Fossil range: Late Pleistocene – Recent
|Canis lupus familiaris|
The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domesticated subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. In biology trinomial nomenclature refers to names for taxa below the rank of species Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as, May 23 new style (13 May old style 1707 who laid the foundations for Domestication (from Latin domesticus) refers to the process whereby a Population of Animals In Zoology, as in other branches of Biology, subspecies is the Taxonomic rank immediately subordinate to a Species. The grey wolf or gray wolf ( Canis lupus) also known as the timber wolf or simply wolf, is a Mammal of the order Carnivora Mammals ( class Mammalia) are a class of Vertebrate Animals characterized by the presence of Sweat glands, including sweat glands The Canidae (ˈkænədiː ′kanə′dē family is a part of the order Carnivora within the Mammals (Class Mammalia The diverse order Carnivora (kɑrˈnɪvərə or sometimes /ˌkɑrnɪˈvɔərə/ from Latin carō (stem carn-) "flesh" + vorāre The term encompasses both feral and pet varieties and is also sometimes used to describe wild canids of other subspecies or species. A feral organism is one that has escaped from Domestication and returned partly or wholly to its wild state A pet is an Animal kept for companionship and enjoyment or a househeld animal as opposed to Livestock, Laboratory animals Working animals Wild dog may refer to Pariah dogs Carolina Dogs New Guinea Singing Dogs and Dingos Some species of canines In Biology, a species is one of the basic units of Biological classification and a Taxonomic rank. The domestic dog has been one of the most widely kept working and companion animals in human history, as well as being a food source in some cultures. Jobs performed by dogs Although most modern dogs are kept as Pets there are still a tremendous number of ways in which dogs can and do assist humans and more uses are A pet is an Animal kept for companionship and enjoyment or a househeld animal as opposed to Livestock, Laboratory animals Working animals In some countries apart from being kept as pets certain breeds of Dogs are raised on farms and Slaughtered for their meat There are estimated to be 400 million dogs in the world. 
The dog has developed into hundreds of varied breeds. Dog breeds are groups of closely related and visibly similar domestic Dogs with characteristic traits that are selected and maintained by humans bred from a known foundation Height measured to the withers ranges from a few inches in the Chihuahua to a few feet in the Irish Wolfhound; color varies from white through grays (usually called blue) to black, and browns from light (tan) to dark ("red" or "chocolate") in a wide variation of patterns; and, coats can be very short to many centimeters long, from coarse hair to something akin to wool, straight or curly, or smooth. Wither redirects here For the comic character see Wither (comics. The (Chihuahueño is the smallest breed of Dog in the world and is named after the state of Chihuahua in Mexico. A Dog 's coat is its Fur. A dog can be double coated &mdashthat is having both a soft undercoat and a coarser topcoat. 
The English word dog can be traced back to the Old English docga, a "powerful breed of canine". It is only attested since the early 16th century, and of uncertain further origin. The most probable source is Germanic *dukkōn, represented in Old English finger-docce 'finger-muscle', and some German and Old Norse words with meanings 'doll, small block, strong, round', which may have been applied to pups of a strong breed of dogs.
The English word hound is a cognate of German Hund, Dutch hond, common Scandinavian hund, Icelandic hundur which, though referring to a specific breed group in English, means "dog" in general in the other Germanic languages. A hound is a type of Dog that assists Hunters by tracking or chasing the animal being hunted. Hound itself is derived from the Proto-Indo-European *kwon-, which is the direct root of the Greek κυων (kuōn) and the indirect root of the Latin canis through the variant form *kani-. Canis is a Genus containing 7 to 10 extant species and many extinct species including wolves, Coyotes, and Jackals. 
In breeding circles, a male canine is referred to as a dog, while a female canine is called a bitch. The father of a litter is called the sire, and the mother of a litter is called the dam. Offspring are generally called pups or puppies until they are about a year old. A puppy or pup is a juvenile Dog, generally less than one year of age that has not reached sexual maturity A group of offspring is a litter. The process of birth is whelping. Many terms are used for dogs that are not purebred. A mixed-breed dog (also called a mutt, mongrel, tyke, cur, bitzer or random-bred dog) is a Dog that has 
The English word dog, in common usage, refers to the domestic pet dog, Canis lupus familiaris. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Domestication (from Latin domesticus) refers to the process whereby a Population of Animals A pet is an Animal kept for companionship and enjoyment or a househeld animal as opposed to Livestock, Laboratory animals Working animals The species was originally classified as Canis familiaris and "Canis familiarus domesticus" by Linnaeus in 1758 . In 1993, dogs were reclassified as a subspecies of the gray wolf, Canis lupus, by the Smithsonian Institution and the American Society of Mammalogists. The Smithsonian Institution (smɪθsoʊnɪən is an educational and research institute and associated Museum complex administered and funded by the Government of The American Society of Mammalogists (ASM was founded in 1919 "Dog" is sometimes used to refer collectively to any mammal belonging to the family Canidae (as in "the dog family"), such as wolves, foxes, and coyotes. The Canidae (ˈkænədiː ′kanə′dē family is a part of the order Carnivora within the Mammals (Class Mammalia Some members of the family have "dog" in their common names, such as the Raccoon Dog and the African Wild Dog. The African wild dog ( Lycaon pictus) is a carnivorous mammal of the Canidae family found only in Africa, especially in scrub Savanna A few animals have "dog" in their common names but are not canids, such as the prairie dog. The prairie dogs ( Cynomys) are small burrowing Rodents native to the Grasslands of North America
Based on DNA evidence, the wolf ancestors of modern dogs diverged from other wolves about 100,000 years ago, and dogs were domesticated from those wolf ancestors about 15,000 years ago. The origin of the domestic dog is the history of the ancestry and the Domestication of the Dog ( Canis lupus familiaris) Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA) is a Nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known Domestication (from Latin domesticus) refers to the process whereby a Population of Animals The grey wolf or gray wolf ( Canis lupus) also known as the timber wolf or simply wolf, is a Mammal of the order Carnivora  This date would make dogs the first species to be domesticated by humans.
