|El ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha|
The 1605 original title page
|Author||Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra|
|Original title||El ingenioso hidalgo don Quixote de la Mancha|
|Genre(s)||Picaresco, Satire, Parody, Farce, Psychological novel|
|Publisher||Iuan de la Cuesta|
|Publication date||1605, 1615|
|Media type||Print (Hardback & Paperback)|
Don Quixote (Spanish: , IPA: [/dɒnˈkihoʊte/], see spelling and pronunciation below), fully titled El ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha ("The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote of La Mancha") is an early novel written by Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra ( in modern Spanish; September 29, 1547 &ndash April 22, 1616) was a Spanish Novelist Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. The picaresque novel ( Spanish: "picaresca", from "pícaro", for " Rogue " or " Rascal " is a Satire is often strictly defined as a literary genre or form; although in practice it is also found in the graphic and Performing arts In satire human A parody (ˈpɛɹədiː US, [ˈpaɹədiː] UK) in contemporary usage is a work created to mock comment on or poke fun at an original work its subject A farce is a Comedy written for the stage or film which aims to Entertain the audience by means of unlikely extravagant and improbable situations disguise and mistaken A psychological novel, also called psychological realism, is a work of Prose Fiction which places more than the usual amount of emphasis on interior Publishing is the process of production and dissemination of Literature or Information &ndash the activity of making information available for public view A hardcover (or hardback or hardbound) is a Book bound with rigid protective covers (typically of cardboard covered with Cloth Paperback, softback, or softcover describe and refer to a Book by the nature of its binding. A hidalgo or fidalgo was a member of the Spanish and Portuguese Nobility. La Mancha is an arid fertile elevated plateau (610 m or 2000 ft A novel (from Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new" "news" or "short story Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra ( in modern Spanish; September 29, 1547 &ndash April 22, 1616) was a Spanish Novelist Cervantes created a fictional origin for the story based upon a manuscript by the invented Moorish historian, Cide Hamete Benengeli. The description Moors has referred to several historic and modern populations of Muslim (and earlier non-Muslim people of Berber and Arab descent
Published in two volumes a decade apart, Don Quixote is the most influential work of literature to emerge from the Spanish Golden Age and perhaps the entire Spanish literary canon. This article is about the Spanish Golden Age of the 15th-17th centuries The term Spanish literature refers to Literature written in the Spanish language, including literature composed in Spanish by writers not necessarily from As a founding work of modern Western literature, it regularly appears at the top of lists of the greatest works of fiction ever published. Modernity is a term that refers to the Modern era. It is distinct from Modernism, and in different contexts refers to cultural and intellectual movements of the 
The novel's structure is in episodic form. Honoré Daumier ( February 26, 1808 &ndash February 10, 1879) was a French Printmaker, Caricaturist, It is a humorous novel in the picaresco style of the late sixteenth century. A novel (from Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new" "news" or "short story The picaresque novel ( Spanish: "picaresca", from "pícaro", for " Rogue " or " Rascal " is a The full title is indicative of the tale's object, as ingenioso (Span. ) means "to be quick with inventiveness".  Although the novel is farcical, the second half is serious and philosophical about the theme of deception. A farce is a Comedy written for the stage or film which aims to Entertain the audience by means of unlikely extravagant and improbable situations disguise and mistaken Quixote has served as an important thematic source not only in literature but in much of later art and music, inspiring works by Pablo Picasso and Richard Strauss. Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Martyr Patricio Clito Ruíz y Picasso (October 25 1881 &ndash April 8 1973 Richard Georg Strauss (11 June 1864 &ndash 8 September 1949 was a German Composer of the late Romantic era and early modern era particularly noted The contrasts between the tall, thin, fancy-struck, and idealistic Quixote and the fat, squat, world-weary Panza is a motif echoed ever since the book’s publication, and Don Quixote's imaginings are the butt of outrageous and cruel practical jokes in the novel. Even faithful and simple Sancho is unintentionally forced to deceive him at certain points. The novel is considered a satire of orthodoxy, truth, veracity, and even nationalism. In going beyond mere storytelling to exploring the individualism of his characters, Cervantes helped move beyond the narrow literary conventions of the chivalric romance literature that he spoofed, which consists of straightforward retelling of a series of acts that redound to the knightly virtues of the hero. As a Literary genre of High culture, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic Prose and verse Narrative A parody (ˈpɛɹədiː US, [ˈpaɹədiː] UK) in contemporary usage is a work created to mock comment on or poke fun at an original work its subject Knightly Virtues (or the Virtues of a Knight) were part of a Medieval chivalric code of honour A hero (from Greek grc ἥρως hērōs) in Greek mythology and Folklore, was originally a Demigod, the offspring of a mortal and
Farce makes use of punning and similar verbal playfulness. Character-naming in Don Quixote makes ample figural use of contradiction, inversion, and irony, such as the names Rocinante (a reversal) and Dulcinea (an allusion to illusion), and the word quixote itself, possibly a pun on quijada (jaw) but certainly cuixot (Catalan: thighs), a reference to a horse's rump. Rocinante is the name of Don Quixote 's horse in the novel Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes y Saavedra. Dulcinea is a Fictional character who is referred to (but does not appear in Miguel de Cervantes ' novel Don Quixote. es '''''Don Quixote''''' (, see spelling and pronunciation below fully titled es '''''El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha''''' ("The Ingenious Hidalgo Don 
