown. The Sydney Cricket Ground (SCG is a sports Stadium in Sydney. Mental breakdown (also known as nervous breakdown or snapping) is a non-medical term used to describe a sudden acute attack of Mental illness such as Despite his absence, England employed what were already becoming known as the Bodyline tactics against the Australian batsmen and won an ill-tempered match. For information about the British code name "Bodyline" for the WWII V-2 rocket, see Operation Crossbow. 
The public clamoured for the return of Bradman to defeat Bodyline: "he was the batsman who could conquer this cankerous bowling . . . 'Bradmania', amounting almost to religious fervour, demanded his return".  Recovered from his indisposition, Bradman returned to the side in Alan Kippax's position. Alan Falconer Kippax (25 May 1897 – 5 September 1972 was a Cricketer for New South Wales (NSW and Australia. A world record crowd of 63,993 at the MCG saw Bradman come to the crease on the first day of the second Test with the score at 2/67. For the goalie's crease in hockey see Goal area. In the Sport of Cricket, the crease is the area demarcated by white A standing ovation ensued that delayed play for several minutes.  Bradman anticipated receiving a bouncer as his first ball and, as the bowler delivered, he moved across his stumps to play the hook shot. For other uses see Stump (disambiguation Stump is a term used in the Sport of Cricket where has three different meanings Andrew-Strauss-Cricketer-detailjpg|thumb|right|250px| Andrew Strauss batting for England during the 2005 NatWest Series]] In the Sport of Cricket, batting The ball failed to rise and Bradman dragged it onto his stumps; the first-ball duck was his first in a Test. For other uses see Stump (disambiguation Stump is a term used in the Sport of Cricket where has three different meanings In the sport of Cricket, a duck refers to a batsman's getting out for a score of zero The crowd fell into stunned silence as he walked off. However, Australia took a first innings lead in the match, and another record crowd on 2 January 1933 watched Bradman hit a counter-attacking second innings century. Events 366 - The Alamanni cross the frozen Rhine River in large numbers invading the Roman Empire. Year 1933 ( MCMXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. His unbeaten 103 (from 146 balls) in a team total of 191 helped set England a target of 251 to win. Bill O’Reilly and Bert Ironmonger bowled Australia to a series-levelling victory amid hopes that Bodyline was beaten. William Joseph "Bill" O'Reilly, often known as Tiger O'Reilly, (born 20 December 1905 in White Cliffs New South Wales; died 6 October 1992 in Sydney Herbert Ironmonger ( April 7 1882, Pine Mountain, Queensland - May 31 1971, St Kilda Victoria, Australia 
The third Test at Adelaide Oval proved pivotal. The Adelaide Oval is a sports ground in Adelaide, South Australia. Angry crowd scenes occurred after the Australian captain Bill Woodfull and wicketkeeper Bert Oldfield were hit by bouncers. William Maldon "Bill" Woodfull OBE (22 August 1897 &mdash 11 August 1965 was an Australian Cricketer He captained both Victoria and Cricket wicket keeperjpg|thumb|300px|A wicket-keeper in characteristic position ready to face a delivery William Albert Stanley "Bert" Oldfield ( 9 September 1894, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia - 10 August An apologetic Plum Warner entered the Australian dressing room and was rebuked by Woodfull. The Australian Board of Control, in a cable to the MCC, repeated the allegation of poor sportsmanship directed at Warner by Woodfull. Sportsmanship is conformance to the rules spirit and Etiquette of Sport.  England continued with Bodyline despite Australian protests, and with the support of the MCC. The tourists won the last three Tests convincingly and regained the Ashes. Bradman caused controversy with his own tactics. Always seeking to score, and with the leg side packed with fielders, he often backed away and hit the ball into the vacant half of the outfield with unorthodox shots reminiscent of tennis or golf. The leg side, or on side, is defined to be a particular half of the field used to play the Sport of Cricket. Tennis is a sport played between two players ( singles) or between two teams of two players each ( doubles)  This brought him 396 runs (at 56. 57) for the series and plaudits for attempting to find a solution to Bodyline. However, others thought it proved the theory that he did not handle the short ball very well. Jack Fingleton was in no doubt that Bradman's game altered irrevocably as a consequence, writing:
Bodyline was specially prepared, nurtured for and expended on him and, in consequence, his technique underwent a change quicker than might have been the case with the passage of time. John Henry Webb Fingleton OBE (born 28 April 1908 in Sydney; died 22 November 1981 in Sydney) was an Australian Cricketer turned political and Bodyline plucked something vibrant from his art.
The constant glare of celebrity and the tribulations of the season forced Bradman to reappraise his life outside the game and seek a career not linked to his cricketing fame.  Harry Hodgetts, a South Australian delegate to the Board of Control, offered Bradman work as a stockbroker if he would relocate to Adelaide and captain South Australia (SA). South Australia is a state of Australia in the southern central part of the country Adelaide is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of South Australia, and is the fifth largest city in Australia with a The Southern Redbacks are an Australian first class cricket team based in Adelaide, South Australia. Unknown to the public, the SA Cricket Association (SACA) instigated Hodgett’s approach and subsidised Bradman’s wage.  Although his wife was hesitant about moving, Bradman eventually agreed to the deal in February 1934. 
In his farewell season for NSW, Bradman averaged 132. 44, his best yet.  He was appointed vice-captain for the 1934 tour of England. Australia won the 1934 Ashes series against England winning two of the matches and losing one with the other two tests drawn 1st Test (Nottingham &mdash Australia won by However, his health continued to be variable.  Although he again started with a double century at Worcester, his famed concentration soon deserted him. Worcester (ˈwʊstə is a city and County town of Worcestershire, in the West Midlands of England. Wisden wrote:
. . . there were many occasions on which he was out to wild strokes. Indeed at one period he created the impression that, to some extent, he had lost control of himself and went in to bat with an almost complete disregard for anything in the shape of a defensive stroke.
At one stage, Bradman went 13 first-class innings without a century, the longest such spell of his career, prompting suggestions that Bodyline had eroded his confidence and altered his technique.  After three Tests, the series was one–one and Bradman had scored 133 runs in five innings. The Australians travelled to Sheffield and played a warm up game before the fourth Test. } Bramall Lane Stadium is the home of Sheffield United Football Club in Sheffield, England and is the oldest major stadium in Bradman started slowly and then, ". . . the old Bradman [was] back with us, in the twinkling of an eye, almost".  He went on to make 140, with the last 90 runs coming in just 45 minutes. On the opening day of the fourth Test at Headingley (Leeds), England were out for 200, but Australia slumped to 3/39, losing the third wicket from the last ball of the day. Headingley Stadium is a sporting complex in the Leeds suburb of Headingley in West Yorkshire, England.  Listed to bat at number five, Bradman would start his innings the next day.
