|Domingo F. Sarmiento|
October 12, 1868 – October 12, 1874
|Vice President||Adolfo Alsina|
|Preceded by||Bartolomé Mitre|
|Succeeded by||Nicolás Avellaneda|
|Born||February 15, 1811|
|Died||September 11, 1888|
Domingo Faustino Sarmiento Albarracín (February 15, 1811 – September 11, 1888) was an Argentinian activist, intellectual, and writer, and the seventh President of Argentina. The President of Argentina (full title President of the Argentine Nation, Spanish: Presidente de la Nación Argentina) is the Head of state Events 539 BC - The army of Cyrus the Great of Persia takes Babylon. Year 1868 ( MDCCCLXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap Events 539 BC - The army of Cyrus the Great of Persia takes Babylon. Year 1874 ( MDCCCLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common for the Buenos Aires Province partido see Adolfo Alsina Buenos Aires. Bartolomé Mitre Martinez ( June 26 1821 &ndash January 19 1906) was an Argentine statesman military figure and Author Nicolás Remigio Aurelio Avellaneda Silva ( October 1, 1837 - December 26, 1885) was an Argentine politician and journalist and Events 590 - Khosrau II is crowned as king of Persia 1637 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor Year 1811 ( MDCCCXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year San Juan is the capital city of the Argentine province of San Juan in the Cuyo region located in the Tulúm Valley, west of Events 9 - The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest ends 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul Year 1888 ( MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Asunción (full name Nuestra Señora Santa María de la Asunción) population 1212112 (2002 is the Capital and largest city of Paraguay. Paraguay, officially the Republic of Paraguay ( Spanish: República del Paraguay; Guaraní: Tetã Paraguái) is one of the only For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. A journalist (also called a newspaperman) is a person who practices Journalism, the gathering and dissemination of information about current events trends Events 590 - Khosrau II is crowned as king of Persia 1637 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor Year 1811 ( MDCCCXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Events 9 - The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest ends 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul Year 1888 ( MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. The President of Argentina (full title President of the Argentine Nation, Spanish: Presidente de la Nación Argentina) is the Head of state His writing spanned a wide range of genres and topics, from journalism to autobiography, to political philosophy and history. He was a member of a group of intellectuals, known as the "Generation of 1837", who had a great influence on nineteenth-century Argentina. Sarmiento himself was particularly concerned with educational issues, and is now sometimes considered "The Teacher" of Latin America. He was also an important influence on the region's literature.
Sarmiento grew up in a poor but politically active family that paved the way for much of his future accomplishments. Between 1843 and 1850 he was frequently in exile, and wrote in both Chile and in Argentina. Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the His great literary achievement was Facundo, a critique of the Dictator Juan Manuel de Rosas, that Sarmiento wrote while in exile in Chile. Facundo Civilization and Barbarism (original Spanish title Facundo Civilización y Barbarie) is a book written in 1845 by Domingo Faustino Juan Manuel de Rosas (born Juan Manuel José Domingo Ortiz de Rozas y López de Osornio in Buenos Aires, March 30, 1793 &ndash Southampton The book brought him far more than just literary recognition; he expended his efforts and energy on the war against dictatorships, specifically that of Rosas, and contrasted enlightened Europe—a world where, in his eyes, democracy, social services, and intelligent thought were valued—with the barbarism of the gaucho and especially the caudillo, the ruthless strongmen of nineteenth-century Latin America. Gaucho ( gaúcho in Portuguese, "gaucho" in Spanish) is a term commonly used to describe residents of the South American Pampas Caudillo is a Spanish ( caudilho in Portuguese word usually used to designate "a political-military leader at the head of an authoritarian power
While president of Argentina from 1868 to 1874, Sarmiento championed intelligent thought—including education for children and women—and democracy for Latin America. He also took advantage of the opportunity to modernize and develop train systems, a postal system, and a comprehensive education system. He spent many years in ministerial roles on the federal and state levels where he travelled abroad and examined other education systems. From these experiences, Sarmiento developed a great adoration for the United States, a country that in his eyes was a model for Argentina. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
Sarmiento died in Asunción, Paraguay, at the age of 77 from a heart attack. Asunción (full name Nuestra Señora Santa María de la Asunción) population 1212112 (2002 is the Capital and largest city of Paraguay. Paraguay, officially the Republic of Paraguay ( Spanish: República del Paraguay; Guaraní: Tetã Paraguái) is one of the only He was buried in Buenos Aires. Buenos Aires is the Capital and largest city of Argentina. It is geographically located on the southern shore of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern Today, Latin America respects him still as a political innovator and a great writer.