As humans migrated around the planet a variety of dog forms migrated with them. The agricultural revolution and subsequent urban revolution led to an increase in the dog population and a demand for specialization. The Neolithic Revolution was the first Agricultural revolution &mdashthe transition from hunting and gathering communities and bands to Agriculture and In Anthropology and Archaeology, the urban revolution is the process by which small kin-based nonliterate Agricultural Villages are transformed Specialization is the separation of tasks within a system In a multicellular creature cells are specialized for functions such as bone construction or oxygen transport These circumstances would provide the opportunity for selective breeding to create specialized working dogs and pets. This article focuses on selective breeding in domesticated animals Jobs performed by dogs Although most modern dogs are kept as Pets there are still a tremendous number of ways in which dogs can and do assist humans and more uses are A pet is an Animal kept for companionship and enjoyment or a househeld animal as opposed to Livestock, Laboratory animals Working animals
Molecular systematics indicate that the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) descends from one or more populations of wild wolves (Canis lupus). As reflected in the nomenclature, dogs are descended from the wolf and are able to interbreed with wolves.
The relationship between human and canine has deep roots. Converging archaeological and genetic evidence indicate a time of domestication in the late Upper Paleolithic close to the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary, between 17,000 and 14,000 years ago. Domestication (from Latin domesticus) refers to the process whereby a Population of Animals The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe Africa The Pleistocene ('plaɪstəsin is the epoch from 18 million to 10000 years BP covering the world's recent period The Holocene is a Geological epoch which began approximately 10000 years ago (about 8000 BC Fossil bone morphologies and genetic analysis of current and ancient dog and wolf populations have not yet been able to conclusively determine whether all dogs descend from a single domestication event, or whether dogs were domesticated independently in more than one location. FOSSIL is a standard protocol for allowing serial communication for Telecommunications programs under the DOS Operating system. Domesticated dogs may have interbred with local populations of wild wolves on several occasions (a process known in genetics as introgression). Genetics (from Ancient Greek grc-Latn genetikos, “genitive” and that from grc-Latn genesis, “origin” a discipline of Biology, is Introgression, in Genetics (particularly plant genetics is the movement of a Gene ( Gene flow) from one species into the gene pool of another by backcrossing
The earliest dog fossils, two crania from Russia and a mandible from Germany, date from 13,000 to 17,000 years ago. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The mandible (from Latin mandibula, "jawbone" or inferior maxillary bone forms the lower Jaw and holds the lower teeth in place Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Their likely ancestor is the large northern Holarctic wolf, Canis lupus lupus. The Holarctic Ecozone refers to the habitats found throughout the northern continents of the world as a whole Remains of smaller dogs from Mesolithic (Natufian) cave deposits in the Middle East, dated to around 12,000 years ago, have been interpreted as descendants of a lighter Southwest Asian wolf, Canis lupus Arabs. The Mesolithic or Middle Stone Age was a period in the development of human technology in between the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age and the Neolithic or New Stone Age The Natufian culture (natʏˈfjẽː existed in the Mediterranean region of the Levant. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. Rock art and skeletal remains indicate that by 14,000 years ago, dogs were present from North Africa across Eurasia to North America. Rock art is a term in Archaeology for any man-made markings made on natural stone North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan For the superstate in George Orwell 's novel see Nations of Nineteen Eighty-Four. Dog burials at the Mesolithic cemetery of Svaerdborg in Denmark suggest that in ancient Europe dogs were valued companions. The Mesolithic or Middle Stone Age was a period in the development of human technology in between the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age and the Neolithic or New Stone Age
Genetic analyses have so far yielded divergent results. Vilà, Savolainen, and colleagues (1997) concluded that the ancestors of dogs split off from other wolves between 75,000 and 135,000 years ago, while a subsequent analysis by Savolainen et al. (2002) indicated a "common origin from a single gene pool for all dog populations" between 40,000 and 15,000 years ago in East Asia. Verginelli et al. (2005), however, suggest both sets of dates must be reevaluated in light of recent findings showing that poorly calibrated molecular clocks have systematically overestimated the age of geologically recent events. On balance, and in agreement with the archaeological evidence, 15,000 years ago is the most likely time for the wolf-dog divergence. 
The Soviets have attempted to domesticate the fox, mentioned in the article Tame Silver Fox, and were able to do so in just nine generations, or less than a human lifetime. The Tame Silver Fox is the result of nearly 50 years of experiments in the Soviet Union and Russia to domesticate the silver morph of the This also resulted in other changes, including color, which became black, white, or black and white. They also developed year-round breeding ability, curled-up tails, and droopy ears.
The rapidity of this change has suggested to researchers a scenario of the origin of the domestic dog. The origin of the domestic dog is the history of the ancestry and the Domestication of the Dog ( Canis lupus familiaris) Primitive people lived on the edge of survival which involved occasional food shortages, and would not have taken wolf pups and made pets of them. However, wolves would raid garbage dumps near human habitations. Wolves have a flight distance which they keep between themselves and a threatening creature. When a dump was approached by humans, some wolves would run a greater distance from the dump than others. Those that ran the shortest distance would return first, and obtain the greatest amount of food.
This set up a selective breeding situation that resulted in a strain of wolves having shorter and shorter flight distances, until they were eventually comfortable near humans, having domesticated themselves, so to speak. At that point, they were tolerated by humans, so long as they were also useful, in such ways as catching rats or driving away other predators. In time, other uses, such as hunting, were found for them. The Farm Fox Experiment Evolution of Dogs
There are numerous dog breeds, with over 800 being recognized by various kennel clubs worldwide. Dog breeds are groups of closely related and visibly similar domestic Dogs with characteristic traits that are selected and maintained by humans bred from a known foundation Dogs have been selectively bred for thousands of years sometimes by inbreeding dogs from the same ancestral lines sometimes by mixing dogs from very different lines A kennel club (known as a kennel council or canine council in some countries is an organization for canine affairs that concerns itself with the Many dogs, especially outside the United States of America and Western Europe, belong to no recognized breed. A few basic breed types have evolved gradually during the domesticated dog's relationship with humans over the last 10,000 or more years, but all modern breeds are of relatively recent derivation. Many of these are the product of a deliberate process of artificial selection. Artificial selection is the intentional breeding for certain traits or combinations of traits over others and is synonymous with " Selective breeding " Because of this, some breeds are highly specialized, and there is extraordinary morphological diversity across different breeds. Despite these differences, dogs are able to distinguish dogs from other kinds of animal.