That evening, Bradman declined an invitation to dinner from Neville Cardus, telling the journalist that he wanted an early night because the team needed him to make a double century the next day. Sir John Frederick Neville Cardus ( 2 April 1889 &ndash 28 February 1975) was an English writer and critic best known for his writing on music Cardus pointed out that his previous innings on the ground was 334, and the law of averages was against another such score. Bradman told Cardus, "I don’t believe in the law of averages".  In the event, Bradman batted all of the second day and into the third, putting on a world record partnership of 388 with Bill Ponsford.  When he was finally out for 304 (473 balls, 43 fours and 2 sixes), Australia had a lead of 350 runs. However, rain prevented Australia winning. The effort stretched Bradman’s reserves of energy, and he did not play again until the fifth Test at The Oval, the match that would decide the Ashes. 
In the first innings at The Oval, Bradman and Ponsford recorded an even more massive partnership, this time 451 runs. It had taken them less than a month to break the record they had set at Headingley; this new world record was to last 57 years.  Bradman’s share of the stand was 244 from 271 balls, and the Australian total of 701 set up victory by 562 runs. For the fourth time in five series, the Ashes changed hands.  England would not recover them again until after Bradman's retirement.
Seemingly restored to full health, Bradman blazed two centuries in the last two games of the tour. However, when he returned to London to prepare for the trip home, he experienced severe abdominal pain. It took a doctor more than 24 hours to diagnose acute appendicitis and a surgeon operated immediately. Appendicitis (or epityphlitis) is a condition characterized by Inflammation of the appendix. Bradman lost a lot of blood during the four-hour procedure and peritonitis set in. Peritonitis is defined as Inflammation of the Peritoneum (the Serous membrane which lines part of the abdominal cavity and some of the Viscera With penicillin and sulphonamides still experimental treatments at this time, this was usually a fatal condition. Penicillin (sometimes abbreviated PCN or pen) is a group of Beta-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of Bacterial Infections There are several sulfonamide-based groups of drugs The original antibacterial sulfonamides (sometimes called simply sulfa drugs are synthetic antimicrobial agents that contain the sulfonamide  On 25 September, the hospital issued a statement that Bradman was struggling for his life and that blood donors were needed urgently. Events 303 - On a voyage preaching the Gospel, Saint Fermin of Pamplona is beheaded in Amiens, France 
"The effect of the announcement was little short of spectacular. " The hospital could not deal with the number of donors, nor with the volume of telephone calls the news generated, so the switchboard closed. Journalists were asked by their editors to prepare obituaries. Teammate Bill O’Reilly took a call from King George’s secretary, asking that the King be kept informed of the situation.  Jessie Bradman started the month-long journey to London as soon as she received the news. En route, she heard a rumour that her husband had died.  A telephone call clarified the situation and by the time she reached London, Bradman had begun a slow recovery. He followed medical advice to convalesce, taking several months to return to Australia and he missed the 1934–35 Australian season. 
There was off-field intrigue in Australian cricket during the antipodean winter of 1935. The antipodes refer to lands and peoples located on the opposite side of the World compared to the speaker Australia, scheduled to make a tour of South Africa at the end of the year, needed to replace the retired Bill Woodfull as captain. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa The Board of Control wanted Bradman to lead the team, yet, on 8 August, the Board announced Bradman's withdrawal from the team due to a lack of fitness. Events 1220 - Sweden is defeated by Estonian tribes in the Battle of Lihula. Surprisingly, in the light of this announcement, Bradman led the SA team in a full programme of matches that season. The Southern Redbacks are an Australian first class cricket team based in Adelaide, South Australia. 
The captaincy was given to Vic Richardson, Bradman's predecessor as SA captain, even though his record did not warrant a place in the Australian team. Victor York Richardson OBE (7 September 1894 &ndash 30 October 1969 was an Australian Cricketer and outstanding all-round sportsman  Chris Harte's analysis of the situation is that a prior (unspecified) commercial agreement forced Bradman to remain in Australia.  Moreover, Harte attributes an ulterior motive to his relocation. The off-field behaviour of Richardson and other SA players had displeased the South Australia Cricket Association (SACA), which was looking for new leadership. To help improve discipline, Bradman became a committeeman of the SACA, and a selector of the SA and Australian teams.  He took his adopted state to its first Sheffield Shield title for 10 years, Bradman weighing in with personal contributions of 233 against Queensland and 357 against Victoria. He finished the season with 369 (in 233 minutes), a SA record, made against Tasmania. The Tasmanian Tigers are the official first-class Cricket team of Tasmania, Australia. 
Australia defeated South Africa 4–0 and senior players such as Bill O’Reilly were pointed in their comments about the enjoyment of playing under Richardson's captaincy. William Joseph "Bill" O'Reilly, often known as Tiger O'Reilly, (born 20 December 1905 in White Cliffs New South Wales; died 6 October 1992 in Sydney  A group of players who were openly hostile toward Bradman formed during the tour. For some, the prospect of playing under Bradman was daunting, as was the knowledge that he would additionally be sitting in judgment of their abilities in his role as a selector. 
To start the new season, the Test side played a "Rest of Australia" team, captained by Bradman, at Sydney in early October 1936. The Sydney Cricket Ground (SCG is a sports Stadium in Sydney. The Test XI suffered a big defeat, due to Bradman’s 212 and a haul of 12 wickets taken by leg-spinner Frank Ward. Cricket is a bat-and-ball team Sport that originated in England and is now played in more than 100 countries Spin bowling, sometimes known as slow bowling, is a technique used for bowling in the Sport of Cricket. Francis Anthony Ward (February 23 1906 Sydney New South Wales – March 25 1974 Brooklyn New South Wales) was an Australian Cricketer who  Bradman let the members of the Test team know that despite their recent success, the team still required improvement.  Shortly afterwards, Bradman's first child was born on 28 October, but died the next day. Events 306 - Maxentius is proclaimed Roman Emperor. 312 - Battle of Milvian Bridge: Constantine He took time out of cricket for two weeks, then made 192 in three hours against Victoria in the last match before the beginning of the Ashes series.
The Test selectors made five changes to the team who had played in the previous Test match. Significantly, Australia’s most successful bowler Clarrie Grimmett was replaced by Ward, one of four players making their debut. Clarence Victor "Clarrie" Grimmett ( December 25, 1891 - May 2, 1980) was a Cricketer although born in New Zealand The controversy over Grimmett’s omission from the team was to become a theme that dogged Bradman for the next two years—he was regarded as having finished the veteran’s Test career. 
Australia crashed to successive defeats in the opening two Tests, Bradman making two ducks in his four innings, and it seemed that the captaincy was affecting his form. In the sport of Cricket, a duck refers to a batsman's getting out for a score of zero  The selectors made another four changes to the team for the third Test at Melbourne.