The world of ordinary people, from shepherds to tavern-owners and inn-keepers, which figures in Don Quixote, was groundbreaking. Alcalá de Henares, meaning Castle on the river Henares, is a Spanish city whose historical centre is one of UNESCO 's World Heritage The character of Don Quixote became so well-known in its time that the word quixotic was quickly calqued into many languages. Quixotism is the description of a person or an act that is caught up in the romance of noble deeds and the pursuit of unreachable goals In Linguistics, a calque (kælk or loan translation is a Word or Phrase borrowed from another Language by Literal, word-for-word Characters such as Sancho Panza and Don Quixote’s steed, Rocinante, are emblems of Western literary culture. Rocinante is the name of Don Quixote 's horse in the novel Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes y Saavedra. The phrase "tilting at windmills" to describe an act of futility similarly derives from an iconic scene in the book. Tilting at windmills is an English Idiom which means attacking imaginary enemies or fighting otherwise-unwinnable battles
Because of its widespread influence, Don Quixote also helped cement the modern Spanish language. The opening sentence of the book created a classic Spanish cliché with the phrase de cuyo nombre no quiero acordarme, "whose name I do not want to remember. "
En un lugar de la Mancha, de cuyo nombre no quiero acordarme, no ha mucho tiempo que vivía un hidalgo de los de lanza en astillero, adarga antigua, rocín flaco y galgo corredor.
"In a place at La Mancha, which name I do not want to remember, not very long ago lived a noble, one of those nobles who keep a lance in the lance-rack, an ancient shield, a skinny old horse, and a fast greyhound. "
Alonso Quixano, a retired country gentleman in his fifties, lives in an unnamed section of La Mancha with his niece and a housekeeper. La Mancha is an arid fertile elevated plateau (610 m or 2000 ft He has become obsessed with books of chivalry, and believes their every word to be true, despite the fact that many of the events in them are clearly impossible. Quixano eventually appears to other people to have lost his mind from little sleep and food and because of so much reading. He decides to go out as a knight-errant in search of adventure. He dons an old suit of armor, improvises a makeshift helmet, renames himself "Don Quixote de la Mancha," and names his skinny horse "Rocinante. Rocinante is the name of Don Quixote 's horse in the novel Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes y Saavedra. " He designates a neighboring farm girl, Aldonza Lorenzo, as his ladylove, renaming her Dulcinea del Toboso, while she knows nothing about this.
He sets out in the early morning and ends up at an inn, which he believes to be a castle. He asks the innkeeper, whom he takes to be the lord of the castle, to dub him knight. He spends the night holding vigil over his armor, during which he becomes involved in a fight with muleteers who try to remove his armor from the horse trough so that they can water their mules. The innkeeper then "dubs" him knight advising him that he needs a squire, and sends him on his way. In Feudal or Medieval times a squire was a Man-at-arms in the service of a Knight, often as his Apprentice. Don Quixote battles with traders from Toledo, who "insult" the imaginary Dulcinea, and he also frees a young boy who is tied to a tree by his master because the boy had the audacity to ask his master for the wages the boy had earned but had not yet been paid. Toledo Spain locationpng|thumb|right|200px|Location of Toledo in Spain Don Quixote is returned to his home by a neighboring peasant, Pedro Crespo. 
Back at home, Don Quixote plots an escape. A windmill is a machine that is powered by the energy of the wind La Mancha is an arid fertile elevated plateau (610 m or 2000 ft Meanwhile, his niece, the housekeeper, the parish curate, and the local barber secretly burn most of the books of chivalry, and seal up his library pretending that a magician has carried it off. From the Latin curatus (compare Curator) a curate is a person who is invested with the ''care'' or ''cure'' (''cura'' ''of souls'' of a Don Quixote approaches another neighbor, Sancho Panza, and asks him to be his squire, promising him governorship of an island. Sancho Panza is a Fictional character in the novel Don Quixote written by Spanish author Don Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra in The rather dull-witted Sancho agrees, and the pair sneak off in the early dawn. It is here that their series of famous adventures begin, starting with Don Quixote's attack on windmills that he believes to be ferocious giants. A windmill is a machine that is powered by the energy of the wind
Although the first half of the novel is almost completely farcical, the second half is serious and philosophical about the theme of deception. A farce is a Comedy written for the stage or film which aims to Entertain the audience by means of unlikely extravagant and improbable situations disguise and mistaken Don Quixote's imaginings are made the butt of outrageously cruel practical jokes. Even Sancho is unintentionally forced to deceive him at one point; trapped into finding Dulcinea, Sancho brings back three peasant girls and tells Quixote that they are Dulcinea and her ladies-in-waiting. When Don Quixote only sees three peasant girls, Sancho pretends that Quixote suffers from a cruel spell which does not permit him to see the truth. Sancho eventually gets his imaginary island governorship and unexpectedly proves to be wise and practical; though this too, ends in disaster. The novel ends with Don Quixote's complete disillusionment, with his melancholic return to sanity and renunciation of chivalry, and finally, his death.