The definition of a dog breed is a matter of some controversy. Depending on the size of the original founding population, closed gene pool breeds can have problems with inbreeding, specifically due to the founder effect. In Population genetics, the founder effect refers to the loss of genetic variation when a new colony is established by a very small number of individuals from a larger Dog breeders are increasingly aware of the importance of population genetics and of maintaining diverse gene pools. Health testing and new DNA tests can help avoid problems, by providing a replacement for natural selection. Without selection, inbreeding and closed gene pools can increase the risk of severe health or behavioral problems. Some organizations define a breed more loosely, such that an individual may be considered of one breed as long as 75% of its parentage is of that breed. These considerations affect both pets and the show dogs entered in dog shows. In a conformation show, judges familiar with specific Dog breeds evaluate individual Dogs for how well they conform to published Breed standards Even prize-winning purebred dogs sometimes possess crippling genetic defects due to founder effect or inbreeding. Purebreds, also called purebreeds, are cultivated varieties or cultivars of an animal Species, achieved through the process of Selective breeding A genetic disorder is a condition caused by abnormalities in Genes or Chromosomes While some diseases such as Cancer, are due to genetic abnormalities acquired Inbreeding is breeding between close Relatives whether plant or animal  These problems are not limited to purebred dogs and can affect cross-breed populations. Purebreds, also called purebreeds, are cultivated varieties or cultivars of an animal Species, achieved through the process of Selective breeding  The behavior and appearance of a dog of a particular breed can be predicted to a degree, while mixed-breed dogs show a broader range of innovative appearance and behavior.
Mixed-breed dogs or Mongrels (also called "mutts") are dogs that do not belong to specific breeds, being mixtures more than two in variant percentages. A mixed-breed dog (also called a mutt, mongrel, tyke, cur, bitzer or random-bred dog) is a Dog that has Mongrel refers to mixed ancestry Among Pets one whose parentage is of unknown or Mixed breeds as opposed to Purebred. Mixed breed dogs and purebred dogs are both suitable as companions, pets, working dogs, or competitors in dog sports. A pet is an Animal kept for companionship and enjoyment or a househeld animal as opposed to Livestock, Laboratory animals Working animals Jobs performed by dogs Although most modern dogs are kept as Pets there are still a tremendous number of ways in which dogs can and do assist humans and more uses are Dog sports are activities that involve Dogs There is much discussion about what exactly defines a Sport for dogs Sometimes different breed dogs are deliberately bred, to create cross-breeds such as the Cockapoo, a mixture of Cocker Spaniel and Miniature Poodle. Such deliberate crosses may display some degree of hybrid vigor and other desirable traits, but may or may not inherit any of the desired traits of their parents, such as temperament or a particular color or coat. Heterosis is a term used in Genetics and Selective breeding. The term heterosis also known as hybrid vigor or outbreeding enhancement, Without genetic testing of the parents, the crosses can end up inheriting genetic defects that occur in both parental breeds.
A breed is a group of animals that possesses a set of inherited characteristics that distinguishes it from other animals within the same species. Deliberately crossing two or more breeds is also a manner of establishing new breeds, but it is only a breed when offspring will reliably demonstrate that particular set of characteristics and qualities.
Breed popularity varies widely over time and in different parts of the world and different segments of the population. The Bulldog, colloquially known as the British Bulldog or English Bulldog, is a medium-size breed of Dog that originated in England Counting by American Kennel Club (AKC) registration (not by licensing registration or by United Kennel Club (UKC) registration, which could present different statistics), the Labrador Retriever has been the United States's most commonly registered breed of dog since 1991. The American Kennel Club (or AKC) is a registry of Purebred Dog pedigrees in the United States. A dog licence (or dog license) is required in some jurisdictions to be the keeper of a Dog. The United Kennel Club (or UKC) is the second oldest all-breed registry of Purebred Dog Pedigrees in the United States and  However, even within parts of the United States, popularity varies; for example, in 2005 the most-registered breed in New York City was the Poodle while the Yorkshire Terrier was the second-most-registered breed in Houston. The Yorkshire Terrier (or known as a Yorkie) is a breed of small Dog in the  However, animal shelters in many parts of the United States report that the most-commonly available dog for adoption is the American Pit Bull Terrier or pit bull-type mixes, making up as much as 20% of dogs available for adoption, none of which would be registered with the AKC. The American Pit Bull Terrier was first recognized by the United Kennel Club (UKC in the late 19th century  Two decades ago, in 1983, the AKC's top two registered breeds were the American Cocker Spaniel and the Poodle. The American Cocker Spaniel is a breed of dog that originated in the United Kingdom and was brought to Canada and then Spain 
In the United Kingdom, The Kennel Club reports that the most-registered breed from at least 1999 to 2005 was the Labrador Retriever. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Kennel Club ("KC" is a Kennel club based in London and Aylesbury England. It rounds out the top three for 1999 to 2005 with the German Shepherd Dog, also popular in the US, and the English Cocker Spaniel , which is no longer in the top ten in the US. The German Shepherd Dog ( GSD) (Deutscher Schäferhund is a breed of large-sized dog that originates from Germany. In the UK, a national dog adoption and rescue service indicates that the most common breed appearing in shelters is the Greyhound followed by the Staffordshire Bull Terrier. 
Modern dog breeds show more variation in size, appearance, and behavior than any other domestic animal. Dog breeds are groups of closely related and visibly similar domestic Dogs with characteristic traits that are selected and maintained by humans bred from a known foundation Within the range of extremes, dogs generally share attributes with their wild ancestors, the wolves. The grey wolf or gray wolf ( Canis lupus) also known as the timber wolf or simply wolf, is a Mammal of the order Carnivora Dogs are predators and scavengers, possessing sharp teeth and strong jaws for attacking, holding, and tearing their food. Scavenging, or necrophagy, is a Carnivorous Feeding behaviour in which a predator consumes Corpses or Carrion that were killed Although selective breeding has changed the appearance of many breeds, all dogs retain basic traits from their distant ancestors. Like many other predatory mammals, the dog has powerful muscles, fused wristbones, a cardiovascular system that supports both sprinting and endurance, and teeth for catching and tearing. This is an article about the rock music band "Circulatory System" Unlike humans which are plantigrade, dogs are digitigrade. In Mammals, plantigrade locomotion means walking with the podials and Metatarsals flat on the ground A digitigrade is an animal that stands or walks on its digits or toes
Compared to equally sized wolves, dogs tend to have 20% smaller skulls and 10% smaller brains, as well as proportionately smaller teeth than other canid species.  Dogs require fewer calories to function than wolves. Their diet of human refuse in antiquity made the large brains and jaw muscles needed for hunting unnecessary. It is thought by certain experts that the dog's limp ears are a result of atrophy of the jaw muscles. Atrophy is the partial or complete Wasting away of a part of the Body.  The skin of domestic dogs tends to be thicker than that of wolves, with some Inuit tribes favouring the former for use as clothing due to its greater resistance to wear and tear in harsh weather. Inuit (plural the singular Inuk, means "man" or "person" is a general term for a group of culturally similar Indigenous peoples inhabiting  Unlike wolves, but like coyotes, domestic dogs have sweat glands on their paw pads.  The paws of a dog are half the size of those of a wolf, and their tails tend to curl upwards, another trait not found in wolves. 