On New Year's day 1937, Bradman won the toss, but again failed with the bat. The Australians could not take advantage of a pitch that favoured batting and finished the day at 6/181. A Cricket pitch is the central strip of the Cricket field between the Wickets The pitch is 1 chain or 22 yards (20 Rain dramatically altered the course of the game on the second day. With the sun drying the pitch (in those days, covers could not be used during matches) Bradman declared to get England in to bat while the pitch was "sticky"; England also declared to get Australia back in, conceding a lead of 124. In the Sport of Cricket a declaration occurs when a captain declares his team's Innings closed and a forfeiture is when a captain chooses to "Sticky Wicket" was episode twenty-one of the first season of the TV series M*A*S*H. Bradman countered by reversing his batting order to protect his run-makers while conditions improved. The ploy worked and Bradman went in at number seven. In an epic performance spread over three days, he battled a influenza while scoring 270 off 375 balls, sharing a record partnership of 346 with Jack Fingleton and Australia went on to victory. An inning, or innings, is a fixed-length segment of a game in any of a variety of Sports &ndash most notably Cricket and Baseball during John Henry Webb Fingleton OBE (born 28 April 1908 in Sydney; died 22 November 1981 in Sydney) was an Australian Cricketer turned political and In 2001, Wisden rated this performance as the best Test match innings of all time. 
In the next Test, at Adelaide, England had the upper hand when Bradman played another patient second innings, making 212 from 395 balls. The Adelaide Oval is a sports ground in Adelaide, South Australia. Australia levelled the series when the erratic left-arm spinner "Chuck" Fleetwood-Smith bowled Australia to victory. Spin bowling, sometimes known as slow bowling, is a technique used for bowling in the Sport of Cricket. Leslie O'Brien "Chuck" Fleetwood-Smith ( 30 March 1908 &ndash 16 March 1971) was a Cricketer who played for Victoria In the series-deciding fifth Test, Bradman returned to a more aggressive style in top-scoring with 169 (off 191 balls) in Australia’s 604 and Australia won by an innings.  Australia's achievement of winning a series after losing the first two Tests has yet to be equalled in Test cricket. 
During the 1938 tour of England, Bradman played the most consistent cricket of his career.  He needed to score heavily as England had a strengthened batting line-up, while the Australian bowling was over-reliant on O’Reilly. Darren_Gough_bowlingjpg|thumb|250px|right| Darren Gough bowling]] In the Sport of Cricket, bowling is the action of propelling the ball toward  Grimmett was overlooked, but Jack Fingleton made the team, so the clique of anti-Bradman players remained. John Henry Webb Fingleton OBE (born 28 April 1908 in Sydney; died 22 November 1981 in Sydney) was an Australian Cricketer turned political and A clique ( IPA:/'klɪk/ in America /'kliːk/ elsewhere is an exclusive group of people who share interests views purposes patterns of behavior or ethnicity  Playing 26 innings on tour, Bradman recorded 13 centuries (a new Australian record) and again made 1,000 first-class runs before the end of May, becoming the only player to do so twice. An inning, or innings, is a fixed-length segment of a game in any of a variety of Sports &ndash most notably Cricket and Baseball during First-class cricket refers to the class of Cricket matches of three or more days scheduled duration between two sides of eleven players and officially adjudged first-class by  In scoring 2,429 runs, Bradman achieved the highest average ever recorded in an English season: 115. 66. 
In the first Test, England amassed a big first innings score and looked likely to win, but Stan McCabe made 232 for Australia, a performance Bradman rated as the best he had ever seen. Stanley Joseph McCabe (16 July 1910 &mdash 25 August 1968 was an Australian Cricketer McCabe played 39 Test matches for Australia from 1930 to 1938 and led  With Australia forced to follow-on, Bradman fought hard to ensure McCabe’s effort was not in vain, and he secured the draw with 144 not out. Follow-on is a term used in the Sport of Cricket to describe a situation where the team that bats second is forced to take its second batting innings immediately after  It was the slowest Test hundred of his career and he played a similar innings of 102 not out in the next Test as Australia struggled to another draw.  Rain completely washed out the third Test at Manchester. The Old Trafford Cricket Ground, usually known as simply Old Trafford, is a Cricket ground situated on Talbot Road in Old Trafford, an area of 
Australia’s opportunity came at Headingley, a Test described by Bradman as the best he ever played in. Headingley Stadium is a sporting complex in the Leeds suburb of Headingley in West Yorkshire, England.  England batted first and made 223. During the Australian innings, Bradman backed himself by opting to bat on in poor light conditions, when he had the option to go off.  He scored 103 out of a total of 242 and the gamble paid off, as it meant there was sufficient time to push for victory when an England collapse left a target of only 107. Australia slumped to 4/61, with Bradman out for 16. As an approaching storm threatened to wash the game out, but the poor weather held off and Australia managed to secure the win, a victory that retained the Ashes. The Ashes is a Test cricket series played between England and Australia.  For the only time in his life, the tension of the occasion got to Bradman and he could not watch the closing stages of play, a reflection of the pressure that he felt all tour: he described the captaincy as "exhausting" and that he "found it difficult to keep going". 
The euphoria of securing the Ashes preceded Australia's heaviest defeat. At The Oval, England amassed a world record of 7/903 and their opening batsman Len Hutton scored an individual world record, by making 364. The Oval PavilionJPG|250px|right|thumb|The Members Pavilion]] The Oval is an international Cricket ground in Kennington, London Sir Leonard Hutton (born June 23, 1916 in Fulneck near Pudsey, Yorkshire, died September 6, 1990 in  In an attempt to relieve the burden on his bowlers, Bradman took a rare turn at bowling. During his third over, he fractured his ankle and teammates carried him from the ground. In the sport of Cricket, an over is a set of six consecutive balls bowled in succession A bone fracture (sometimes abbreviated # or Fx or Fx) is a medical condition in which a Bone is cracked or broken  With Bradman injured and Fingleton too unable to bat due to a leg muscle strain, Australia were thrashed by an innings and 579 runs, which remains the largest margin in Test cricket history.  Unfit to complete the tour, Bradman left the team in the hands of vice-captain Stan McCabe. At this point, Bradman felt that the burden of captaincy would prevent him from touring England again, although he did not make this decision public. 
Despite the pressure of captaincy, Bradman’s batting form remained supreme. An experienced, mature player now commonly called "The Don" had replaced the blitzing style of his early days as the "Boy from Bowral".  In 1938–39, he led SA to the Sheffield Shield and made a century in six consecutive innings to equal the world record of CB Fry. The Southern Redbacks are an Australian first class cricket team based in Adelaide, South Australia. Charles Burgess Fry ( 25 April 1872 – 7 September 1956) was an English Polymath; an outstanding Sportsman  From the beginning of the 1938 tour of England (including preliminary games in Australia) until early 1939, Bradman totalled 21 first-class centuries in just 34 innings.