Sources for Don Quixote include the Valencian novel Tirant lo Blanch, one of the first chivalric epics, which Cervantes describes in Chapter VI of Quixote as "the best book in the world. Tirant lo Blanc is an epic romance written by the Valencian knight Joanot Martorell, supposedly finished by Martí " The scene of the book burning gives us an excellent list of Cervantes's likes and dislikes about literature.
Cervantes makes a number of references to the Italian poem Orlando furioso. Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. Orlando Furioso ("The Frenzy of Orlando" more literally "Mad Orlando" in Italian furioso is seldom capitalized is an Italian In chapter 10 of the first part of the novel, Don Quixote says he must take the magical helmet of Mambrino, an episode from Canto I of Orlando, and itself a reference to Matteo Maria Boiardo's Orlando innamorato. Matteo Maria Boiardo (c 1434 &ndash December 20, 1494) was an Italian Renaissance Poet. Orlando Innamorato ("Orlando in Love" is an Epic poem written by the Italian Renaissance author Matteo Maria Boiardo.  The interpolated story in chapter 51 of Part II is a retelling of a tale from Canto 43 of Orlando, regarding a man who tests the fidelity of his wife. 
In July of 1604 Cervantes sold the rights of El ingenioso hidalgo don Quixote de la Mancha (known as Don Quixote, Part I) to the publisher-bookseller Francisco de Robles for an unknown sum. License to publish was granted in September, the printing was finished in December, and the book came out in January 1605.  The novel was an immediate success. Most of the 400 copies of the first edition were sent to the New World, with the publisher hoping to make a better price in the Americas . The New World is one of the names used for the non-Eurasian/non-African parts of the Earth specifically the Americas and Australia. Although a lot of them disappeared in a shipwreck near La Havana, approximately 70 copies reached Lima, from where they were sent to Cuzco in the heart of the defunct Inca Empire . Havana ( IPA: aˈβana officially Ciudad de La Habana, is the Capital city, major port and leading Lima is the Capital and largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers on a coast overlooking ||} Cusco (also spelled Cuzco, and in the local Quechua language as Qusqu 'qos The Inca Empire (or Inka Empire) was the largest empire in Pre-Columbian America.
There is some evidence of its contents having been known before publication to, among others, Lope de Vega. Lope de Vega (also Félix Lope de Vega y Carpio or Lope Félix de Vega Carpio) ( 25 November 1562 &ndash 27 August 1635 There is also a tradition that Cervantes read some portions of his work to a select audience at the court of the Duke of Bejar, which may have helped in making the book known. Béjar is a town and Municipality in the province of Salamanca, western Spain, part of the autonomous community of Castile-Leon. Don Quixote, Part One remained in Cervantes' hands for some time before he could find a willing publisher.  The compositors at Juan de la Cuesta's press in Madrid are now known to have been responsible for errors in the text, many of which were attributed to the author. Compositing is the combining of visual elements from separate sources into single images often to create the illusion that all those elements are parts of the same scene
No sooner was it in the hands of the public than preparations were made to issue derivative ("pirated") editions. "Don Quixote" had been growing in favour, and its author's name was now known beyond the Pyrenees. The Pyrenees (Pirineos French: Pyrénées; Catalan: Pirineus; Occitan: Pirenèus; Aragonese: Perinés By August 1605 there were two Madrid editions, two published in Lisbon, and one in Valencia. Valencia ( Valencian: València, Valencia Spanish phonology --> is the capital of the Spanish autonomous A second edition with additional copyrights for Aragon and Portugal, which publisher Francisco de Robles secured. The Crown of Aragon was a permanent union of multiple titles and states in the hands of the King of Aragon. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula.  Sale of these publishing rights deprived Cervantes of further financial profit on Part One. In 1607, an edition was printed in Brussels. Brussels (Bruxelles pronounced; Brussel pronounced) officially the Brussels Capital-Region, is Robles, the Madrid publisher, found it necessary to meet demand with a third edition, a seventh publication in all, in 1608. Popularity of the book in Italy was such that a Milan bookseller issued an Italian edition in 1610. Yet another Brussels edition was called for in 1721. 
