A doctorate is an academic degree that indicates a high, if not the highest, level of academic achievement. A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of Higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing A terminal degree in most countries, some Central and Eastern European countries place the doctorate second only to the habilitation. A terminal degree is the generally accepted highest degree in a field of study Central Europe is the Region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent. Habilitation is the highest academic qualification a person can achieve by their own pursuit in certain European and Asian countries
The term doctorate comes from the Latin docere, meaning "to teach", shortened from the full Latin title licentia docendi, meaning "license to teach. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. " This was translated from the equivalent Arabic term ijazat attadris, which was a distinction granted to certain Islamic scholars, thus qualifying them to teach. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language Ulema ( ar علماء,, singular ar عالِم,, "scholar" refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several 
Since the Middle Ages, there has been considerable evolution and proliferation in the number and types of doctorates awarded by universities throughout the world, and practices vary from one country to another. While a doctorate usually entitles one to be addressed as "doctor", usage of the title varies widely, depending on the type of doctorate earned and the doctor's occupation. See the main article for Doctor (title) for more information. Doctor ( gen: doctoris) means teacher in Latin. The word is originally an Agentive noun of the verb docēre ('teach'
Broadly speaking, doctorates may be loosely classified into the following categories:
Research doctorates are awarded in recognition of both mastery of research methods (as evidenced in class grades and a comprehensive examination) and academic research that is ideally publishable in a peer-reviewed academic journal, but that will minimally be assessed by submission and defense of a thesis or dissertation. Peer review (also known as refereeing) is the process of subjecting an author's scholarly work research or Ideas to the scrutiny of others who are An academic journal is a peer-reviewed Periodical in which scholarship relating to a particular Academic discipline is published A dissertation (also called thesis or disquisition) is a document that presents the author's Research and findings and is submitted in support of candidature A dissertation (also called thesis or disquisition) is a document that presents the author's Research and findings and is submitted in support of candidature  The best-known degree of this type is that of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) awarded throughout the world; others include the U. "PhD" redirects here for other uses see PhD (disambiguation. S. degrees of Doctor of Engineering (DEng) and Doctor of Science (DSc or ScD), the UK Engineering Doctorate (EngD), and the German degree of Doctor rerum naturalium (Dr. The Doctor of Engineering ( DEng or EngD or Dr Eng) is an Academic degree awarded on the basis of advanced study and Research in DSc ScD SD, or DrSc are common abbreviations for the Latin Scientiæ Doctor, meaning Doctor of Science. The Engineering Doctorate scheme is a British postgraduate education programme promoted by the UK's Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council rer. nat. ).
The minimum time required to earn a doctorate varies by country, and can be a short as three years (excluding bachelor's and master's studies). However, some candidates can take anywhere from five to ten years to complete. The median number of years to completion of doctoral degrees for all fields in the US is seven years.  Students are discouraged from taking unnecessarily long to graduate by having their financial support (stipends, research funds, etc. A stipend is a form of Monetary payment or salary such as for an Internship or Apprenticeship. ) relinquished. Furthermore, doctoral applicants were previously required to have a master's degree, but many programs will now accept students straight out of undergraduate studies. 
In some countries, especially the United Kingdom, Ireland and some Scandinavian, Commonwealth nations or former USSR countries, there is a higher tier of research doctorates, awarded on the basis of a formally submitted portfolio of published research of a very high standard. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Examples include the Doctor of Science (DSc/ScD) and Doctor of Letters (DLitt/LittD) degrees found in the UK, Ireland and some Commonwealth countries, and the Danish doctorate (doktorgrad; e. DSc ScD SD, or DrSc are common abbreviations for the Latin Scientiæ Doctor, meaning Doctor of Science. Doctor of Letters ( Latin: Litterarum doctor; DLitt; or Litt D The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe g. dr. theol. , doctor theologiæ, Latin for Doctor of Theology).