The next season, Bradman made an abortive bid to join the Victoria State side. The Melbourne Cricket Club advertised the position of club secretary and he was led to believe that if he applied, he would get the job. The Melbourne Cricket Club ( MCC) is a sporting club based in Melbourne, Australia.  The position, which had been held by Hugh Trumble until his death in August 1938, was one of the most prestigious jobs in Australian cricket. Hugh Trumble (12 May 1867 – 14 August 1938 was an Australian Cricketer who played 32  Test matches as a bowling all-rounder between 1890 The annual salary of £1,000 would make Bradman financially secure while allowing him to retain a connection with the game.  On 18 January 1939, the club's committee, on the casting vote of the chairman, chose ex-Test batsman Vernon Ransford over Bradman. Events 350 - Generallus Magnentius deposes Roman Emperor Constans and proclaims himself Emperor Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Vernon Seymour Ransford (born March 20, 1885 in South Yarra Victoria, died March 19, 1958 in Brighton Victoria) was an 
The 1939–40 season was Bradman's most productive ever for SA: 1,448 runs at an average of 144. 8.  He made three double centuries, including 251 not out against NSW, the innings that he rated the best he ever played in the Sheffield Shield, as he tamed Bill O’Reilly at the height of his form.  However, it was the end of an era. The outbreak of World War Two led to the indefinite postponement of all cricket tours, and the suspension of the Sheffield Shield competition. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including 
Bradman joined the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) on 28 June 1940 and was passed fit for air crew duty. The Royal Australian Air Force ( RAAF) is the Air Force branch of the Australian Defence Force. Events 1098 - Fighters of the First Crusade defeat Kerbogha of Mosul. Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.  The RAAF had more recruits than it could equip and train and Bradman spent four months in Adelaide before the Governor-General of Australia, Lord Gowrie, persuaded Bradman to transfer to the army, a move that was criticised as a safer option for him. Adelaide is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of South Australia, and is the fifth largest city in Australia with a The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia is the representative in Australia of the monarch of Australia (currently Elizabeth II Queen of Australia) Alexander Gore Arkwright Hore-Ruthven 1st Earl of Gowrie VC GCMG CB DSO PC (6 July 1872 &ndash 2 May 1955 tenth and The Australian Army is Australia's military land force It is part of the Australian Defence Force (ADF along with the Royal Australian Navy and the  Given the rank of Lieutenant, he was posted to the Army School of Physical Training at Frankston, Victoria, to act as a divisional supervisor of physical training. The following image shows the badges of rank and special insignia for officers and enlisted personnel in the Australian Defence Force Frankston is a seaside suburb of Melbourne, in the state of Victoria, Australia. The exertion of the job aggravated his chronic muscular problems, diagnosed as fibrositis. Fibromyalgia (FM is a disorder classified by the presence of chronic widespread Pain and tactile Allodynia. Surprisingly, in light of his batting prowess, a routine army test revealed that Bradman had poor eyesight. 
Invalided out of service in June 1941, Bradman spent months recuperating, unable even to shave himself or comb his hair due to the extent of the muscular pain he suffered. He resumed stockbroking during 1942. A stock broker or stockbroker is a qualified and regulated professional who buys and sells shares and other securities through Market makers or In his biography of Bradman, Charles Williams expounded the theory that the physical problems were psychosomatic, induced by stress and possibly clinical depression; Bradman read the book's manuscript and did not disagree. Psychosomatic medicine is an interdisciplinary medical field studying psychosomatic illness, now more commonly referred to as psychophysiologic illness or disorder Major depressive disorder, also known as major depression, unipolar depression, unipolar disorder, clinical depression, or simply depression  Had any cricket been played at this time, he would not have been available. Although he found some relief in 1945 when referred to the Melbourne masseur Ern Saunders, Bradman permanently lost the feeling in the thumb and index finger of his (dominant) right hand. Melbourne ( is the second most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 3 The thumb is the medial -most digit of the hand The English adjective for thumb is pollical 
In June 1945, Bradman faced a financial crisis when the firm of Harry Hodgetts collapsed due to fraud and embezzlement. In the broadest sense a fraud is a Deception made for personal gain or to damage another individual Embezzlement is the act of dishonestly appropriating or secreting assets usually financial in nature by one or more individuals to whom such assets have been entrusted  Bradman moved quickly to set up his own business, utilizing Hodgetts’ client list and his old office in Grenfell Street, Adelaide. The fallout led to a prison term for Hodgetts, and left a stigma attached to Bradman’s name in the city’s business community for many years. 
However, the SA Cricket Association had no hesitation in appointing Bradman as their delegate to the Board of Control in place of Hodgetts. A delegate is a member of a group representing an organization (e Cricket Australia, formerly known as Now working alongside some of the men he had battled in the 1930s, Bradman quickly became a leading light in the administration of the game. With the resumption of international cricket, he was once more appointed a Test selector, and played a major role in planning for post-war cricket. 
In 1945–46, Bradman suffered regular bouts of fibrositis while coming to terms with increased administrative duties and the establishment of his business. Fibromyalgia (FM is a disorder classified by the presence of chronic widespread Pain and tactile Allodynia.  He played for SA in two matches to help with the re-establishment of first-class cricket and later described his batting as "painstaking". The Southern Redbacks are an Australian first class cricket team based in Adelaide, South Australia.  Batting against the Australian Services team, Bradman scored 112 in less than two hours, yet Dick Whitington (playing for the Services) wrote, "I have seen today the ghost of a once great cricketer". The Australian Services cricket team in England in 1945 played six first-class matches, winning three and losing two with one match drawn  Bradman declined a tour of New Zealand and spent the winter of 1946 unsure if he had played his last match. With the English team due to arrive for the Ashes series, the media and the public were anxious to know if Bradman would lead Australia. The England cricket team is the national cricket team which represents England and Wales. The Ashes is a Test cricket series played between England and Australia.  His doctor recommended against a return to the game.  Encouraged by his wife, Bradman agreed to play in lead-up fixtures to the Test series. Test cricket is the longest form of the Sport of Cricket. It has long been considered the ultimate test of playing ability between cricketing nations  After hitting two centuries, Bradman made himself available for the first Test at The Gabba. The 'Gabba is a major sports Stadium in the Queensland capital of Brisbane.
Controversy occurred as early as the first day of the series. After compiling an uneasy 28 runs, Bradman hit a ball to the gully fieldsman, Jack Ikin. In the Sport of Cricket, a slip fielder (collectively a slip cordon) is placed behind the Batsman on the Off side of the John Thomas Ikin (born March 7, 1918, Bignall End, Staffordshire, died September 15, 1984, Bignall End Staffordshire An appeal for a catch was contentiously denied, the umpire ruling it a bump ball. Caught is a method of dismissing a Batsman in the Sport of Cricket. Cricket is a team sport played between two teams of eleven It is known for its rich terminology  At the end of the over, England captain Wally Hammond spoke with Bradman and criticised him for not "walking"; "from then on the series was a cricketing war just when most people desired peace". In the sport of Cricket, an over is a set of six consecutive balls bowled in succession Walter Reginald "Wally" Hammond (born 19 June 1903 in Dover, Kent, died 1 July 1965 in Kloof KwaZulu-Natal Cricket is a team sport played between two teams of eleven It is known for its rich terminology  Bradman regained his finest pre-war form in making 187, followed by 234 during the second Test at Sydney. The Sydney Cricket Ground (SCG is a sports Stadium in Sydney. Australia won both matches by an innings. Jack Fingleton speculated that had the decision at Brisbane had gone against him, Bradman would have retired, such were his fitness problems.  In the remainder of the series, Bradman made three half-centuries in six innings, but was unable to make another century. Nevertheless, his team won handsomely, 3–0. He was the leading batsman on either side, with an average of 97. 14. Nearly 850,000 spectators watched the Tests, which helped lift public spirits after the war. 