Like most mammals, dogs are dichromats and have color vision equivalent to red-green color blindness in humans. Sighthounds, also called gazehounds, are Hounds that primarily hunt by speed and sight instead of by scent and endurance as Scent hounds do Dichromacy in humans is a moderately severe color vision defect in which one of the three basic color mechanisms is absent or not functioning Color blindness, a Color vision deficiency is the inability to perceive differences between some of the Colors that others can distinguish 
Different breeds of dogs have different eye shapes and dimensions, and they also have different retina configurations. The vertebrate retina is a light sensitive part inside the inner layer of the Eye.  Dogs with long noses have a "visual streak" which runs across the width of the retina and gives them a very wide field of excellent vision, while those with short noses have an "area centralis" — a central patch with up to three times the density of nerve endings as the visual streak — giving them detailed sight much more like a human's.
Some breeds, particularly the sighthounds, have a field of vision up to 270° (compared to 180° for humans), although broad-headed breeds with short noses have a much narrower field of vision, as low as 180°. Sighthounds, also called gazehounds, are Hounds that primarily hunt by speed and sight instead of by scent and endurance as Scent hounds do 
Dogs detect sounds as low as the 16 to 20 Hz frequency range (compared to 20 to 70 Hz for humans) and above 45 kHz (compared to 13 to 20 kHz for humans), and in addition have a degree of ear mobility that helps them to rapidly pinpoint the exact location of a sound. The hertz (symbol Hz) is a measure of Frequency, informally defined as the number of events occurring per Second. Eighteen or more muscles can tilt, rotate and raise or lower a dog's ear. Additionally, a dog can identify a sound's location much faster than a human can, as well as hear sounds up to four times the distance that humans are able to. Those with more natural ear shapes, like those of wild canids like the fox, generally hear better than those with the floppier ears of many domesticated species.
Dogs have nearly 220 million smell-sensitive cells over an area about the size of a pocket handkerchief (compared to 5 million over an area the size of a postage stamp for humans). A handkerchief (also called handkercher or hanky) is a form of a Kerchief, typically a square of fabric that can be carried in the Pocket A postage stamp is an adhesive paper evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services Some breeds have been selectively bred for excellence in detecting scents, even compared to their canine brethren. What information a dog actually detects when he is scenting is not perfectly understood; although once a matter of debate, it now seems to be well established that dogs can distinguish two different types of scents: an air scent from some person or thing that has recently passed by, and a ground scent that remains detectable for a much longer period. The characteristics and behavior of these two types of scent trail would seem, after some thought, to be quite different, the air scent being intermittent but perhaps less obscured by competing scents, whereas the ground scent would be relatively permanent with respect to careful and repetitive search by the dog, but would seem to be much more contaminated with other scents. In any event, it is established by those who train tracking dogs that it is impossible to teach the dog how to track any better than it does naturally; the object instead is to motivate it properly, and teach it to maintain focus on a single track and ignore any others that might otherwise seem of greater interest to an untrained dog. An intensive search for a scent, for instance searching a ship for contraband, can actually be very fatiguing for a dog, and the dog must be motivated to continue this hard work for a long period of time.
Domestic dogs often display the remnants of counter-shading, a common natural camouflage pattern. The general theory of countershading is that an animal that is lit from above will appear lighter on its upper half and darker on its lower half where it will usually be in its own shade. This is a pattern that predators can learn to watch for. A countershaded animal will have dark coloring on its upper surfaces and light coloring below. This reduces the general visibility of the animal. One reminder of this pattern is that many breeds will have the occasional "blaze", stripe, or "star" of white fur on their chest or undersides.
There are many different shapes for dog tails: straight, straight up, sickle, curled, cork-screw. In some breeds, the tail is traditionally docked to avoid injuries (especially for hunting dogs). It can happen that some puppies are born with a short tail or no tail in some breeds 
Dogs can generate large amounts of energy for a short period of time. A dog's heart and lungs are oversized relative to its body and its normal everyday needs. A dog also has relatively more red blood cells than a human. Most of the time the dog will keep the extra red blood cells stored in its spleen. When the animal enters into a situation where its full metabolism is required, such as play, catching game, or fighting other dogs, the extra cells are released into the bloodstream. The "oversized" heart and lungs will now be running at full capacity, and the animal will have an enhanced ability to engage in aerobic activity. This activity will produce internal heating. Dogs, being covered in fur, are limited in their ability to cool down. After a short time the animal must either cease its athletic activity or risk harming itself from overheating. One can easily observe this pattern of intense activity followed by rest periods in puppies. During the rest phase the spleen collects red blood cells and the animal may pant to cool down.
Dogs are very social animals, but their personality and behavior vary with breed as well as how they are treated by their owners and others who come in contact with them. It is not uncommon for dogs to attack humans and other animals; however, this is usually because of lack of care or improper upbringing by its owner. Dog bite redirects here For the song see Dog Bite (song. Dog attacks are attacks on humans by Feral or Domestic dogs
Dogs tend to be poorer than wolves and coyotes at observational learning, being more responsive to instrumental conditioning. The coyote (kaɪˈoʊti ˈkaɪoʊt ( Canis latrans) also known as the prairie wolf, is a Mammal of the order Carnivora Observational learning (also known as vicarious learning or social learning or modeling or monkey see monkey do) is learning that occurs as  Feral dogs show little of the complex social structure or dominance hierarchy present in wolf packs. For dogs, other members of their kind are of no help in locating food items, and are more like competitors.  Feral dogs are primarily scavengers, with studies showing that unlike their wild cousins, they are poor ungulate hunters, having little impact on wildlife populations where they are sympatric. Ungulates (meaning roughly "being Hoofed quot or "hoofed animal" are several groups of Mammals most of which use the tips of their toes usually Sympatric speciation is the genetic divergence of various populations (from a single parent species inhabiting the same geographic region such that those populations become different Free ranging pet dogs however are more prone to predatory behaviour toward wild animals. Feral dogs have been reported to be effective hunters of reptiles in the Galapagos islands. 