The German habilitation postdoctoral qualification is sometimes regarded as belonging to this category, even though, strictly speaking, the habilitation is not an academic degree, but rather a professional license to teach at a German university. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Habilitation is the highest academic qualification a person can achieve by their own pursuit in certain European and Asian countries
Higher doctorates are often also awarded honoris causa when a university wishes to formally recognize an individual's achievements and contributions to a particular field. An honorary degree or a degree honoris causa ( Latin: 'for the sake of the honour' is an Academic degree for which a university (or other degree-awarding
Professional doctorates are awarded in certain fields where most holders of the degree are not engaged primarily in scholarly research, but rather in a profession, such as law, medicine, music or ministry. A first professional degree is a type of Academic degree designed to prepare the holder for a particular profession by emphasizing practical skills over theory and analysis Juris Doctor (abbreviated JD or JD, from the Latin, Teacher of Law) is a first professional graduate degree and Professional McGeorge School of Law is a private ABA -accredited law school in the Oak Park neighborhood of the city of Sacramento, California, commonly known Examples include the U. S. degrees of Doctor of Medicine (MD) and Doctor of Jurisprudence (JD), the Dutch Professional Doctorate in Engineering (PDEng), and the Czech degrees of Doctor of Dental Medicine (MDDr. Doctor of Medicine ( MD or MD, from the Latin Medicinæ Doctor meaning "Teacher of Medicine" is a doctoral Juris Doctor (abbreviated JD or JD, from the Latin, Teacher of Law) is a first professional graduate degree and Professional The Professional Doctorate in Engineering (PDEng is a name awarded to graduates of Engineering programs that develop their students' capabilities to work within a professional The Czech Republic ( ˈt͡ʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka short form in Česko ˈt͡ʃɛskɔ also called Czechia, ) and Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (MVDr. ).
The term Professional Doctorate is also used to refer to research doctorates with a focus on applied research. Among others, these include the degrees of Doctor of Education (EdD), Doctor of Applied Linguistics (DAppLing), Doctor of Practical Theology (DPT) and Doctor of Business Administration (DBA). The Doctor of Education degree ( EdD or DEd) is a discipline-based doctorate that prepares the student for academic administrative clinical or research positions The Doctor of Practical Theology (DPT DThP is an advanced professional degree for practitioners seeking to apply theological principles to their professional practice The degree of Doctor of Business Administration (DBA is a research doctorate 
When a university wishes to formally recognize an individual's contributions to a particular field or philanthropic efforts, it may choose to grant a doctoral degree honoris causa (i. An honorary degree or a degree honoris causa ( Latin: 'for the sake of the honour' is an Academic degree for which a university (or other degree-awarding e. , "for the sake of the honor"), the university waiving the usual formal requirements for bestowal of the degree.  Some universities (e. g. , Cornell University, the University of Virginia) do not award honorary degrees, feeling the bestowal unethical. The University of Virginia (also called UVa, UVA, Mr Jefferson's University, or The University) is a highly selective public research
Similar to other countries, in Argentina the doctorate (doctorado) is the highest. The list of doctoral degrees awarded by country includes all doctoral degrees worldwide For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. The intention is that candidates produce true and original contributions in a specific field of knowledge within a frame of academic excellence.  The doctoral candidate's work should be presented in a dissertation or thesis prepared under the supervision of a tutor or director, and reviewed by a Doctoral Committee. This Committee should be composed of examiners external to the program, and at least one of them should also be external to the institution. The academic degree of Doctor is received after a successful defense of the candidate’s dissertation.  Currently, there are approximately 2,151 postgraduate careers in the country, of which 14% were doctoral degrees.  Doctoral programs in Argentina are overseen by the Comisión Nacional de Evaluación y Acreditación Universitaria, which is a decentralized agency in Argentina’s Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. 
A research doctorate usually takes three to five years to complete. In Germany, most doctorates are awarded with specific designations for the field of research instead of a general "PhD" for all fields. The degree is written in front of the first name for addresses (within texts, the abbreviation "Dr. " is common) and accompanies the person's name (unlike in German-speaking Switzerland). Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation
There are no first degree doctorates but medical students can obtain a "Dr. med. " after one semester of mostly undergraduate research or data evaluation. The "Dr. med. " is not equivalent to a PhD but to a Masters degree. Medical Students going into research can obtain a research doctorate in some subjects, such as molecular medicine or human biology.