India made its first tour of Australia in the 1947–48 season. The Australian cricket team in England in 1948 was captained by Don Bradman, who was making his fourth and final tour of England The Indian cricket team is an international Cricket team representing India. On 15 November, Bradman made 172 against them for an Australian XI at Sydney, his 100th first-class century. Events 655 - Battle of Winwaed: Penda of Mercia is defeated by Oswiu of Northumbria. The Sydney Cricket Ground (SCG is a sports Stadium in Sydney. First-class cricket refers to the class of Cricket matches of three or more days scheduled duration between two sides of eleven players and officially adjudged first-class by  The first non-Englishman to achieve the milestone, Bradman remains the only Australian to do so.  In five Tests, he scored 715 runs (at 178. 75 average). His last double century (201) came at Adelaide, and he scored a century in each innings of the Melbourne Test. The Adelaide Oval is a sports ground in Adelaide, South Australia.  On the eve of the fifth Test, he announced that the match would be his last in Australia, although he would tour England as a farewell. 
Australia had assembled one of the great teams of cricket history.  Bradman made it known that he wanted to go through the tour unbeaten, a feat never accomplished, before or since.  English spectators were drawn to the matches knowing that it would be their last opportunity to see Bradman in action. RC Robertson-Glasgow observed of Bradman that:
Next to Mr. Raymond Charles 'Crusoe' Robertson-Glasgow (born July 15, 1901 at Murrayfield, Edinburgh, Scotland; died March 4, Winston Churchill, he was the most celebrated man in England during the summer of 1948. Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC, PC (Can ( 30 November 1874 His appearances throughout the country were like one continuous farewell matinée. At last his batting showed human fallibility. Often, especially at the start of the innings, he played where the ball wasn't, and spectators rubbed their eyes.
Despite his waning powers, Bradman compiled 11 centuries on the tour, amassing 2,428 runs (average 89. 92).  His highest score of the tour (187) came against Essex, when Australia compiled a world record of 721 runs in a day. Essex County Cricket Club is one of the 18 major county clubs which make up the English domestic Cricket structure representing the historic county of In the Tests, he scored a century at Nottingham, but the performance most like his pre-war exploits came in the fourth Test at Leeds. Trent Bridge is a Test, One-day international and County Cricket ground located in West Bridgford, Nottinghamshire, Headingley Stadium is a sporting complex in the Leeds suburb of Headingley in West Yorkshire, England. England declared on the last morning of the game, setting Australia a world record 404 runs to win in only 345 minutes on a heavily worn wicket. In the Sport of Cricket a declaration occurs when a captain declares his team's Innings closed and a forfeiture is when a captain chooses to A Cricket pitch is the central strip of the Cricket field between the Wickets The pitch is 1 chain or 22 yards (20 In partnership with Arthur Morris (182), Bradman reeled off 173 not out and the match was won with 15 minutes to spare. An inning, or innings, is a fixed-length segment of a game in any of a variety of Sports &ndash most notably Cricket and Baseball during Arthur Robert Morris (born 19 January 1922 is a former Australian Cricketer who played 46 Test matches between 1946 and 1955 The journalist Ray Robinson called the victory "the 'finest ever' in its conquest of seemingly insuperable odds". 
In the final Test at The Oval, Bradman walked out to bat in Australia’s first innings. The Oval PavilionJPG|250px|right|thumb|The Members Pavilion]] The Oval is an international Cricket ground in Kennington, London He received a standing ovation from the crowd and three cheers from the opposition. His Test batting average stood at 101. 39. Facing the wrist-spin of Eric Hollies, Bradman pushed forward to the second ball that he faced, was deceived by a Googly, and bowled between bat and pad for a duck. Spin bowling, sometimes known as slow bowling, is a technique used for bowling in the Sport of Cricket. William Eric Hollies ( June 5 1912 in Old Hill, Staffordshire – April 16 1981, Chinley, Derbyshire In Cricket, a googly is a type of delivery bowled by a right-arm Leg spin bowler. Bowled is a method of dismissing a Batsman in the Sport of Cricket. In the sport of Cricket, a duck refers to a batsman's getting out for a score of zero An England batting collapse resulted in an innings defeat, denying Bradman the opportunity to bat again and so his career average finished at 99. 94; if he had scored just four runs in his last innings, it would have been 100. The story perpetuated over many years that Bradman missed the ball because of tears in his eyes was a claim he denied for the rest of his life. 
The Australian team won the Ashes 4–0, completed the tour unbeaten, and have entered history as "The Invincibles". The Australian cricket team in England in 1948 was captained by Don Bradman, who was making his fourth and final tour of England  Just as Bradman’s legend grew, rather than diminished, over the years, so too has the reputation of the 1948 team. For Bradman, it was the most personally fulfilling period of his playing days, as the divisiveness of the 1930s had passed. He wrote:
Knowing the personnel, I was confident that here at last was the great opportunity which I had longed for. A team of cricketers whose respect and loyalty were unquestioned, who would regard me in a fatherly sense and listen to my advice, follow my guidance and not question my handling of affairs . . . there are no longer any fears that they will query the wisdom of what you do. The result is a sense of freedom to give full reign to your own creative ability and personal judgment.
After his return to Australia, Bradman played in his own Testimonial match at Melbourne, scoring his 117th and last century, and receiving £9,342 in proceeds. A testimonial match or testimonial game, often referred to simply as a testimonial, is a practice in some sports notably Football (soccer and especially  He was made a Knight Bachelor for his services to the game in the 1949 New Year’s Honours List, and the following year he published a memoir, Farewell to Cricket. The rank of Knight Bachelor is a part of the British honours system.  Bradman accepted offers from the Daily Mail to travel with, and write about, the 1953 and 1956 Australian teams in England. The Daily Mail is a British newspaper currently published in a tabloid format The Art of Cricket, his final book published in 1958, is an instructional manual. The Art of Cricket is an instructional book on the game of Cricket written by Sir Don Bradman in 1958 
Bradman retired from his stockbroking business in June 1954, depending on the "comfortable" income earned as a board member of 16 publicly listed companies. A stock broker or stockbroker is a qualified and regulated professional who buys and sells shares and other securities through Market makers or  His highest profile affiliation was with Argo Investments Limited, where he was Chairman for a number of years. Argo Investments Limited is an Australian Listed investment company (LIC with its shares traded on the Australian Stock Exchange Charles Williams commented that, "[b]usiness was excluded on medical grounds, [so] the only sensible alternative was a career in the administration of the game which he loved and to which he had given most of his active life". 