Sarmiento was born in Carrascal, a poor suburb of San Juan, Argentina on February 15, 1811. San Juan is the capital city of the Argentine province of San Juan in the Cuyo region located in the Tulúm Valley, west of Events 590 - Khosrau II is crowned as king of Persia 1637 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor Year 1811 ( MDCCCXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year  His father, José Clemente Quiroga Sarmiento y Funes, had served in the military during the wars of independence, returning prisoners of war to San Juan.  His mother, Doña Paula Zoila de Albarracín e Irrázabal, was a very pious woman, who lost her father at a young age and was left with very little to support herself.  As a result, she took to selling her weaving in order to afford to build a house of her own. On September 21, 1801, José and Paula were married. Events 1217 - The Estonian tribal leader Lembitu of Lehola was killed in a battle against Teutonic Knights. Year 1801 ( MDCCCI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Tuesday They had 15 children, 9 of whom died; Domingo was the only son to survive to adulthood.  In Sarmiento's own words:
"I was born in a family that lived long years in mediocrity bordering on destitution, and which is to this day poor in every sense of the word. My father is a good man whose life has nothing remarkable except [for his] having served in subordinate positions in the War of Independence. . . My mother is the true figure of Christianity in its purest sense; with her, trust in Providence was always the solution to all difficulties in life. "
At the age of four, Sarmiento was taught to read by his father and his uncle, José Eufrasio Quiroga Sarmiento, who later became Bishop of Cuyo. Cuyo is the name given to the wine-producing mountainous area of central-west Argentina.  Another uncle who influenced him in his youth was Domingo de Oro, a notable figure in the young Argentine Republic who was influential in bringing Don Juan Manuel de Rosas to power. Juan Manuel de Rosas (born Juan Manuel José Domingo Ortiz de Rozas y López de Osornio in Buenos Aires, March 30, 1793 &ndash Southampton  Though Sarmiento did not follow de Oro's political leanings, he learned the value of intellectual integrity and honesty.  He developed scholarly and oratorical skills, qualities which de Oro was famous for. 
In 1816, at the age of five, Sarmiento began attending the primary school La Escuela de la Patria. He was a good student, and earned the title of First Citizen (Primer Ciudadano) of the school.  After completing primary school, his mother wanted him to go to Córdoba to become a priest. Córdoba, abbreviated as CBA, is a city located near the geographical center of Argentina, in the foothills of the Sierras Chicas mountains on the He had spent a year reading the Bible and often spent time as a child helping his uncle with church services, but Sarmiento soon become bored with religion and school, and became involved with a group of aggressive children.  Sarmiento's father took him to the Loreto Seminary in 1821, but for reasons unknown, Sarmiento did not enter the seminary, returning instead to San Juan with his father.  In 1823, the Minister of State, Bernardino Rivadavia, announced that the six top pupils of each state would be selected to receive higher education in Buenos Aires. Bernardino de la Trinidad Gónzalez Rivadavia y Rivadavia ( May 20, 1780 &ndash September 2, 1845) was the first President of Sarmiento was at the top of the list in San Juan, but it was then announced that only ten pupils would receive the scholarship. The selection was made by lot, and Sarmiento was not one of the scholars whose name was drawn. 