Dogs are valued for their intelligence. Dog intelligence is the ability of a Dog to learn think and solve problems This intelligence is expressed differently with different breeds and individuals, however. For example, Border Collies are noted for their ability to learn commands, while other breeds may not be so motivated towards obedience, but instead show their cleverness in devising ways to steal food or escape from a yard. The Border Collie is a breed of Herding dog that originated in the Border country of England and Scotland Being highly adaptable animals themselves, dogs have learned to do many jobs as required by humans over the generations. Dogs are employed in various roles across the globe, proving invaluable assets in areas such as search-and-rescue; law enforcement (including attack dogs, sniffer dogs and tracking dogs); guards for livestock, people or property; herding; Arctic exploration sled-pullers; guiding the blind and acting as a pair of ears for the deaf; assisting with hunting, and a great many other roles which they may be trained to assume. Most dogs rarely have to deal with complex tasks and are unlikely to learn relatively complicated activities (such as opening doors) unaided. Some dogs (such as guide dogs for the visually impaired) are specially trained to recognize and avoid dangerous situations. "Guide Dogs" redirects here For the British charity see The Guide Dogs for the Blind Association Guide dogs are Assistance
The meaning of "intelligence" in general, not only in reference to dogs, is hard to define. Some tests measure problem-solving abilities and others test the ability to learn in comparison to others of the same age. Defining it for dogs is just as difficult. It is likely that dogs do not have the ability to premeditate an action to solve a problem.
For example, the ability to learn quickly could be a sign of intelligence. Intelligence (also called intellect) is an Umbrella term used to describe a property of the Mind that encompasses many related abilities such as the capacities Conversely it could be interpreted as a sign of a desire to please. In contrast, some dogs who do not learn very quickly may have other talents. An example is breeds that are not particularly interested in pleasing their owners, such as Siberian Huskies. Huskies are often fascinated with the myriad of possibilities for escaping from yards, catching small animals, and often figuring out on their own numerous inventive ways of doing both.
Assistance dogs are also required to be obedient at all times. An assistance dog is a Dog trained to help a person with a Disability in daily life This means they must learn a tremendous number of commands, understand how to act in a large variety of situations, and recognize threats to their human companion, some of which they might never before have encountered.
Many owners of livestock guardian breeds believe that breeds like the Great Pyrenees or the Kuvasz are not easily trained because their stubborn nature prevents them from seeing the point of such commands as “sit” or “down”. A livestock guardian dog ( LGD) is a domesticated canine used to defend Livestock against Predators LGDs are also commonly referred to as The Pyrenean Mountain Dog, known as the Great Pyrenees in the United States, is a large breed of Dog, used as a Livestock guardian Hounds may also suffer from this type of ranking. A hound is a type of Dog that assists Hunters by tracking or chasing the animal being hunted. These dogs are bred to have more of a "pack" mentality with other dogs and less reliance on a master's direct commands. While they may not have the same kind of intelligence as a Border Collie, they were not bred to learn and obey commands quickly, but to think for themselves while trailing game.
Dogs are highly social animals. A social animal is a loosely defined term for an Organism that is highly interactive with other members of its Species to the point of having a recognizable This can account for their trainability, playfulness, and ability to fit into human households and social situations. These attributes have earned dogs a unique position in the realm of interspecies relationships despite being one of the most effective, voracious, and potentially dangerous predators. Dogs and humans at times co-operate in some of the most effective hunting in the animal world; in that context, dogs are superpredators. Hunting is the practice of pursuing Animals for Food, Recreation, or Trade.
The loyalty and devotion that dogs demonstrate as part of their natural instincts as pack animals closely mimics the human idea of love and friendship, leading many dog owners to view their pets as full-fledged family members. Conversely, dogs seem to view their human companions as members of their pack, and make few, if any, distinctions between their owners and fellow dogs. Dogs fill a variety of roles in human society and are often trained as working dogs. A society is a Population of Humans characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals that share a distinctive Culture and Institutions Jobs performed by dogs Although most modern dogs are kept as Pets there are still a tremendous number of ways in which dogs can and do assist humans and more uses are For dogs that do not have traditional jobs, a wide range of dog sports provide the opportunity to exhibit their natural skills. Dog sports are activities that involve Dogs There is much discussion about what exactly defines a Sport for dogs In many countries, the most common and perhaps most important role of dogs is as companions. Companion dog usually describes a dog that does not work, providing only companionship as a Pet, rather than usefulness by doing specific tasks
Dogs have lived and worked with humans in so many roles that their loyalty has earned them the unique sobriquet "man's best friend". A sobriquet is a Nickname or a fancy name usually a familiar name given by others as distinct from a Pseudonym assumed as a disguise but a nickname which is familiar  However, some cultures consider dogs to be unclean. Unclean animals, in some Religions are Animals on whose consumption or handling is labelled a Taboo. In some parts of the world, dogs are raised as livestock to produce dog meat for human consumption. Livestock is the term used to refer (singularly or plurally to a Domesticated Animal intentionally reared in an agricultural setting to produce such as Food In some countries apart from being kept as pets certain breeds of Dogs are raised on farms and Slaughtered for their meat In many places, consumption of dog meat is discouraged by social convention or cultural taboo. Taboo food and drinks are food and drink which people abstain from consuming for religious or cultural reasons
Unlike most other canids, dogs are not monogamous, and breeding in feral packs is not restricted to a dominant alpha pair (despite common belief, such things also occur in wolf packs). Monogamy is the custom or condition of having only one mate in a Relationship, thus forming a Couple. Male dogs are unusual among canids by the fact that they mostly play no role in raising their puppies, and do not kill the young of other females to increase their own reproductive success.  Dogs differ from wolves and most other large canid species by the fact that they do not regurgitate food for their young, nor the young of other dogs in the same territory.  However, this difference was not observed in all domestic dogs. Regurgitating of food for the young as well as care for the young by the males has been observed in domestic dogs, dingos as well as in other feral or semi-feral dogs. Regurgitating of food by the females and direct choosing of only one mate has been observed even in those semi-feral dogs of direct domestic dog ancestry. So it is sometimes suggested, that the absence of this behavior was unknowingly caused by artificial selection by humans.  