The Marylebone Cricket Club awarded Bradman life membership in 1958,and in 1998 he was made an honorary vice-president in recognition of his services to the game. Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC is a private members' club founded in 1787  A notable honour was made when his portrait was hung in the Long Room at Lord's; until Shane Warne's portrait was added in 2005, Bradman was one of just three Australians to be so-honoured. The Long Room is a notable historic room at Lord's cricket ground, in St John's Wood, London. Lord's Cricket Ground (generally known as Lord's) is a cricket Shane Keith Warne (born 13 September 1969 is a former Australian international Cricketer who is widely regarded as one of the 
Bradman inaugurated a "Bradman Stand" at the Sydney Cricket Ground in January 1974; the Adelaide Oval also opened a Bradman Stand in 1990. The Sydney Cricket Ground (SCG is a sports Stadium in Sydney. The Adelaide Oval is a sports ground in Adelaide, South Australia.  Later in 1974, he attended a Lord's Taverners function in London where he experienced heart problems, which forced him to limit his public appearances to select occasions only. With his wife, Bradman returned to Bowral in 1976, where the new cricket ground was named in his honour. Bowral is a town located in the Southern Highlands of New South Wales, Australia, in Wingecarribee Shire.  He gave the keynote speech at the historic Centenary Test at Melbourne in 1977. Centenary Test refers to two matches of Test cricket played between the English cricket team and the Australian cricket team, the first in 1977 and the 
On 16 June 1979, the Australian government awarded Bradman the nation’s highest civilian honour, Companion of the Order of Australia (AC). Events 1487 - Battle of Stoke Field, the last dying breath of the Wars of the Roses. Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar) This article describes the federal government of Australia See Australian governments for other jurisdictions Order of Australia is an order of chivalry established by Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia on 14 February 1975 "for the purpose of according recognition  In 1980, he resigned from the ACB, to lead a more secluded life.
In addition to acting as South Australia's delegate to the Board of Control from 1945 to 1980, Bradman was a committeeman of the SACA between 1935 and 1986. During his career there were many controversies involving Australian Cricketer Don Bradman. Cricket Australia, formerly known as It is estimated that he attended 1,713 SACA meetings during this half century of service. Aside from two years in the early 1950s, he filled a selector's berth for the Test team between 1936 and 1971. 
Cricket suffered an increase in defensive play during the 1950s. As a selector, Bradman favoured attacking, positive cricketers who entertained the paying public. He formed an alliance with Australian captain Richie Benaud, seeking more attractive play, with some success. Richard "Richie" Benaud OBE (born October 6 1930 in Penrith New South Wales) is an Australian former Cricketer who since his retirement from  He served two high-profile periods as Chairman of the Board of Control, in 1960–63 and 1969–72.  During the first, he dealt with the growing prevalence of illegal bowling actions in the game, a problem that he adjudged "the most complex I have known in cricket, because it is not a matter of fact but of opinion".  The major controversy of his second stint was a proposed tour of Australia by South Africa in 1971–72. On Bradman's recommendation, the series was cancelled. 
Bradman was more than a cricket player nonpareil. He was . . . an astute and progressive administrator; an expansive thinker, philosopher and writer on the game. Indeed, in some respects, he was as powerful, persuasive and influential a figure off the ground as he was on it.—Mike Coward
In the late 1970s, Bradman played an important role during the World Series Cricket schism as a member of a special Australian Cricket Board committee formed to handle the crisis. World Series Cricket (WSC was a break away professional Cricket competition staged between 1977 and 1979 and organised by Kerry Packer for his Australian television Cricket Australia, formerly known as He was criticised for not airing an opinion, but he dealt with World Series Cricket far more pragmatically than other administrators.  Richie Benaud described Bradman as "a brilliant administrator and businessman", warning that he was not to be underestimated.  As Australian captain, Ian Chappell fought with Bradman over the issue of player remuneration in the early 1970s and has suggested that Bradman was parsimonious:
I . Ian Michael Chappell (born 26 September 1943 is a former Cricketer who played for South Australia and Australia. . . thought to myself, 'Ian, did you just ask Bradman to fill your wallet with money?' Bradman's harangue confirmed my suspicions that the players were going to have a hard time extracting more money from the ACB.
As the years passed, with no lessening of his reclusiveness, so his public stature continued to grow, until the sense of reverence and unquestioning worship left many of his contemporaries scratching their heads in wondering admiration. David Edward John Frith (born 1937 is a leading Cricket writer and historian
Although he was modest about his own abilities and generous in his praise of other cricketers, "Bradman knew perfectly well how great a player he had been".  In his latter years, Bradman carefully selected the people to whom he gave interviews, in an attempt to influence his legacy.  He assisted Michael Page, Roland Perry and Charles Williams, who all produced biographical works about Bradman during the 1980s and 1990s. Roland Perry (born 1946 is a Melbourne -based Author. He has written numerous books both Fiction and Non-fiction, including Monash Bradman agreed to an extensive interview for ABC radio, broadcast as Bradman: The Don Declares in eight 55-minute episodes during 1988. 
The most significant project was a museum, opened in 1987 at the Bradman Oval in Bowral. The Adelaide Oval is a sports ground in Adelaide, South Australia.  This organisation was reformed in 1993 as a non-profit charitable Trust, called the Bradman Foundation.  Bradman signed over the intellectual property rights to his name, likeness and image to the organisation, creating a stream of merchandising that guarantees its continued operation.  He agreed to a television interview for Channel Nine after Kerry Packer offered a AU$1. Channel 9 may refer to Channel 9 (Malaysia Channel 9 (New Zealand Channel 9 (Serbia Channel 9 (Thailand Kerry Francis Bullmore Packer, AC (17 December 1937 &ndash 26 December 2005 son of Sir Frank Packer, was an Australian publishing media and gaming tycoon The Australian dollar ( sign: $; code: AUD) is the Currency of the Commonwealth of Australia, including Christmas 2 million donation to the foundation. The resultant programme was broadcast on 29 May 1996 as Don Bradman - 87 Not Out. Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian defeats the Sassanid army in the Battle of Ctesiphon, under the walls of the Year 1996 ( MCMXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar) 
When the Australian Cricket Hall of Fame was created in 1996, Bradman was made one of its ten inaugural members. The Australian Cricket Hall of Fame is a part of the Australian Gallery of Sport and the Olympic Museum in the Melbourne Cricket Ground.  In 2000, Bradman was selected by cricket experts as one of five Wisden Cricketers of the Century. The Wisden Cricketers of the Century are five Cricketers who were judged to be the most prominent players of the 20th century as selected by a 100-member panel of Cricket experts Each of the 100 members of the panel were able to select five cricketers: Bradman polled 100 votes. 