In 1826, an assembly elected Bernardino Rivadavia as president of the United Provinces of Río de la Plata. Bernardino de la Trinidad Gónzalez Rivadavia y Rivadavia ( May 20, 1780 &ndash September 2, 1845) was the first President of The Río de la Plata ( Spanish: " Silver River" &mdash which is often referred to in English-speaking countries as the River Plate This action roused the ire of the provinces, and civil war was the result. A civil war is a War between a State and domestic political actors that are in control of some part of the territory claimed by the state Support for a strong, centralized Argentine government was based in Buenos Aires, and gave rise to two opposing groups. The wealthy and educated of the Unitarian Party, such as Sarmiento, favored centralized government. Unitarianists (in Spanish, Unitarios) were the proponents of the liberal concept of a centralised government in Buenos Aires during the civil While Sarmiento was pro-American and two contemporary U. S. presidents (John Quincy Adams and John Adams) belonged to Unitarian churches, the two similarly named groups were not the same. John Quincy Adams (July 11 1767 &ndash February 23 1848 was an American diplomat and politician who served as the sixth President of the United States John Adams (October 30 1735 July 4 1826 was one of the most influential Founding Fathers of the United States. Unitarianism as a theology is the belief in the single personality of God in contrast to the doctrine of the Trinity (three persons in one God In opposition to them were the Federalists, who were mainly based in rural areas and tended to reject European mores. Federales was the name under which the supporters of Federalism in Argentina were known opposing the Unitarios that claimed a centralised government Numbering figures such as Juan Manuel de Rosas and Juan Facundo Quiroga among their ranks, they were in favor of a loose federation with more autonomy for the individual provinces. Juan Manuel de Rosas (born Juan Manuel José Domingo Ortiz de Rozas y López de Osornio in Buenos Aires, March 30, 1793 &ndash Southampton "Facundo Quiroga" redirects here For the Argentina footballer see Facundo Hernán Quiroga. 
Opinion of the Rivadavia government was divided between the two ideologies. An ideology is a set of beliefs aims and Ideas especially in politics For Unitarians like Sarmiento, Rivadavia's presidency was a positive experience. He set up a European-staffed university and supported a public education program for rural male children. He also supported theater and opera groups, publishing houses and a museum. These contributions were considered as civilizing influences by the Unitarians, but they upset the Federalist constituency. Common laborers had their salaries subjected to a government cap, and the gauchos were arrested by Rivadavia for vagrancy and forced to work on public projects, usually without pay. Gaucho ( gaúcho in Portuguese, "gaucho" in Spanish) is a term commonly used to describe residents of the South American Pampas 
In 1827, the Unitarians were challenged by Federalist forces. With the help of Juan Manuel de Rosas (a wealthy and politically powerful Federalist), Manuel Dorrego was installed as governor of the Buenos Aires province. Manuel Dorrego (1787-1828 was an Argentine statesman and soldier He quickly made peace with Brazil but, on returning to Argentina, was overthrown and executed by his own troops. The Unitarian general Juan Lavalle was elected to take Dorrego's place. Juan Galo Lavalle ( October 17 1797 – October 9, 1841) was an Argentine military figure and political figure  However, Lavalle did not spend long as governor either: he was soon overthrown by a militia composed largely of gauchos and led by Rosas. By the end of 1829 the old legislature that Lavalle had disbanded was back in place and had appointed Rosas as governor of Buenos Aires. 
The first time Sarmiento was forced to leave home was with his uncle, José de Oro, in 1827, because of his military activities.  José de Oro was a priest who had fought in the Battle of Chacabuco under General San Martín. The Battle of Chacabuco, fought during the Chilean War of Independence, occurred on February 12, 1817. José Francisco de San Martín Matorras, also known as José de San Martín ( 25 February 1778 – 17 August 1850) was an Argentine  Together, Sarmiento and de Oro went to San Francisco del Monte, a region politically separate from San Juan. He spent much of his time with his uncle learning and began to teach at a small school in the Andes.  Later that year his mother wrote to him asking him to come home. Sarmiento refused, only to receive a response from his father that he was coming to collect him.  His father had persuaded the governor of San Juan to send Sarmiento to Buenos Aires to study at the College of Moral Sciences (Colegio de Ciencias Morales). 
