Doctrine (Latin: doctrina) is a code of beliefs or "a body of teachings" or "instructions", taught principles or positions, as the body of teachings in a branch of knowledge or belief system. In Education, a teacher is one who helps Students or pupils often in a School, as well as in a Family, religious or The Greek analogy is the etymology of catechism. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Etymology is the study of the History of Words &mdash when they entered a language from what source and how their form and meaning have changed over time A catechism (ˈkætəkɪzəm κατηχισμός is a summary or exposition of Doctrine, traditionally used in Christian religious teaching from New Testament
Often doctrine specifically connotes a corpus of religious dogma as it is promulgated by a church, but not necessarily: doctrine is also used to refer to a principle of law, in the common law traditions, established through a history of past decisions, such as the doctrine of self-defense, or the principle of fair use, or the more narrowly applicable first-sale doctrine. Dogma (the plural is either dogmata or dogmas, Greek, plural) is the established Belief or Promulgation or enactment is the act of formally proclaiming or declaring new statutory or Administrative law when it receives final approval Common law refers to law and the corresponding legal system developed through decisions of courts and similar tribunals rather than through legislative statutes or executive Self-defense (or self-defence &mdash see spelling differences) is the act of defending oneself one's property or the well-being of another from physical harm Fair use is a doctrine in United States copyright law that allows limited use of copyrighted material without requiring permission from the rights holders such as use for The first-sale doctrine is a limitation on Copyright that was recognized by the U
In matters of foreign policy, a doctrine, also known as dogma, is a body of axioms fundamental to the exercise of a nation's foreign policy. Foreign Policy is a bimonthly American Magazine founded in 1970 by Samuel P Dogma (the plural is either dogmata or dogmas, Greek, plural) is the established Belief or Hence, doctrine, in this sense, has come to suggest a broad consistency that holds true across a spectrum of acts and actions. Doctrines of this sort are almost always presented as the personal creations of one particular political leader, whom they are named after. Examples include the Monroe Doctrine, the Stimson Doctrine, the Truman Doctrine, the Eisenhower Doctrine, the Nixon Doctrine, the Brezhnev Doctrine, the Kirkpatrick doctrine, the McCain Doctrine. The Monroe Doctrine is a US doctrine which on December 2 1823 stated that European powers were no longer to colonize or interfere with The Stimson Doctrine is a policy of the United States federal government, enunciated in a note of January 7 1932 to Japan and The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by US President Harry S The Eisenhower Doctrine, given in a message to the United States Congress on January 5, 1957, was the foreign policy of U The Nixon Doctrine (also known as the Guam Doctrine) was put forth in a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by Richard Nixon The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet Foreign policy, first and most clearly outlined by S The Kirkpatrick Doctrine was a political Doctrine expounded by United States of America Ambassador to the United Nations Jeane Kirkpatrick US Senator John McCain ( R - AZ) a candidate and the nominee of the Republican Party in the 2008 U
Examples of religious doctrines include:
One department of the Roman Curia is called the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth SSC RF "Troitsk Institute of Innovative and Termonuclear Research" or TRINITY for shprt Троицкий Институт инновационных и термоядерных The virgin birth of Jesus is a religious Tenet of Christianity and Islam which holds that Mary miraculously conceived Jesus while See also Eucharist (Catholic Church On the related belief that Christ is present in the Eucharist in body blood soul and divinity see Real Presence. For dogmatic context see Roman Catholic Mariology. For artistic depictions see Roman Catholic Marian art. Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the The Calvinistic doctrine of predestination is a Doctrine of Calvinism which deals with the question of the control God exercises over the world Methodism is a movement within Protestant Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations Prevenient grace is a Christian theological concept rooted in Augustinian theology and embraced primarily by Arminian Christians who are influenced by the Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma / Shraman Dharma (जैन धर्म is an ancient religion of India. Syādvāda ( Devanagari: स्यादवाद is the Doctrine of Postulation of Jainism. The Roman Curia is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See and the central governing body of the entire Roman Catholic Church, together with the Pope The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF ( Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei) previously known as the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office,
The term also applies to the concept of an established procedure to a complex operation in warfare. War is an international relations Dispute, characterized by organized Violence between National Military units The typical example is tactical doctrine in which a standard set of maneuvers, kinds of troops and weapons are employed as a default approach to a kind of attack.
Examples of military doctrines include:
Almost every military organization has its own doctrine. Military doctrine is the concise expression of how military forces contribute to campaigns major operations Battles and engagements It is a guide Blitzkrieg (German for "lightning war" is a popular name for an Offensive operational-level Military doctrine which involves an initial Hit-and-run tactics is a tactical Doctrine where the purpose of the combat involved is not to seize control of territory but to inflict damage on a target and immediately Shock and awe, technically known as rapid dominance, is a military doctrine based on the use of overwhelming power dominant battlefield awareness dominant maneuvers and spectacular Commerce raiding is to destroy the logistics (supplies of an enemy on the open sea rather than engaging the combatants themselves or enforcing a Blockade against them Alfred Thayer Mahan (September 27 1840–December 1 1914 was a United States Navy Flag officer, geostrategist, and educator Trench warfare is a form of warfare where both combatants have fortified positions and fighting lines are static Manhunting is the deliberate identification capture or killing of senior or otherwise important enemy combatants dubbed high-value targets, usually by Special operations Manhunting Reversing the Polarity of Warfare, ISBN 1-60441-332-8 a book on Irregular warfare by veteran Special operations Intelligence officer Sometimes written, sometimes unwritten.
A legal doctrine is a body of inter-related rules (usually of common law and built over a long period of time) associated with a legal concept or principle. Legal doctrine is a framework set of rules procedural steps or test often established through Precedent in the Common law, through which judgments can be determined Common law refers to law and the corresponding legal system developed through decisions of courts and similar tribunals rather than through legislative statutes or executive For example the doctrine of frustration of purpose now has many tests and rules applicable with regards to each other and can be contained within a 'bubble' of Frustration. In the Law of Contracts frustration of purpose is a defense to enforcement of the contract In a court session a defendant may refer to the doctrine of justification.
It can be seen that a branch of law contains various doctrine, which in turn contains various rules or tests. The test of Non-occurrence of crucial event is part of the doctrine of Frustration which is part of Contract Law. A contract is an exchange of promises between two or more parties to do or refrain from doing an act which is enforceable in a court of law Doctrines can grow into a branch of law; restitution is now considered a branch of law separate to Contract and Tort. Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society The law of restitution is the law of gains-based recovery It is to be contrasted with the law of compensation, which is the law of loss-based recovery Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society A contract is an exchange of promises between two or more parties to do or refrain from doing an act which is enforceable in a court of law Tort law is the name given to a body of law that creates and provides remedies for civil wrongs that do not arise out of Contractual duties
The term indoctrination came to have awkward connotations during the 20th century, but it is necessary to retain it, in order to distinguish it from education. Indoctrination is the process of inculcating Ideas attitudes, cognitive strategies or a professional Methodology. Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency In education one is asked to stand as much as possible outside the body of accumulated knowledge and analyze it. In indoctrination on the other hand, one stands within the body of knowledge and absorbs its teachings. Compare theology and comparative religion for examples, of which many could be drawn. Theology is the study of a god or the gods from a religious perspective Comparative religion is a field of Religious study that analyzes the similarities and differences of themes myths rituals and concepts among the world's religions