After his wife's death in 1997, Bradman suffered "a discernable and not unexpected wilting of spirit".  On his 90th birthday, he hosted a meeting with his two favourite modern players, Shane Warne and Sachin Tendulkar, but he was not seen in his familiar place at the Adelaide Oval again. Shane Keith Warne (born 13 September 1969 is a former Australian international Cricketer who is widely regarded as one of the  Hospitalised with pneumonia in December 2000, he returned home in the New Year and died there on 25 February 2001. Pneumonia is an inflammatory illness of the Lung. Frequently it is described as lung Parenchyma / alveolar inflammation and abnormal Events 138 - The Emperor Hadrian adopts Antoninus Pius, effectively making him his successor Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar.  A memorial service to mark Bradman's life was held on 25 March 2001 at St Peter's Anglican Cathedral, Adelaide. Events 1199 - Richard I is wounded by a crossbow bolt while fighting France which leads to his death on April 6. Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. St Peter's Cathedral is an Anglican Cathedral in the South Australian capital of Adelaide. The service was attended by a host of former and current Test cricketers, as well as Australia's then Prime Minister, John Howard, Leader of the Opposition Kim Beazley and former PM Bob Hawke. This article is about the government position For other uses see Prime Minister (disambiguation. See also Howard Government John Winston Howard AC (born 26 July 1939 was the 25th Prime Minister of Australia from 11 March For Kim Beazley's father Kim Beazley senior, see Kim Edward Beazley. Robert James Lee (Bob Hawke, AC (born 9 December 1929 was the 23rd Prime Minister of Australia and longest serving Australian Labor Party Prime Minister Eulogies were given by Richie Benaud and Governor General Sir William Deane. A eulogy is a speech or writing in Praise of a person or thing Richard "Richie" Benaud OBE (born October 6 1930 in Penrith New South Wales) is an Australian former Cricketer who since his retirement from The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia is the representative in Australia of the monarch of Australia (currently Elizabeth II Queen of Australia) Sir William Patrick Deane, AC, KBE, QC (born 4 January 1931) Australian judge and 22nd Governor-General of Australia. The service was broadcast live on ABC television to a viewing audience of 1. The Australian Broadcasting Corporation, commonly abbreviated to the 'ABC' is Australia's national public broadcaster. 45 million
Bradman was the first living Australian featured on an Australian postage stamp, issued in 1997.  In 2001, a major arterial road in Adelaide was re-named Sir Donald Bradman Drive. Adelaide is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of South Australia, and is the fifth largest city in Australia with a Sir Donald Bradman Drive is a major arterial road that travels east-west through the western suburbs of Adelaide, Australia.  After his death, the Australian Government produced a 20-cent coin to commemorate his life. This article describes the federal government of Australia See Australian governments for other jurisdictions The 20 cent coin of the Australian decimal currency system was issued with conversion to Decimal currency on 14 February 1966, replacing the florin 
Bradman first met Jessie Martha Menzies in 1920 when she boarded with the Bradman family, to be closer to school in Bowral. On 30 April 1932, the couple married at St Paul’s Anglican Church at Burwood, Sydney. Events 313 - Roman emperor Licinius unifies the entire Eastern Roman Empire under his rule Year 1932 ( MCMXXXII) was a Leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar.  During their 65-year marriage, Jessie was "shrewd, reliable, selfless, and above all, uncomplicated . . . she was the perfect foil to his concentrated, and occasionally mercurial character".  Numerous times Bradman paid tribute to his wife, once saying succinctly, "I would never have achieved what I achieved without Jessie". 
The Bradmans lived in the same modest, suburban house in Holden Street, Kensington Park in Adelaide for all but the first three years of their married life.  They experienced much personal tragedy in raising their children. Their first-born son died as an infant in 1936, their second son, John (born in 1939) contracted polio, and their daughter, Shirley, born in 1941, had cerebral palsy since her birth. Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an acute viral Infectious disease spread from person to person primarily via Cerebral palsy ( CP) is an Umbrella term encompassing a group of non-progressive, non- contagious conditions that cause Physical disability  His family name proved a burden for John Bradman; he changed his last name to Bradsen by deed poll in 1972. Although claims were made that he became estranged from his father, it was more a matter of "the pair inhabit different worlds".  After his death, a collection of personal letters written by Bradman to his close friend Rohan Rivett between 1953 and 1977 was released and gave researchers new insights into Bradman’s family life, including the strain between father and son. 
Bradman’s reclusiveness in later life is partly attributable to the on-going health problems of his wife, particularly following the open-heart surgery Jessie underwent in her sixties.  Lady Bradman died in 1997, aged 88, from cancer.  This had a dispiriting effect on Bradman, but the relationship with his son improved, to the extent that John resolved to change his name back to Bradman.  Since his father’s death, John Bradman has become the spokesperson for the family and has been involved in defending the Bradman legacy in a number of disputes.  The relationship between Bradman and his wider family is less clear, although nine months after Bradman’s death, his nephew Paul Bradman criticised him as a "snob" and a "loner" who forgot his connections in Bowral and who failed to attend the funerals of Paul's mother and father. 
Bradman’s early development was shaped by the high bounce of the ball on matting over concrete pitches. He favoured "horizontal-bat" shots (such as the hook, pull and cut) to deal with the bounce and devised a unique grip on the bat handle that would accommodate these strokes without compromising his ability to defend. Employing a side-on stance at the wicket, Bradman kept perfectly still as the bowler ran in.  His backswing had a "crooked" look that troubled his early critics, but he resisted entreaties to change.  His backswing kept his hands in close to the body, leaving him perfectly balanced and able to change his stroke mid-swing, if need be.  Another telling factor was the decisiveness of Bradman’s footwork. He "used the crease" by either coming metres down the wicket to drive, or playing so far back that his feet ended up level with the stumps when playing the cut, hook or pull. 
Bradman’s game evolved with experience. He temporarily adapted his technique during the Bodyline series, deliberately moving around the crease in an attempt to score from the short-pitched deliveries.  At his peak, in the mid-1930s, he had the ability to switch between a defensive and attacking approach as the occasion demanded. After the Second World War, he adjusted to bat within the limitations set by his age, becoming a steady "accumulator" of runs.  However, Bradman never truly mastered batting on sticky wickets. "Sticky Wicket" was episode twenty-one of the first season of the TV series M*A*S*H. Wisden commented, "[i]f there really is a blemish on his amazing record it is . . . the absence of a significant innings on one of those 'sticky dogs' of old". 
Bradman's name has become an archetypal name for outstanding excellence, both within cricket and in the wider world. The appearances of former Australian cricketer Don Bradman in popular culture are many and varied The Adelaide Oval is a sports ground in Adelaide, South Australia. Archetypal names are Proper names of real mythological or fictional characters that have become designations for Archetypes of certain personal traits Steve Waugh described Sri Lankan Muttiah Muralitharan as the "the Don Bradman of bowling", while former Australian Prime Minister John Howard has been referred to as "the Don Bradman of politics". Stephen Rodger Waugh, AO (born 2 June 1965 in Canterbury New South Wales) is a former Australian cricketer and fraternal twin of Mark Waugh The Sri Lankan cricket team is a national Cricket team representing Sri Lanka. Muttiah Muralitharan ( Tamil: முத்தையா முரளிதரன் born 17 April 1972 in Kandy, Sri Lanka) often referred to as Murali The Prime Minister of Australia is the Head of government of the Commonwealth of Australia, holding office on commission from the Governor-General. See also Howard Government John Winston Howard AC (born 26 July 1939 was the 25th Prime Minister of Australia from 11 March  Bradman has also been the subject of more biographies than any other Australian, apart from the outlaw Ned Kelly. Edward "Ned" Kelly (3 June 1855 &ndash 11 November 1880 was an Australian Bushranger, and to some a Folk hero for his defiance of the colonial  Bradman wrote four books himself: Don Bradman’s Book–The Story of My Cricketing Life with Hints on Batting, Bowling and Fielding (1930), My Cricketing Life (1938), Farewell to Cricket (1950) and The Art of Cricket (1958). The Art of Cricket is an instructional book on the game of Cricket written by Sir Don Bradman in 1958 The story of the Bodyline series was retold in a 1984 television mini-series. For information about the British code name "Bodyline" for the WWII V-2 rocket, see Operation Crossbow. 