Soon after Sarmiento's return, the province of San Juan broke out into civil war and Facundo Quiroga invaded Sarmiento's town. "Facundo Quiroga" redirects here For the Argentina footballer see Facundo Hernán Quiroga.  As historian William Katra describes this "traumatic experience":
At sixteen years of age, he stood in front of the shop he tended and viewed the entrance into San Juan of Facundo Quiroga and some six hundred mounted montonera horsemen. They constituted an unsettling presence [. . . ]. That sight, with its overwhelmingly negative associations, left an indelible impression on his budding consciousness. For the impressionable youth Quiroga's ascent to protagonist status in the province's affairs was akin to the rape of civilized society by incarnated evil. 
Unable to attend school in Buenos Aires thanks to the disorder, Sarmiento chose to fight against Quiroga.  He joined and fought in the army of General Paz, only to be placed under house arrest when San Juan was eventually taken over by Quiroga. 
Fighting and war soon again resumed, and in 1831 Sarmiento fled to Chile. He did not return to Argentina for five years.  At the time, Chile was noted for its good public administration, its constitutional organization, and the rare freedom to criticize the regime. In Sarmiento's view, Chile had "Security of property, the continuation of order, and with both of these, the love of work and the spirit of enterprise that causes the development of wealth and prosperity. "
As a form of freedom of expression, Sarmiento began to write political commentary. In addition to writing, he also began teaching in the Andes. Due to his innovative style of teaching, he found himself in conflict with the governor of the province. He founded his own school in Pocura as a response to the governor. During this time, Sarmiento fell in love and had an illegitimate daughter named Ana Faustina, who Sarmiento did not acknowledge until she married. . 
In 1836, Sarmiento returned to San Juan, seriously ill with typhoid fever; his family and friends thought he would die upon his return, but he recovered and established an anti-federalist periodical called El Zonda.  The government of San Juan did not like Sarmiento's criticisms and censored the magazine by imposing an unaffordable tax upon each purchase. Sarmiento was forced to cease publication of the magazine in 1840. He also founded a school for girls during this time called the Santa Rosa High School, which was a preparatory school.  In addition to the school, he also founded a Literary Society. 
It is around this time that Sarmiento became associated with the so-called "Generation of 1837". This was a group of activists, who includedEsteban Echeverría, Juan Bautista Alberdi, and Bartolomé Mitre, who spent much of the 1830s to 1880s first agitating for and then bringing about social change, advocating republicanism, free trade, freedom of speech, and material progress. Esteban Echeverría ( September 2, 1805 &ndash January 19, 1851) was an Argentine poet, Fiction writer Juan Bautista Alberdi ( 29 August 1810 – 19 June 1884) was an Argentine political theorist and diplomat. Bartolomé Mitre Martinez ( June 26 1821 &ndash January 19 1906) was an Argentine statesman military figure and Author Katra 1996, pp. 7-9 Though, based in San Juan, Sarmiento was absent from the initial creation of this group, in 1838 he wrote to Alberdi seeking the latter's advice; and in time he would become the group most fervent supporter. 
In 1840, after being arrested and accused of conspiracy, Sarmiento was forced into exile in Chile again.  It was en route to Chile that, in the baths of Zonda, he wrote the graffiti "On ne tue point les idées," an incident that would later serve as the preface to his book Facundo. Once on the other side of the Andes, in 1841 Samiento started writing for the Valparaíso newspaper El Mercurio, as well working as a publisher of the Crónica Contemporánea de Latino América ("Contemporary Latin American Chronicle"). Valparaíso (literally in Spanish: Valle Paraíso (Paradise Valley and also called "Valpo" locally is a major city in Chile  In 1842, Sarmiento was appointed the Director of the first Normal School in South America; the same year he also founded the newspaper El Progreso. normal school was a school created to train high school graduates to be teachers  During this time he sent for his family from San Juan to Chile. In 1843, Sarmiento published Mi Defensa ("My Defence"), while continuing to teach.  And in May 1845, El Progreso started the serial publication of the first edition of his best-known work, Facundo; in July, Facundo appeared in book form. 