In domestic dogs, sexual maturity (puberty) begins to happen around age 6 to 12 months for both males and females, although this can be delayed until up to two years old for some large breeds. This article focuses upon reproduction of domestic dogs Reproduction within other types of canid is not covered at present Adolescence for most domestic dogs is around 12 to 15 months, beyond which they are for the most part more adult than puppy. As with other domesticated species, domestication has selectively bred for higher libido and earlier and more frequent breeding cycles in dogs, than in their wild ancestors. Domestication (from Latin domesticus) refers to the process whereby a Population of Animals Libido in its common usage means Sexual desire however more technical definitions such as those found in the work of Carl Jung, are more general referring to libido Dogs remain reproductively active until old age.
Most female dogs have their first estrous cycle between 6 and 12 months, although some larger breeds delay until as late as 2 years. Oestrus is also the biological genus name of the gadfly. The estrous cycle (also oestrous cycle; derived from Latin Females experience estrous cycles biannually, during which her body prepares for pregnancy, and at the peak she will come into estrus, during which time she will be mentally and physically receptive to copulation. Pregnancy ( Latin graviditas) is the carrying of one or more offspring known as a Fetus or Embryo, inside the Uterus of a Female Oestrus is also the biological genus name of the gadfly. The estrous cycle (also oestrous cycle; derived from Latin Sexual intercourse, in its biological sense is the act in which the male reproductive organ (in humans and other higher animals enters the female reproductive tract
Dogs bear their litters roughly 56 to 72 days after fertilization, although the length of gestation can vary. For soil improvement see Fertilization (soil. An average litter consists of about six puppies, though this number may vary widely based on the breed of dog. A puppy or pup is a juvenile Dog, generally less than one year of age that has not reached sexual maturity Toy dogs generally produce from one to four puppies in each litter, while much larger breeds may average as many as 12 pups in each litter. Toy dog traditionally refers to a very small Dog or a grouping of small and very small breeds of dog
Neutering (spaying females and castrating males) refers to the sterilization of animals, usually by removal of the male's testicles or the female's ovaries and uterus, in order to eliminate the ability to procreate, and reduce sex drive. Neutering, from the Latin neuter (of neither sex is the removal of an animal's Reproductive organ, either all of it or a considerably large part Sterilization (also spelled sterilisation) is a surgical technique leaving a male or female unable to reproduce. The testicle (from Latin testiculus, diminutive of testis, meaning "witness" virility plural testes) is the male "Ovaria" redirects here This is also a proposed section and a Synonym of Solanum. The uterus (from the Latin word for womb) is the major Female reproductive organ of most Mammals including Humans One end the Neutering has also been known to reduce aggression in male dogs, but has been shown to occasionally increase aggression in female dogs. 
Animal control agencies in the United States and the ASPCA advise that dogs not intended for further breeding should be neutered so that they do not have undesired puppies. American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals ( ASPCA) is a Non-profit organization which as the name says is dedicated to preventing cruelty towards 
Because of the overpopulation of dogs in some countries, puppies born to strays or as the result of accidental breedings often end up being killed in animal shelters. Neutering can also decrease or eliminate the risk of hormone-driven diseases such as mammary cancer, as well as undesired hormone-driven behaviors. However, certain medical problems are more likely after neutering, such as urinary incontinence in females and prostate cancer in males. Urinary incontinence ( UI) is any involuntary leakage of Urine.  The hormonal changes involved with sterilization are likely to somewhat change the animal's personality, however, and some object to neutering as the sterilization could be carried out without the excision of organs.
It is not essential for a female dog to either experience a heat cycle or have puppies before spaying, and likewise, a male dog does not need the experience of mating before castration.
Female cats and dogs are seven times more likely to develop mammary tumors if they are not spayed before their first heat cycle. A mammary tumor is a tumor originating in the Mammary gland. It is a common finding in older female Dogs and Cats that are not spayed but they Oestrus is also the biological genus name of the gadfly. The estrous cycle (also oestrous cycle; derived from Latin  Dog food containing soybeans or soybean fractions have been found to contain phytoestrogens in levels that could have biological effects when ingested longterm. Phytoestrogens, sometimes called "dietary estrogens" are a diverse group of naturally occurring non steroidal plant compounds that because of their structural similarity with 
Gender-preservative surgeries such as vasectomy and tubal ligation are possible, but do not appear to be popular due to the continuation of gender-specific behaviors and disease risks.
According to the Humane Society of the United States, 3–4 million dogs and cats are euthanized each year in the United States and many more are confined to cages in shelters because there are many more animals than there are homes. Euthanasia (literally "good death" in Ancient Greek) refers to the practice of ending a life in a painless manner Spaying or castrating dogs helps keep overpopulation down.  Local humane societies, SPCAs and other animal protection organizations urge people to neuter their pets and to adopt animals from shelters instead of purchasing them. Several notable public figures have spoken out against animal over population, including Bob Barker. Robert William Barker (Born December 12 1923) is a nineteen-time Emmy Award -winning former American Television Game show On his game show, The Price Is Right, Barker stressed the issue at the end of every episode, saying: "Help control the pet population. The Price Is Right is an five time Emmy Award-winning American Game show centering on contestants guessing the retail prices of featured prizes Have your pets spayed or neutered. " The current host, Drew Carey, makes a similar plea at the conclusion of each episode. Drew Allison Carey (born May 23 1958 is an American Comedian, Actor and Game show host.
There are several types of working dogs:
Owners of dogs often enter them in competitions, whether show (breed conformation shows) or sports, including dog racing & dog sledding. The German Shepherd Dog ( GSD) (Deutscher Schäferhund is a breed of large-sized dog that originates from Germany. The Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show is a two-day benched Conformation show that takes place at Madison Square Garden in New York City every year Dog sports are activities that involve Dogs There is much discussion about what exactly defines a Sport for dogs The winners garner much prestige and prize money. These dogs are often bred specifically for competition, which may not be entirely beneficial for the breeds due to the magnification of hereditary defects.
Dogs are susceptible to various diseases, ailments, and poisons, some of which affect humans in the same way, others of which are unique to dogs. The domestic Dog 's health is possibly one of the best-studied areas in Veterinary medicine, since the dog has had such a long and close relationship with humans Dogs, like all mammals, are also susceptible to heat exhaustion when dealing with high levels of humidity and/or extreme temperatures. 