In 1613, Cervantes published Novelas Exemplares, dedicated to the Maecenas of the day, the Conde de Lemos. Caius Cilnius Maecenas (70 &ndash 8 BC was a confidant and political advisor to Octavian (who was to become the first Emperor of Rome as Caesar Augustus) as well Monforte de Lemos is a city and Municipality in northwestern Spain, in the province of Lugo, Galicia. Eight and a half years after Part One had appeared, we get the first hint of a forthcoming Segunda Parte (Part Two). "You shall see shortly," Cervantes says, "the further exploits of Don Quixote and humours of Sancho Panza. " Don Quixote, Part Two, published by the same press as its predecessor, appeared late in 1615, and quickly reprinted in Brussels and Valencia (1616) and Lisbon (1617). The second tome capitalizes on the potential of the first, developing and diversifying without sacrificing familiarity. Many people agree that it is richer and more profound. Parts One and Two were published as one edition in Barcelona in 1617.
Some theories exist that question whether Cervantes alone wrote Don Quixote. Carlos Fuentes raises an intriguing possibility that, "Cervantes leaves open the pages of a book where the reader knows himself to be written and it is said that he dies on the same date, though not on the same day, as William Shakespeare. It is further stated that perhaps both were the same man. "
It is not certain when Cervantes began writing Part Two of Don Quixote, but he had probably not gotten much further than Chapter LIX by late July of 1614. About September, however, a spurious Part Two, entitled "Second Volume of the Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote of La Mancha: by the Licenciado (doctorate) Alonso Fernández de Avellaneda, of Tordesillas", was published in Tarragona by an unidentified Aragonese who was an admirer of Lope de Vega, rival of Cervantes. In 1614 a sequel to Cervantes ' Don Quixote was published under the pseudonym Alonso Fernández de Avellaneda. Tordesillas is a town and Municipality in the province of Valladolid, part of the autonomous community of Castile-Leon in central Spain. Tarragona (tərəˈɣonə in Catalan) is a city located in the south of Catalonia and east of Spain, by the Mediterranean Sea.  Avellaneda's identity has been the subject of many theories, but there is no consensus on who he was. In its prologue, the author gratuitously insulted Cervantes, who not surprisingly took offense and responded; the last half of Chapter LIX and most of the following chapters of Cervantes' Segunda Parte lend some insight of the effects upon him.  Many scholars agree that this book is of considerable literary merit.  However, in his introduction to The Portable Cervantes, Samuel Putnam, a noted translator of Cervantes' novel, calls Avellaneda's version "one of the most disgraceful performances in history". Samuel Putnam (1892-1950 was an American Translator and scholar of Romance languages.
The second half of Cervantes' Don Quixote, finished as a direct result of the Avellaneda book, has come to be regarded by most literary critics as being far superior to the first, because of its greater depth of characterization, its discussions, mostly between Quixote and Sancho, on random subjects, and its philosophical insights.
There are many translations of the book, and it has been adapted many times in shortened versions. Many derivative editions were also being written at the time, as was the custom of envious or unscrupulous writers. Seven years after the Parte Primera appeared, Don Quixote had been translated into French, German, Italian, and English. (first French translation of 'Part II' (1618), first English translation (1620). ) One abridged adaptation is authored by Agustín Sánchez, which runs slightly over 150 pages, cutting away about 750 pages. 
The elusive Thomas Shelton's English translation of the First Part appeared in 1612. Thomas Shelton (fl 1612-1626 English Translator of Don Quixote. Some claim Shelton was actually a friend of Cervantes, although there is no credible evidence to support this claim. Although Shelton's version has been a cherished translation, according to John Ormsby and Samuel Putnam respectively, it was far from satisfactory as a carrying over of Cervantes's text. John Ormsby (1829-1895 was a nineteenth-century British Translator. Samuel Putnam (1892-1950 was an American Translator and scholar of Romance languages.  Shelton's translation of the novel's Second Part appeared in 1620.
Near the end of the 17th century, John Phillips, a nephew of poet John Milton, published what is considered by Putnam the worst English translated version. John Milton ( 9 December, 1608 – 8 November, 1674) was an English Poet, Prose Polemicist and The translation, as literary critics claim, was not based on Cervantes' text but mostly upon a French work by Filleau de Saint-Martin and upon notes which Thomas Shelton had written previously. Around 1700, a version by Pierre Antoine Motteux appeared. Peter Anthony Motteux (born Pierre Antoine Motteux, February 25, 1663 &ndash February 18, 1718) was an English author playwright As stated by translator John Ormsby, this version was "worse than worthless". The prevailing slapstick quality of this work, especially where Sancho Panza is involved, the obtrusion of the obscene where it is found in the original, and the slurring of difficulties through omissions or expanding upon the text all made the Motteux version irresponsible. Sancho Panza is a Fictional character in the novel Don Quixote written by Spanish author Don Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra in In 1742, the Charles Jervas translation appeared, posthumously. Charles Jervas (c 1675 &ndash 1739 was an Irish portrait painter translator and art collector of the early 18th century Through a printer's error, it came to be known, and is still known, as "the Jarvis translation". The most scholarly and accurate English translation of the novel up to that time, it has been criticized by some as being too stiff. Nevertheless, it became the most frequently reprinted translation of the novel until about 1885. Another 18th century translation into English was that of Tobias Smollett, himself a novelist. Tobias George Smollett (bapt 19 March, 1721 &ndash 17 September, 1771) was a Scottish author best known for his Picaresque Like the Jarvis translation, it continues to be reprinted today.