Between the years 1845 and 1847, Sarmiento travelled to Uruguay, Brazil, France, Spain, Algeria, Italy, Armenia, Switzerland, England, Canada, Cuba, and the United States on behalf of the Peruvian government in order to examine different education systems and the levels of education and communication. Based on his travels, he wrote the book Viajes por Europa, África, y América which was published in 1849. 
In 1848, Sarmiento voluntarily left to Chile once again. During the same year, he met widow Benita Martínez Pastoriza, married her, and adopted her son, Domingo Fidel, or Dominguito.  Sarmiento continued to exercise the idea of freedom of the press and began two new periodicals entitled La Tribuna and La Crónica respectively, which strongly attacked Don Juan Manuel de Rosas. During this stay in Chile, Sarmiento's essays became more strongly opposed to Don Juan Manuel de Rosas. The Argentinean government tried to have Sarmiento extradited from Chile to Argentina, but the Chilean government refused to hand him over. 
In 1850, he published both Argirópolis and Recollections of a Provincial Past. In 1852, Rosas's regime was finally brought down. Sarmiento became involved in debates about the country's new constitution. Katra 1996, pp. 173-176
In 1854, Sarmiento briefly visited Mendoza, just across the border from Chile in Western Argentina, but he was arrested and imprisoned. Upon his release, he went back to Chile.  But in 1855 he put an end to what was now his "self-imposed" exile in Chile: he arrived in Buenos Aires, soon to become editor-in-chief of the newspaper El Nacional.  He was also named to the municipal government, and 1857 he joined the provincial Senate, a position he held until 1861. 
It was in 1861, shortly after Mitre became Argentine president, that Sarmiento left Buenos Aires and returned to San Juan, where he was elected governor, a post he took up in 1862.  It was then that he passed the Statutory Law of Public Education, making it mandatory for children to attend primary school. It allowed for a number of institutions to be opened including secondary schools, military schools and an all-girls school.  While governor, he developed roads and infrastructure, built public buildings and hospitals, encouraged agriculture and allowed for mineral mining.  He resumed his post as editor of El Zonda. In 1863, Sarmiento fought against the power of the caudillo of La Rioja and found himself in conflict with the Interior Minister of General Mitre's government, Guillermo Rawson. Caudillo is a Spanish ( caudilho in Portuguese word usually used to designate "a political-military leader at the head of an authoritarian power Bartolomé Mitre Martinez ( June 26 1821 &ndash January 19 1906) was an Argentine statesman military figure and Author Dr Guillermo Rawson ( 24 June 1821 - 20 January 1890) was a medical doctor and one of the most influential politicians in nineteenth century Sarmiento stepped down as government of San Juan, but ran unsuccessfully for president of the Argentinean Republic in 1864 against General Mitre.  He did, however, become the Plenipotentiary Minister to the United States where he was sent in 1865, soon after the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln. Abraham Lincoln (February 12 1809 &ndash April 15 1865 the sixteenth President of the United States, successfully led his country through its greatest internal Moved by the story of Lincoln, Sarmiento ended up writing his book Vida de Lincoln.  It was on this trip that Sarmiento received an honorary degree from the University of Michigan. The University of Michigan Ann Arbor ( U of M, U-M, UM or simply Michigan) is a top-ranked Coeducational public research A bust of him still stands in the Modern Languages Building, as well as a statue at Brown University. Brown University is a highly esteemed private University located in Providence, Rhode Island and is a member of the Ivy League. While on this trip, he was asked to run for President again. He won, taking office on October 12, 1868. Events 539 BC - The army of Cyrus the Great of Persia takes Babylon. Year 1868 ( MDCCCLXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap 