Infectious diseases commonly associated with dogs include rabies (hydrophobia), canine parvovirus, and canine distemper. Rabies (from rabies “madness rage fury” Also known as “ hydrophobia ” is a viral Zoonotic neuroinvasive disease that Canine parvovirus type 2 ( CPV2, colloquioally parvo) is a Contagious Virus mainly affecting Dogs. Canine distemper is a very serious viral Disease affecting animals in the families Canidae, Mustelidae, Mephitidae, Hyaenidae Inherited diseases of dogs can include a wide range from elbow or hip dysplasia and medial patellar luxation to epilepsy and pulmonic stenosis. Luxating patella (or trick knee, subluxation of patella, or floating patella) is a condition in which the Patella, or kneecap dislocates or Epilepsy can occur in animals other than humans (see main article Epilepsy) Pulmonary valve stenosis is a Valvular heart disease in which outflow of blood from the Right ventricle of the Heart is obstructed at the level of the Canines can get just about anything a human can get (excluding many infections which are species specific) like hypothyroidism, cancer, dental disease, heart disease, etc.
Two serious medical conditions affecting dogs are pyometra, affecting unspayed females of all types and ages, and bloat, which affects the larger breeds or deep chested dogs. Pyometra is a disease of the Uterus most commonly seen in female dogs (bitches but also seen in queens (female Cats, Rabbits Ferrets Neutering, from the Latin neuter (of neither sex is the removal of an animal's Reproductive organ, either all of it or a considerably large part Bloat is a medical condition in which the Stomach becomes overstretched by excessive Gas content Both of these are acute conditions, and can kill rapidly; owners of dogs which may be at risk should learn about such conditions as part of good animal care. In Medicine, an acute disease is a disease with either or both of a rapid onset a short course (as opposed to a chronic course
Common external parasites are various species of fleas, ticks, and mites. Flea is the Common name for any of the small wingless Insects of the order Siphonaptera (some authorities use the name Aphaniptera Tick is the common name for the small Arachnids in Superfamily Ixodoidea that along with other Mites constitute the Acarina. Mites, along with Ticks belong to the subclass Acarina (also known as Acari and the class Arachnida Mites are among the most diverse and successful Internal parasites include hookworms, tapeworms, roundworms, and heartworms. The hookworm is a parasitic Nematode worm that lives in the Small intestine of its host which may be a Mammal such as a Dog, Tapeworm is also an older name for a type of Computer virus. Cestoda is a class of Parasitic Flatworms commonly called The nematodes or roundworms ( Phylum Nematoda from Greek (nema "thread" + -ode "like" are one of the most common Heartworm is a parasitic Roundworm ( Dirofilaria immitis) that is spread from host to host through the bites of Mosquitoes The See also CVBD (Canine Vector-Borne Diseases). CVBD - Canine Vector-Borne Diseases - is a Veterinarian term for Diseases transferred to Dogs by various parasitic vectors
Some breeds of dogs are also prone to certain genetic ailments, such as hip dysplasia, luxating patellas, cleft palate, blindness, or deafness. Luxating patella (or trick knee, subluxation of patella, or floating patella) is a condition in which the Patella, or kneecap dislocates or Cleft lip (cheiloschisis and cleft palate (palatoschisis which can also occur together as cleft lip and palate are variations of a type of clefting Congenital Blindness is the condition of lacking Visual perception due to Physiological or Neurological factors Dogs are also susceptible to the same ailments that humans are, including diabetes, epilepsy, cancer, and arthritis. Diabetes mellitus strikes 1 in 400 Cats and a similar number of Dogs though recent veterinary studies note that it is becoming more common lately in cats Epilepsy is a common chronic Neurological disorder that is characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. Cancer (medical term Malignant Neoplasm) is a class of Diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation plural arthritides is a group of conditions involving damage to the Joints of the body Gastric torsion and bloat is a dangerous problem in some large-chested breeds. Bloat is a medical condition in which the Stomach becomes overstretched by excessive Gas content Bloat is a medical condition in which the Stomach becomes overstretched by excessive Gas content
The typical lifespan of dogs varies widely among breeds. Aging in dogs covers the impact of aging in the domestic Dog ( Canis lupus familiaris) common medical and clinical issues arising and life expectancy Based on questionnaire surveys of owners in the UK, Denmark, USA, and Canada, the median longevity of most dog breeds is between 10 and 13 years.  The breed with the dubious distinction of the shortest lifespan (among breeds for which there is a questionnaire survey with a reasonable sample size) is the Dogue de Bordeaux with a median longevity of about 5. 2 years, but several breeds, including Miniature Bull Terrier, Bulldog, Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever, Bloodhound, Irish Wolfhound, Greater Swiss Mountain Dog, Great Dane, and Mastiff, are nearly as short-lived, with median longevities between 6 and 7 years.  On the other end of the spectrum, the longest-lived breeds, including Toy Poodle, Border Terrier, Miniature Dachshund, Miniature Poodle, and Tibetan Spaniel, have median longevities between 14 and 15 years.  The median longevity of mixed breed dogs (average of all sizes) is one or more years longer than that of purebred dogs (all breeds averaged).  As a rule of thumb, small breeds are longer-lived than large breeds, but some of the longest lived large breeds have median longevities nearly as long as those of the shortest lived small breeds, and some of the breeds with the shortest longevities are medium-sized. 
"Median longevity" refers to the age at which half the dogs in a population have died and half are still alive. Individual dogs, even in breeds with low median longevities, may live well beyond the median. The dog widely reported to be the longest-lived on record is "Bluey," purportedly born in 1910 in Australia. Bluey ( June 7, 1910 - November 14, 1939) is the name of the Australian cattle dog formerly owned by Les Hall of Rochester He died in 1939 at the age of 29. 5 years. Bluey is usually identified as an Australian Cattle Dog, but the first Australian Cattle Dog breed standard was written in 1902, only eight years before Bluey's birth. The Australian Cattle Dog, also known as the Queensland Heeler, Blue Heeler and Red Heeler is a breed of Herding It is unclear how closely Bluey was related to the breed as it exists today. The Bluey record is anecdotal and unverified.  The longest verified records are of dogs living to 24 years. 