Most modern translators take as their model the 1885 translation by John Ormsby. It is said that his translation was the most honest of all translations, without expansions upon the text nor changing of the proverbs. A proverb (from the Latin proverbium) also called a byword or nayword, is a simple and concrete Saying popularly known and repeated The most widely read English-language translations of the mid-20th century are by Samuel Putnam (1949), J. M. Cohen (1950; Penguin Classics), and Walter Starkie (1957). J M (John Michael Cohen (February 51903 - July 19 1989 was a prolific translator (into English) of European literature Design Penguin Books have paid particular attention to the design of its books since recruiting German typographer Jan Tschichold Walter Fitzwilliam Starkie (1894-1976 was an Irish scholar author and translator of Spanish literature The last English translation of the novel in the 20th century was by Burton Raffel, published in 1996. Burton Raffel (born 1928 is a Translator, a poet and a teacher The 21st century has already seen two new translations of the novel into English - by John Rutherford, and by Edith Grossman. Edith Grossman (born March 22, 1936) is an award-winning American Translator specializing in English versions of Spanish language One New York Times reviewer called Grossman's translation a "major literary achievement" and another called it the "most transparent and least impeded among more than a dozen English translations going back to the 17th century. "
Don Quixote is often nominated as one of the world's greatest works of fiction.  Don Quixote's importance in literature has produced a large and varied cultural and artistic legacy. Many artists have drawn inspiration either directly or indirectly from Cervantes' work, including the painter Honoré Daumier, the composer Richard Strauss, the writer Henry Fielding and the filmmaker Terry Gilliam. Honoré Daumier ( February 26, 1808 &ndash February 10, 1879) was a French Printmaker, Caricaturist, Richard Georg Strauss (11 June 1864 &ndash 8 September 1949 was a German Composer of the late Romantic era and early modern era particularly noted Henry Fielding ( April 22, 1707 &ndash October 8, 1754) was an English Novelist and Dramatist known for his Terrence Vance Gilliam (born 22 November 1940) is an American -born British Writer, Filmmaker, Animator and member
The cultural legacy of Don Quixote is one of the richest and most varied of any work of fiction ever produced. It stands in a unique position between medieval chivalric romance and the modern novel. As a Literary genre of High culture, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic Prose and verse Narrative The first modern novel has generally been ascribed to a series of Picaresque Novels, most famously Don Quixote (1605 by Cervantes The former consist of disconnected stories with little exploration of the inner life of even the main character. The latter are usually focused on the psychological evolution of their characters. In Part I, Quixote imposes himself on his environment. By Part II, people know about him through "having read his adventures," and so, he needs to do less to maintain his image. By his deathbed, he has regained his sanity, and is once more "Alonso Quixano the Good".
The novel contains many minor literary "firsts" for European literature—a woman complaining of her menopause, someone with an eating disorder, and the psychological revealing of their troubles as something inner to themselves. Menopause is the permanent shutting down of the female Reproductive system, a considerable length of time before the end of the lifespan An eating disorder is a compulsion to eat or avoid eating that negatively affects both one's physical and mental health
Subtle touches regarding perspective are everywhere: characters talk about a woman who is the cause of the death of a suitor, portraying her as evil, but when she comes on stage, she gives a different perspective entirely that makes Quixote (and thus the reader) defend her. When Quixote descends into a cave, Cervantes admits that he does not know what went on there.
Quixote's adventures tend to involve situations in which he attempts to apply a knight's sure, simple morality to situations in which much more complex issues are at hand. For example, upon seeing a band of galley slaves being mistreated by their guards, he believes their cries of innocence and attacks the guards. After they are freed, he demands that they honor his lady Dulcinea, but instead they pelt him with stones and leave.
Different ages have tended to read different things into the novel. When it was first published, it was usually interpreted as a comic novel. A comic novel is a work of fiction in which the writer seeks to amuse the reader sometimes with subtlety and as part of a carefully woven narrative sometimes above all other After the French Revolution it was popular in part due to its central ethic that individuals can be right while society is quite wrong and seen as disenchanting—not comic at all. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an In the 19th century it was seen as a social commentary, but no one could easily tell "whose side Cervantes was on. " By the 20th century it had come to occupy a canonical space as one of the foundations of modern literature.
The novel was recently voted The Greatest Book of All Time by the Nobel Institute.