Domingo Faustino Sarmiento was President of the Republic of Argentina from 1868–1874. He became president despite the maneuverings of his predecessor Bartolomé Mitre. Bartolomé Mitre Martinez ( June 26 1821 &ndash January 19 1906) was an Argentine statesman military figure and Author  According to biographer Allison Bunkley, his presidency "marks the advent of the middle, or land-owning classes as the pivot power of the nation. The age of the gaucho had ended, and the age of the merchant and cattleman had begun. " Sarmiento sought to create basic freedoms, and wanted to ensure civil safety and progress for everyone. Sarmiento's tour of the United States had given him many new ideas about politics, democracy, and the structure of society, especially when he was the Argentine ambassador to the country from 1865 to 1868. He found New England, specifically the Boston-–Cambridge area to be the source of much of his influence, writing in an Argentine newspaper that New England was "the cradle of the modern republic, the school for all of America. " He described Boston as "The pioneer city of the modern world, the Zion of the ancient Puritans . . . Europe contemplates in New England the power which in the future will supplant her. " Not only did Sarmiento evolve political ideas, but also structural ones by transitioning Argentina from a primarily agricultural economy to one focused on cities and industry. 
Historian David Rock notes that, beyond putting an end to caudillismo, Sarmiento's main achievements in government concerned his promotion of education. As Rock reports, "between 1868 and 1874 educational subsidies from the central government to the provinces quadrupled. " He established 800 educational and military institutions, and his improvements to the educational system enabled 100,000 children to attend school. He also pushed forward modernization more generally, installing 5,000 kilometres (3,100 mi) of telegraph line across the country for improved communications, modernizing the post and train systems which he believed to be integral for interregional and national economies, as well as building the Red Line, a train line that would bring goods to Buenos Aires in order to better facilitate trade with England. By the end of his presidency, the Red Line extended 1,331 kilometres (827 mi). In 1869, he conducted Argentina's first national census. 
Though Sarmiento is well known historically, he was not a popular president.  Indeed, Rock judges that "by and large his administration was a disappointment".  During his presidency, Argentina conducted an unpopular war against Paraguay; at the same time, people were displeased with him for not fighting for the Straits of Magellan from Chile.  Though he increased productivity, he increased expenditures, which also negatively affected his popularity.  In addition, the arrival of a large influx of European immigrants was blamed for the outbreak of Yellow Fever in Buenos Aires and the risk of civil war.  Moreover, Sarmiento's presidency was further marked by ongoing rivalry between Buenos Aires and the provinces In the war against Paraguay, Sarmiento's adopted son was killed.  Sarmiento suffered from immense grief and was thought to never have been the same again.
On August 22, 1873, Sarmiento was the target of an unsuccessful bombing. Events 392 - Arbogast has Eugenius elected Western Roman Emperor. Year 1873 ( MDCCCLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common  A year later in 1874, he completed his term as President and stepped down, handing his presidency over to Nicolás Avellaneda, his former Minister of Education. Nicolás Remigio Aurelio Avellaneda Silva ( October 1, 1837 - December 26, 1885) was an Argentine politician and journalist and 
In 1875, following his term as President, Sarmiento became the General Director of Schools for the Province of Buenos Aires. That same year, he became the Senator for San Juan, a post that he held until 1879, when he became Interior Minister.  But he soon resigned, following conflict with the Governor of Buenos Aires, Carlos Tejedor. Carlos Tejedor (b November 4 1817 – d January 3 1903 was an Argentine jurist and politician Governor of Buenos Aires Province between 1878 and 1880 He then assumed the post of Superintendent General of Schools for the National Education Ministry under President Roca and published El Monitor de la Educación Común, which is a fundamental reference for Argentinean education.  In 1882, Sarmiento was successful in passing the sanction of Free Education allowing schools to be free, mandatory, and separate from that of religion. 