Bradman is immortalised in three popular songs from different eras, "Our Don Bradman" (1930s, by Jack O'Hagan), "Bradman" (1980s, by Paul Kelly), and "Sir Don", (a tribute by John Williamson performed at Bradman's memorial service). John Francis (Jack O'Hagan ( 29 November 1898 - July 15, 1987) was an Australian Musician. Paul Maurice Kelly (born 13 January 1955 in Adelaide, South Australia) is an Australian Rock music Singer-songwriter, Guitarist and John Robert Williamson AM (born 1 November 1945 in Quambatook, Victoria) is an Australian Country music  Bradman recorded several songs accompanying himself and others on piano in the early 1930s, including "Every Day Is A Rainbow Day For Me".  In 2000, the Australian Government made it illegal for the names of corporations to suggest a link to "Sir Donald Bradman", if such a link does not in fact exist.  Other entities with similar protection are the Australian and foreign governments, the Royal Family, and the Returned and Services League of Australia. The British Royal Family is the group of close relatives of the monarch of the United Kingdom. The Returned and Services League of Australia (often abbreviated to RSL) is a support organisation for men and women who have served or are serving in the Australian 
|Ashes Tests||63||7||334||5,028||89. 78||19||30. 2%|
|All Tests||80||10||334||6,996||99. 94||29||36. 3%|
|Sheffield Shield||96||15||452*||8,926||110. 19||36||37. 5%|
|All First Class||338||43||452*||28,067||95. 10||117||34. 6%|
|Grade||93||17||303||6,598||86. 80||28||30. 1%|
|All Second Class||331||64||320*||22,664||84. 80||94||28. 4%|
|Grand Total||669||107||452*||50,731||90. 27||211||31. 5%|
|Statistics from Bradman Museum. |
Bradman still holds the following significant records for Test match cricket:
Bradman's Test batting average of 99. 94 has become one of cricket's most famous, iconic statistics.  No other player who has played more than 20 Test match innings has finished with a Test average of more than 61.  Bradman scored centuries at a rate better than one every three innings—in 80 Test innings, Bradman scored 29 centuries. In the Sport of Cricket, a Batsman reaches his century when he scores 100 or more runs in the Innings.  Only seven players have surpassed his total, all at a much lower rate: Sachin Tendulkar (who required 159 innings to do so), Matthew Hayden (167 innings), Ricky Ponting (170 innings), Sunil Gavaskar (174 innings), Jacques Kallis (200 innings), Brian Lara (205 innings) and Steve Waugh (247 innings). Matthew Lawrence Hayden (29 October 1971 is an Australian Cricketer. Ricky Thomas Ponting (born 19 December 1974 is a professional Australian Cricketer and current captain of the Australian cricket team in One Day International Sunil Manohar Gavaskar ( Marathi:सुनिल मनोहर गावसकर (born 10 July 1949 in Bombay, Maharashtra) nicknamed Sunny Jacques Henry Kallis (born 16 October 1975 in Pinelands Cape Town) is a South African Cricketer As an all-rounder Brian Charles Lara (born 2 May 1969 ( nicknamed, "The Prince of Port-of-Spain" "The Prince of Trinidad" or simply "The Prince" is a Stephen Rodger Waugh, AO (born 2 June 1965 in Canterbury New South Wales) is a former Australian cricketer and fraternal twin of Mark Waugh  He converted 41. 4% of his centuries into double centuries.  His total of 12 Test double hundreds (in 15% of his innings) is the most achieved by any batsman.  Next best is Brian Lara with 9 in 232 innings (4%), Walter Hammond with 7 in 140 innings (5%) and Kumar Sangakkara 6 in 110 innings (5%). Brian Charles Lara (born 2 May 1969 ( nicknamed, "The Prince of Port-of-Spain" "The Prince of Trinidad" or simply "The Prince" is a Walter Reginald "Wally" Hammond (born 19 June 1903 in Dover, Kent, died 1 July 1965 in Kloof KwaZulu-Natal Kumar Chokshanada Sangakkara (born 27 October 1977 at Matale) is a Sri Lankan Cricketer He is a left-handed Batsman 
Wisden hailed Bradman as, "the greatest phenomenon in the history of cricket, indeed in the history of all ball games".  Statistician Charles Davis, in the words of Brett Hutchins, argues that "no other athlete dominates an international sport to the extent that Bradman does cricket". Statisticians work with theoretical and applied Statistics in both the private and public sectors  Davis analysed the statistics for several prominent sportsmen by comparing the number of standard deviations that they stand above the mean for their sport. In Probability and Statistics, the standard deviation is a measure of the dispersion of a collection of values In Mathematics and Statistics, the arithmetic Mean (or simply the mean) of a list of numbers is the sum of all the members of the list divided  The top performers in his selected sports are:
|Bradman||Cricket||Batting average||4. Cricket is a bat-and-ball team Sport that originated in England and is now played in more than 100 countries 4|
|Pelé||Association football||Goals per game||3. Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered 7|
|Ty Cobb||Baseball||Batting average||3. Tyrus Raymond "Ty" Cobb (December 18 1886 – July 17 1961 nicknamed " The Georgia Peach," was a baseball player and is regarded by historians Baseball is a Bat-and-ball Sport played between two teams of nine players each 6|
|Jack Nicklaus||Golf||Major titles||3. For his detailed statistics records and other achievements see List of career achievements by Jack Nicklaus. 5|
|Michael Jordan||Basketball||Points per game||3. Michael Jeffrey Jordan (born February 17 1963 is a retired American professional Basketball player and active businessman Basketball is a team Sport in which two teams of five active players each try to score points against one another by propelling a ball through a 10 feet (3 m 4|
Using the above statistics, in order to post a similarly dominant career statistic as Bradman, a baseball batter would need a career batting average of . Baseball is a Bat-and-ball Sport played between two teams of nine players each 392, while a basketball player would need to score 43 points per game. Basketball is a team Sport in which two teams of five active players each try to score points against one another by propelling a ball through a 10 feet (3 m  For comparison, Michael Jordan holds the NBA record with an average of 30. 1 points per game, while Ty Cobb's career batting average of . 366 from 1928 still stands as the MLB high mark. 
. Time (trademarked in capitals as TIME) is a weekly American Newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and An obituary is an attempt to give an account of the texture and significance of the life of someone who has recently died . . courtly Australian icon considered by many to be the pre-eminent sportsman of all time . . . One of Australia's most beloved heroes, he was revered abroad as well. When Nelson Mandela was released after 27 years in prison, his first question to an Australian visitor was, "Is Sir Donald Bradman still alive?"
|Australian Test cricket captains|
|Australian Test cricket captains|
|World Record - Highest individual score in Test cricket|
334 vs England at Leeds 1930
|NAME||Bradman, Donald George|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||The Don|
|DATE OF BIRTH||August 27, 1908|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Cootamundra, New South Wales|
|DATE OF DEATH||February 25, 2001|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Adelaide|