The novel's landmark status in literary history has meant it has had a rich and varied influence over later writers, from Cervantes' own lifetime to the present-day. Some leading examples of Don Quixote's influence include:
Rocinante was the name Steinbeck gave his converted truck in his 1960 travelogue "Travels with Charley"
The 18th century French baroque composer Joseph Bodin de Boismortier wrote a short ballet titled Don Quichotte chez la Duchesse. Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750. Joseph Bodin de Boismortier ( December 23, 1689 in Thionville – October 28, 1755 in Roissy-en-Brie) was a French Don Quichotte chez la Duchesse (Don Quixote at the Duchess' is a comic Ballet by the French baroque composer Joseph Bodin de Boismortier. The ballet, which includes sung parts, is about a Duke's and Duchess' efforts to fool Don Quixote.
A play by Thomas D'Urfey with music and songs by Baroque composer Henry Purcell, entitled The Comical History of Don Quixote (1694), adapts and rearranges some of his adventures. Thomas D'Urfey ( Tom Durfey) ( 1653 - 26 February 1723) was an English writer and wit Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc Henry Purcell (ˈpɜrsəl 10 September 1659 (? – 21 November 1695 was an English Baroque Composer. The play, like other eighteenth-century adaptations of the novel, reflects that era's view of Don Quixote as a comic work, with no hint of seriousness.
Georg Philipp Telemann wrote an orchestral suite entitled Don Quichotte and an opera called Don Quichotte auf der Hochzeit des Camacho, based on an episode from the novel. Georg Philipp Telemann (March 14 1681 &ndash June 25 1767 was a German Baroque music Composer, born in Magdeburg. In Music, a suite is an ordered set of Instrumental or Orchestral pieces normally performed in a Concert
Die Hochzeit des Camacho, an early opera by Felix Mendelssohn (composed in 1827) is based on the same section of the book on which Telemann based his opera. Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and generally known as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3 1809 &ndash November 4 1847 was a German Composer
Ludwig Minkus composed the music for Marius Petipa's ballet Don Quixote, which was staged for the Bolshoi Theatre of Moscow in 1869, and was revised in more elaborate production for the Imperial Ballet of St. Ludwig Minkus (Людвиг Минкус aka Léon Fyodorovich Minkus (born Aloisius Ludwig Minkus on March 23, 1826 in Velké Meziříčí See also Marius Ivanovich Petipa (Мариус Иванович Петипа (born Victor Marius Alphonse Petipa on 11 March 1818 in Marseille, Kingdom Don Quixote is a ballet originally staged in four acts and eight scenes based on an episode taken from the famous novel Don Quixote de la Mancha by The Bolshoi Theatre (Большой театр Bol'shoy Teatr Great Theatre) is a historic theatre in Moscow, Russia, designed by famed architect The Mariinsky Ballet, is an internationally renowned Classical ballet company based at the Mariinsky Theatre in St Petersburg, Russia. Petersburg in 1871. The libretto was based on the same chapters in the novel which attracted Mendelssohn and Telemann. Petipa's ballet was substantially revised by Alexander Gorsky in 1900 for the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow, a version which was staged for the Imperial in 1902. It is Gorsky's 1902 staging which has been revisited by several other choreographers in the course of the twentieth century in Soviet Russia, and has since been staged by ballet companies all over the world. In 1972, Rudolf Nureyev filmed his celebrated versionof the ballet. Rudolf Khametovich Nureyev ( Tatar: Rudolf Xämät ulı Nuriev, Russian: Рудольф Хаметович Нуриев The choreography, credited to Nureyev, was based closely on the Soviet edition.
Jules Massenet's Don Quichotte premiered at Monte Carlo Opera on February 24, 1910. Jules (Émile Frédéric Massenet ( May 12, 1842 – August 13, 1912) was a French composer best known for his Operas Don Quichotte ( Don Quixote) is an Opera in five acts by Jules Massenet to a French Libretto by Henri Cain, Massenet's In the title role at the first performance was the legendary Russian bass Feodor Chaliapin, for whom the part was written. Feodor Ivanovich Chaliapin ( Russian: Фёдор Ива́нович Шаля́пин Fyodor Ivanovich Shalyapin; &ndash April 12, 1938)
Master Peter's Puppet Show, a puppet opera by Manuel de Falla, is based on an episode from Book II and was first performed at the Salon of the Princess de Polignac in Paris in 1923. Master Peter's Puppet Show ( El retablo de Maese Pedro) is a puppet- Opera in one act with a Prologue and Epilogue, composed by Manuel de Falla y Matheu ( November 23, 1876 &ndash November 14, 1946) was a Spanish Composer of classical music
Maurice Ravel composed a set of three songs for voice and piano, Don Quichotte à Dulcinée (Don Quixote to Dulcinea) to poems by Paul Morand in 1932, and orchestrated them in 1934. Paul Morand (b March 13 1888, Paris. d July 24 1976) was a French Diplomat, Novelist, Playwright
Jacques Ibert composed music for the 1933 film Adventures of Don Quixote starring the Russian bass Feodor Chaliapin, directed by G.W. Pabst. Jacques François Antoine Ibert ( August 15, 1890 &ndash February 5, 1962) was a French Composer of classical Adventures of Don Quixote (1933 is a film adaptation of the classic Miguel de Cervantes novel directed by Georg Wilhelm Pabst, starring the famous Feodor Ivanovich Chaliapin ( Russian: Фёдор Ива́нович Шаля́пин Fyodor Ivanovich Shalyapin; &ndash April 12, 1938) Georg Wilhelm Pabst ( August 25, 1885 - May 29, 1967) was an Austrian Film director. Three versions were filmed, in French, English, and German. The French and English versions have been released on home video.