In May 1888, Sarmiento left Argentina for Paraguay.  He was accompanied by his daughter, Ana, and his companion Aurelia Vélez. He died in Asunción on September 11, 1888 from a heart attack, and was buried in Buenos Aires. Asunción (full name Nuestra Señora Santa María de la Asunción) population 1212112 (2002 is the Capital and largest city of Paraguay. Events 9 - The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest ends 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul Year 1888 ( MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a 
Sarmiento was well known for his modernization of the country, and for his improvements to the educational system. He firmly believed in democracy and European liberalism, but was most often seen as a romantic. Sarmiento was well versed in Western philosophy including the works of Karl Marx and John Stuart Mill. John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 &ndash 8 May 1873 British Philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential  He was particularly fascinated with the liberty given to those living in the United States, which he witnessed as a representative of the Peruvian government. He did, however, see pitfalls to liberty, pointing for example to the aftermath of the French Revolution, which he compared to Argentina's own May Revolution. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an The May Revolution (in Spanish: Revolución de Mayo) was a series of political and social events in the Nineteenth century city of  He believed that liberty could turn into anarchy and thus civil war, which is what happened in France and in Argentina. Therefore, his use of the term "liberty" was more in reference to a laissez-faire approach to the economy, and religious liberty.  Though a Catholic himself, he began to adopt the ideas of separation of church and state modeled after the US.  He believed that there should be more religious freedom, and less religious affiliation in schools.  This was one of many ways in which Sarmiento tried to connect South America to North America. 
Sarmiento believed that the material and social needs of people had to be satisfied but not at the cost of order and decorum. He put great importance on law and citizen participation. These ideas he most equated to Rome and to the United States, a society which he viewed as exhibiting similar qualities. In order to civilize the Argentine society and make it equal to that of Rome or the United States, Sarmiento believed in eliminating the caudillos, or the larger landholdings and establishing multiple agricultural colonies run by European immigrants. 
Coming from a family of writers, orators, and clerics, Domingo Sarmiento placed a great value on education and learning. He opened a number of schools including the first school in Latin America for teachers in Santiago in 1842: La Escuela Normal Preceptores de Chile.  He proceeded to open 18 more schools and had mostly female teachers from the USA come to Argentina to instruct graduates how to be effective when teaching.  Sarmiento's belief was that education was the key to happiness and success, and that a nation could not be democratic if it was not educated.  "We must educate our rulers," he said. "An ignorant people will always choose Rosas. "
Sarmiento was a prolific author. The following is a selection of his other works:
The impact of Domingo Faustino Sarmiento is most obviously seen in the establishment of Latin American Teacher's Day which was done in his honor at the 1943 Interamerican Conference on Education, which was held in Panama. In some countries Teachers’ Days are intended to be special days for the appreciation of Teachers Some of them are Holidays while others are celebrated during working Panama, officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá) is the southernmost country of Central America. Today, he is still considered to be Latin America's teacher.  In his time, he opened countless schools, created free public libraries, opened immigration, and worked towards a Union of Plate States. 
His impact was not only on the world of education, but also on Argentinan political and social structure. His ideas are now revered as innovative, though at the time they were not widely accepted.  He was a self-made man and believed in sociological and economic growth for Latin America, something that the Argentinian people could not recognize at the time with the soaring standard of living which came with high prices, high wages, and an increased national debt. 
Today, there is a statue in honor of Sarmiento in Boston on the Commonwealth Avenue Mall, between Gloucester and Hereford streets, erected in 1973. Commonwealth Avenue (colloquially referred to as Comm Ave by locals the latter word pronounced in the same manner as "have" is a major street in the cities of  There is Plaza Sarmiento in Rosario, Argentina.  One of Rodin's last sculptures was that of Sarmiento which is now in Buenos Aires.