The Dominican Independence War gave the Dominican Republic independence from Haiti. The Dominican Republic ( Spanish: República Dominicana;) is a nation located in the Caribbean region and shares the island of Hispaniola with Haiti ( English: ˈheɪ·tiː or haɪ·ˈjiː·tiː French Haïti a·i·ti Haitian Creole: Prior to the war, the whole island of Hispaniola had been Haitian for 22 years when Haiti occupied the newly independent state of Spanish Haiti. Juan Pablo Duarte was twenty years old, educated, a genuine nationalist, and the man that helped lead and inspire the Dominican Independence War of 1844. Juan Pablo Duarte y Díez was born on January 26, 1813 in colonial Santo Domingo (current capital city of Dominican Republic) during the period Duarte, along with Matías Ramón Mella and Francisco del Rosario Sánchez founded a group in 1838. Matías Ramón Mella, born 25 February 1816, is regarded as a National hero in the Dominican Republic. Francisco Del Rosario Sánchez ( March 9, 1817 - July 4, 1861) was a politician and founding father of Their movement was called La Trinitaria (The Trinity), because its original nine members had organized themselves into cells of three; the cells went on to recruit as separate organizations, maintaining strict secrecy, with little or no direct contact among themselves in order to minimize the possibility of detection by the Haitian authorities. Many recruits quickly came to the group, but it was discovered and forced to change its name to La Filantrópica, where it continued agitating the Haitians.
In 1843 the revolution made a breakthrough, while working with a liberal Haitian party, they overthrew President Boyer. Unfortunately, the Trinitarios work in the overthrow was noticed by Boyer’s replacement, Charles Riviere-Hérard. Charles Rivière-Hérard also known as Charles Hérard Aîné ( February 16, 1789 - August 31, 1850) was an officer in the Haitian Rivière-Hérard imprisoned some Trinitarios and forced Duarte to leave the island. While gone, Duarte searched for support in Colombia and Venezuela, but was unsuccessful. In December 1843, the rebels told Duarte to return since they had to act quickly because they were afraid the Haitians had learned of their insurrection plans. When Duarte had not returned by February (because of illness), the rebels decided to take action anyways with the leadership of Francisco del Rosario Sánchez, Ramón Mella, and by Pedro Santana, a wealthy cattle-rancher from El Seibo who commanded a private army of peons who worked on his estates.
On February 27, 1844 - thereafter celebrated as Dominican Independence Day - the rebels seized the Ozama fortress in the capital. Events 1560 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation Year 1844 ( MDCCCXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year The Haitian garrison, taken by surprise and apparently betrayed by at least one of its sentries, retired in disarray. Within two days, all Haitian officials had left Santo Domingo. Ramón Mella headed the provisional governing junta of the new Dominican Republic. On March 14, Duarte finally returned after recovering from his illness and was greeted in celebration. Events 1489 - The Queen of Cyprus, Catherine Cornaro, sells her kingdom to Venice.
Pedro Santana’s military forces continued to defend the republic against all the Haitian attacks defeating them in the battles of March 19, March 30, El Memiso and at Puerto Tortuguero. The Battle of March 19 (Battle of Azua was the first major battle of the Dominican War of Independence and was fought on March 19 1844 at Azua de Compostela The Battle of March 30 (Battle of Santiago was the second major battle of the Dominican War of Independence and was fought on March 30 1844 at Santiago de los Caballeros The Battle of El Memiso, was the third major battle of the Dominican War of Independence and was fought on April 13 1844 at El Memiso Azua Province. In early July 1844, Duarte was urged by his followers to take the title of president of the republic. Duarte agreed too but only if a free election was arranged. However, Santana’s forces took Santo Domingo on July 12, 1844, and they declared Santana ruler of the Dominican Republic. Events 1191 - Saladin 's garrison surrenders ending the two-year Siege of Acre. Year 1844 ( MDCCCXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Santana then put Mella, Duarte, and Sánchez all in jail.
In November 6, 1844 a constituent assembly drafted a constitution, based on the Haitian and United States models, which established separation of powers and legislative checks on the executive. However, Santana included in it Article 210, which granted him power untrammeled power during the current war against Haiti. The war continued throughout September and November of 1845 being the Haitians defeated at Estrelleta and Beler. The Battle of Estrelleta, was a major battle of the Dominican War of Independence and was fought on September 17 1845 at the site of Estrelleta near Las Matas de Farfán The Battle of Beler, was the last major battle of the Dominican War of Independence and was fought on November 27 1845 at the Beler savanna Monte Cristi Province Santana remained as President until 1848 when he lost the election, only to seize power by a coup the year after, when the Haitian President Faustin Soulouque attacked and was defeated at El Número and at Las Carreras. Faustin I (1782 - 1867 was born Faustin-Élie Soulouque. He was a career officer and general in the Haïtian army when he was elected President of Haïti The Battle of El Número, was a major battle during the years after the Dominican War of Independence and was fought on April 19 1849 nearby Azua de Compostela The Battle of Las Carreras, was a major battle during the years after the Dominican War of Independence and was fought on April 21 1849 nearby Baní, Peravia