Richard Strauss composed the tone poem Don Quixote, subtitling it "Introduction, Theme with Variations, and Finale" and 'Fantastic Variations for Large Orchestra on a Theme of Knightly Character. Richard Georg Strauss (11 June 1864 &ndash 8 September 1949 was a German Composer of the late Romantic era and early modern era particularly noted A symphonic poem or tone poem is a piece of Orchestral Music in one movement in which some extramusical program provides a narrative or illustrative element Don Quixote, op 35 is a composition by Richard Strauss for Cello, Viola and Large orchestra. ' The music makes explicit reference to many of the novel's most entertaining sections, including the sheep (described famously by double-tongued brass) and windmill episodes.
The Catalan composer Roberto Gerhard, shortly after being exiled to the United Kingdom at the end of the Spanish Civil War, composed in 1940–41 a ballet on Don Quixote as the most important of a number of tributes to Spanish culture. Catalonia (Cataluña Catalunya Aranese: Catalonha) is an Autonomous Community in the northeast part of Spain. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Spanish Civil War was a major conflict in Spain that started after an attempted Coup d'état committed by parts of the army against the government of Not staged in this original form, the ballet became the source for a number of orchestral suites and Gerhard also used it in the extensive incidental music he provided for a BBC radio adaptation of Cervantes’s novel by Eric Linklater, The Adventures of Don Quixote (1940). Incidental music is Music in a play, Television program Radio program Video game, film or some other form not primarily musical Eric Robert Russell Linklater (8 March 1899 - 7 November 1974 was a British writer known for more than 20 novels as well as Short stories, travel writing and autobiography Gerhard re-wrote the ballet in 1947–49 and it was staged by Sadler’s Wells Ballet at Covent Garden with choreography by Ninette de Valois and décor by Edward Burra. WikipediaWikiProject Opera --> The Royal Opera House is an Opera house and major performing See also Dame Ninette de Valois, OM, CH, DBE ( June 6, 1898 &ndash March 8, 2001) was the Edward Burra ( 29 March 1905 – 22 October 1976) was an English painter draughtsman and printmaker best known for his depictions
George Balanchine created another Don Quixote ballet in 1965, to music by Nicolas Nabokov. See also List of ballets by George Balanchine, George Balanchine (January 22 1904 &ndash April 30 1983 born Giorgi Melitonis dze Balanchivadze Don Quixote is a ballet originally staged in four acts and eight scenes based on an episode taken from the famous novel Don Quixote de la Mancha by Nicolas Nabokov ( &ndash 6 April 1978) American composer writer and cultural figure was born in Russia This was dedicated to the dancer Suzanne Farrell, whom he played opposite in the original production. Suzanne Farrell (born August 16, 1945) one of the most noted Ballerinas of the 20th century and the founder of the Suzanne Farrell Ballet
Man of La Mancha, with music by Mitch Leigh, lyrics by Joe Darion and book by Dale Wasserman based on his non-musical teleplay I, Don Quixote, is a one-act Broadway musical which combines episodes in the novel with a story about its author, Miguel de Cervantes, as a play within a play that premiered in 1965. Man of La Mancha is a musical with a book by Dale Wasserman, lyrics by Joe Darion and music by Mitch Leigh. Mitch Leigh (born January 30, 1928 in Brooklyn, New York) is an American Musical theatre Composer and Theatrical Joe Darion ( 30 January, 1917 - 6 June, 2001) was an American musical theatre Lyricist, most famous for Man of La Mancha Dale Wasserman (born 1917 is a prolific American Playwright. Biography "I was born I Don Quixote is a play written for Television, and first broadcast on the CBS anthology series DuPont Show of the Month on the evening of November Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra ( in modern Spanish; September 29, 1547 &ndash April 22, 1616) was a Spanish Novelist
The British composer Ronald Stevenson has composed an extensive work for two guitars, Don Quixote and Sancho Panza, subtitled 'a Bagatelle Cycle' (1982–3) and consisting of a double theme with seventeen variations based on various events in Cervantes' novel. Ronald Stevenson (born March 6, 1928 in Blackburn, Lancashire) is a British Composer, Pianist, and writer about Bagatelle (from the Château de Bagatelle) is an indoor table game related to Billiards, the object of which is to get a number of balls (set at nine in the nineteenth The work was premiered in Glasgow in 1998. Glasgow (ˈglæzgoʊ is the largest city in Scotland and third most populous in the United Kingdom
British singer-songwriter Nik Kershaw released a song entitled Don Quixote, which reached No. Nik Kershaw (born Nicholas David Kershaw March 1 1958, Bristol, England) is an English Singer-songwriter, popular 10 in the UK top 40 in 1985.