There is some debate as to whether domestic dogs should be classified as omnivores or carnivores, by diet. Omnivores (from Latin omne all everything vorare to devour are species that eat both Plants and Animals as their primary A carnivore (ˈkɑrnɪvɔər meaning 'meat eater' ( Latin carne meaning 'flesh' and vorare meaning 'to devour' is any animal with a diet consisting The classification in the Order Carnivora does not necessarily mean that a dog's diet must be restricted to meat; unlike an obligate carnivore, such as the cat family with its shorter small intestine, a dog is neither dependent on meat-specific protein nor a very high level of protein in order to fulfill its basic dietary requirements. The diverse order Carnivora (kɑrˈnɪvərə or sometimes /ˌkɑrnɪˈvɔərə/ from Latin carō (stem carn-) "flesh" + vorāre In modern English usage meat most often refers to Animal tissue used as food mostly Skeletal muscle and associated Fat, but it may also refer WikipediaManual of Style (spelling, articles should conform to one overall spelling style of English typically the one most linked to the article topic (if it is geographic In Biology the small Intestine is the part of the Gastrointestinal tract (gut between the Stomach and the Large intestine, and comprises Dogs are able to healthily digest a variety of foods including vegetables and grains, and in fact dogs can consume a large proportion of these in their diet. The term " vegetable " generally means the edible parts of Plants The definition of the word is traditional rather than Scientific, however Wild canines not only eat available plants to obtain essential amino acids, but also obtain nutrients from vegetable matter from the stomach and intestinal contents of their herbivorous prey, which they usually consume. An essential amino acid or indispensable amino acid is an Amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo by the organism (usually referring to Herbivory is a form of Predation in which an Organism, known as a herbivore, consumes principally Autotrophs ref name=Campbell>Campbell Domestic dogs can survive healthily on a reasonable and carefully designed vegetarian diet, particularly if eggs and milk products are included. Vegetarianism is the practice of a diet that excludes Meat (including game and slaughter by-products Fish (including Shellfish and other sea An egg is a round or oval body laid by the female of many animals consisting of an Ovum surrounded by layers of Membranes and an outer casing which acts to nourish Milk is an opaque white liquid produced by the Mammary glands of female Mammals (including Monotremes. Some sources suggest that a dog fed on a strict vegetarian diet without L-carnitine may develop dilated cardiomyopathy, however, L-carnitine is found in many nuts, seeds, beans, vegetables, fruits and whole grains. Carnitine is a quaternary ammonium compound biosynthesized from the Amino acids Lysine and Methionine. Dilated cardiomyopathy or DCM, also known as congestive cardiomyopathy, is a condition in which the Heart becomes weakened and enlarged and cannot pump Nut is a general term for the large dry oily Seeds or Fruit of some Plants. A seed (in some plants referred to as a kernel) is a small embryonic Plant enclosed in a covering called the seed coat usually with some stored Bean is a common name for large plant Seeds of several genera of the family Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae used for human food or animal The term " vegetable " generally means the edible parts of Plants The definition of the word is traditional rather than Scientific, however The term fruit has different meanings dependent on context and the term is not synonymous in Food preparation and Biology. Whole grains are cereal grains that Bran and germ as well as the Endosperm, in contrast to Refined grains, which retain only In the wild, dogs can survive on a vegetarian diet when animal prey is not available. Observation of extremely stressful conditions such as the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race, and scientific studies of similar conditions has shown that high-protein (approximately 40%) diets including meat help prevent damage to muscle tissue in dogs and some other mammals. Muscle (from Latin musculus, diminutive of mus "mouse" is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the This level of protein corresponds to the percentage of protein found in the wild dog's diet when prey is abundant; higher levels of protein seem to confer no added benefit.
Dogs frequently eat grass, which is a harmless activity. Grass is the common word that generally describes Monocotyledonous green Plants The family Gramineae ( Poaceae) are the "true grasses" and include Explanations abound, but rationales such as that it neutralizes acid, or that dogs eat grass to induce vomiting to remove unwanted substances from their stomachs, are at best educated guesses. In Computer science, ACID ( Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability) is a set of properties that guarantee that Database transactions are Vomiting (also called throwing up, emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of one's Stomach through the Mouth and sometimes the In Human anatomy, the stomach is a J-shaped hollow muscular organ of the Gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of Digestion, following Dogs do vomit more readily than humans, as part of their typical feeding behavior of gulping down food then regurgitating indigestible material such as bones and fur. This behavior is typical of pack feeding in the wild, where the most important thing is to get as much of the kill as possible before others consume it all. Individual domestic dogs, however, may be very "picky" eaters, in the absence of this social pressure. Dogs may also appear to eat grass when they are just running the blades through their mouth to gather information. Their sense of smell and taste may act together to detect if other animals have walked through their area or urinated on the grass. 
Cruelty to dogs refers to treatment that causes unacceptable suffering or harm. Cruelty to animals refers to the infliction of unnecessary Suffering or Harm to animals Injury or bodily injury is Damage or Harm caused to the Structure or function of the Body caused by an outside agent or What qualifies as unacceptable suffering varies among countries and cultures. Cruelty can be passive, typified by simple neglect, or active, with malicious intent. 
Malicious treatment of a dog can lead to dog attacks upon not only the abuser but also innocent people. Dog bite redirects here For the song see Dog Bite (song. Dog attacks are attacks on humans by Feral or Domestic dogs
In some countries, certain dog breeds, apart from being kept as pets, are raised on farms and slaughtered for consumption. In some countries apart from being kept as pets certain breeds of Dogs are raised on farms and Slaughtered for their meat In countries where dogs are popular as household pets, consumption of dog meat is generally considered abhorrent. There are exceptions, such as Korea, Switzerland, and Vietnam, where dogs are popular as both pets and meat. Korea is a geographic area composed of two sovereign countries a civilization and a former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially 
Dog meat has been a source of food in China from at least the time of Confucius, and possibly even before. Confucius ( lit " Master Kung " September 28, 551 BC - 479 BC) was a Chinese thinker and social philosopher Ancient writings from the Zhou Dynasty referred to the 'three beasts' (which were bred for food), including pig, goat, and dog. The Zhou Dynasty ( POJ: Chiu Tiau 1122 BC to 256 BC was preceded by the Shang Dynasty and followed by the Qin Dynasty in China. Mencius, the philosopher, recommended dog as the tastiest of all meats. Life Mencius also known by his birth name Meng Ke or Ko, was born in the State of Zou (simp Dog meat is also consumed for allegedly salubrious effects: the Swiss rural cantons of Appenzell and St. Gallen are known to have had a tradition of eating dogs, curing dog meat into jerky and sausages, as well as using the lard for medicinal purposes. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation St Gallen ( Saint-Gall San Gallo is the capital of the canton of St