Don Quixote was the title song of the eighth album released by Canadian singer/songwriter Gordon Lightfoot. Don Quixote is Canadian singer Gordon Lightfoot 's 8th original album released in 1972 on the Reprise Records Label Gordon Meredith Lightfoot Jr, (born November 17, 1938) is a Canadian singer and songwriter who achieved international success in folk country and
The 1998 Concept Album La Leyenda de la Mancha by popular Spanish Rock band Mägo De Oz is a modern retelling of the story of Don Quixote. La Leyenda de La Mancha (The Legend of La Mancha) is an album by the Spanish heavy metal band Mägo de Oz released in 1998 Mägo de Oz (" Wizard of Oz " with a Heavy-metal umlaut) (also known as simply Mägo) is a Folk Rock and Heavy Metal The most popular song from that album 'Molinos De Viento' is about Don Quixote's conversation with Sancho Panza after the adventure with the windmills, in which Don Quixote attacks the windmills because he believes them to be giants.
Don Quixote is the subject of the song Windmills on the album The Village Lanterne released in 2006 by Renaissance-inspired folk rock band Blackmore's Night. The Village Lanterne is an album by the renaissance rock band Blackmore's Night, released on Steamhammer US on 4 April 2006. Blackmore's Night is a Renaissance -inspired Folk rock band led by Ritchie Blackmore ( Electric guitar and acoustic guitar) and
Don Quixote has inspired a large number of illustrators, painters and draughtsmen such as Gustave Doré, Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dalí and Antonio de la Gandara. Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Martyr Patricio Clito Ruíz y Picasso (October 25 1881 &ndash April 8 1973 Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech 1st Marquis of Púbol (May 11 1904 &ndash January 23 1989 was a Spanish Catalan Surrealist Antonio de La Gandara ( December 16, 1861 - June 30, 1917) was a painter Pastellist and draughtsman The French artist Honoré Daumier produced 29 paintings and 49 drawings based on the book and characters of Don Quixote starting with an exhibition at the 1850 Paris Salon, which would later inspire Pablo Picasso. The Salon (Salon or rarely Paris Salon (French Salon de Paris) beginning in 1725 was the official Art exhibition of the Académie des Beaux-Arts In 1863, Gustave Doré produced a large set of drawings based on Don Quixote. These include the famous, if fanciful, engraving of Don Quixote in his library. On August 10, 1955, Pablo Picasso drew an illustration of Don Quixote and Sancho Panza that has become the most iconic image ever made of these characters, drawn for the journal weekly Les Lettres françaises (week of August 18-24, 1955), and which quotes from the Daumier caricature of a century before, shown left. Widely reproduced, today it is the iconic image used by the Spanish government to promote Cervantes and Don Quixote.
Quixote is the original spelling in medieval Castilian, and is used in English. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States However, modern Spanish has since gone through spelling reforms and phonetic changes which have turned the x into j. Many languages have undergone spelling reform, where a deliberate often officially sanctioned or mandated change to spelling takes place Phonetics (from the Greek φωνή ( phonê) "sound" or "voice" is the study of the physical sounds of human speech
The x was pronounced like an English sh sound (voiceless postalveolar fricative) in medieval times — IPA: [kiˈʃote] — and this is reflected in the French name Don Quichotte, the Dutch Don Quichot (or Don Quichote), as well as in the Italian name Don Chisciotte. The voiceless palato-alveolar fricative or domed postalveolar fricative ( IPA) is a type of Consonantal sound used in some spoken Languages French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Dutch ( is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people 22 million of which are from the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. However, in Spanish such words (now virtually all spelled with a j) are now pronounced with a voiceless velar fricative sound like the Scottish or German ch (as in Loch, Bach) or the Greek Chi (χ) — [kiˈxote]. The voiceless velar fricative, informally known as the hard ch, is a type of Consonantal sound used in some spoken Languages The symbol in the Scots ( The Scots leid) refers to Anglic varieties derived from early northern Middle English spoken in parts of Scotland and Northern The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly English speakers generally attempt something close to the modern Spanish pronunciation when saying Quixote/Quijote, as IPA: /dɒŋkiːˈhoʊte/, although the incorrect traditional English pronunciation /ˈkwɪksət/ or /ˈkwɪksoʊt/ is still frequently used, more in the United Kingdom than in the United States . The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
In Spanish, the "qu" in "qui" and "que" are pronounced almost identically to the English "k", so when people pronounce it /ˈkwɪksoʊt/, it is ultimately incorrect. The e at the end of "Quixote" is pronounced as a soft e, not a hard e, nor a silent e, due to Spanish phonetics. The traditional English rendering is also preserved in the pronunciation of the adjectival form quixotic.