Upon the completion of the Habilitationsschrift a senior doctorate (habil. ) is awarded. This senior doctorate is known as the habilitation. Habilitation is the highest academic qualification a person can achieve by their own pursuit in certain European and Asian countries It is not a degree, but an additional qualification. It authorizes the owner to teach at (German) universities ("facultas docendi"), plus qualifies the holder of the "habil. " to teacher in a certain subject ("venia legendi"). This or an equivalent professional experience is - traditionally - the necessary prerequisite for a position of Privatdozent and Professor. The meaning of the word professor ( Latin: professor, person who professes to be an expert in some art or science teacher of highest rank) varies Now, with the Bachelor/Master model and the Juniorprofessoren to be introduced, this has already changed partially.
Doctor Degrees are regulated by Royal Decree (R. D. 778/1998), Decreto Real (in Spanish). They are granted by the University on behalf of the King, and its Diploma has the force of a public document. The Ministry of Science keeps a National Registry of Theses called TESEO . According to the National Institute of Statistics (INE), less than 5% of M. Sc. degree holders are admitted to Ph. D. programs, and less than 10% of 1st year Ph. D. students are finally granted a Doctorate.
All doctoral programs are of research nature. A minimum of 5 years of study are required, divided into 2 stages:
1) A 3-year long period of studies, which concludes with a public dissertation presented to a panel of 3 Professors. If the projects receives approval from the university, he/she will receive a "Diploma de Estudios Avanzados" (part qualified doctor).
2) A 2-year (or longer) period of research. Extensions may be requested for up to 10 years. The student must write his thesis presenting a new discovery or original contribution to Science. If approved by his "thesis director", the study will be presented to a panel of 5 distinguished scholars. Any Doctor attending the public presentations is allowed to challenge the candidate with questions on his research. If approved, he will receive the doctorate. Four marks can be granted (Unsatisfactory, Pass, "Cum laude", and "Summa cum laude"). Those Doctors granted their degree "Summa Cum Laude" are allowed to apply for an "Extraordinary Award".
A Doctor Degree is required in order to apply to a teaching position at the University.
The social standing of Doctors in Spain is evidenced by the fact that only Doctors and Grandees/Dukes can take seat and cover their heads before the King. All Doctorate Degree holders are reciprocally recognized as equivalent in Germany and Spain ("Bonn Agreement of November 14th 1994").
All doctorates (except for those awarded honoris causa) granted by British universities are research doctorates in the sense described above, in that their main (and in many cases only) component is the submission of a thesis or portfolio of original research, examined by an expert panel appointed by the university.
Even the relatively new 'vocational doctorates' such as the EngD, EdD, DSocSci and DClinPsych require the submission of a body of original research of a similar length to a PhD thesis. The Engineering Doctorate scheme is a British postgraduate education programme promoted by the UK's Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council The Doctorate of Social Science is a higher qualification offered by select universities which serves as a doctoral level qualification specifically relating to academic work in the field In the case of the EngD, however, this might be in the form of a portfolio of technical reports on different research projects undertaken by the candidate as opposed to a single, long monographical thesis. Another important difference is that traditional PhD programs are mostly academic-oriented and normally require full-time study at the university, whereas, in an EngD program, the candidate typically works full-time for an industrial sponsor on application-oriented topics of direct interest to the partner company and is jointly supervised by university faculty members and company employees.
The PhD itself is a comparatively recent introduction to the UK, dating from 1917. It was originally introduced in order to provide a similar level of graduate research training as was available in several other countries, notably Germany and the USA. Previously, the only doctorates available were the higher doctorates, awarded in recognition of an illustrious research career.
The universities of Oxford and Sussex denote the degree of Doctor of Philosophy with the postnominal initials DPhil. The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the The University of Sussex is a British Campus university which is situated next to the East Sussex village of Falmer, and is from Brighton The University of York also did this for some years, switching to the more conventional PhD quite recently. The University of York is a Campus university in the city of York, England.
Higher doctorates are awarded in recognition of a substantial body of original research undertaken over the course of many years. Typically the candidate will submit a collection of work which has been previously published in a peer-refereed context. Most universities restrict candidacy to graduates or academic staff of several years' standing. The most common doctorates of this type are those in Divinity (DD), Medicine (MD or DM), Laws (LLD), Civil Law (DCL), Music (DMus or MusD), Letters (DLitt or LittD) and Science (DSc or ScD). Doctor of Medicine ( MD or MD, from the Latin Medicinæ Doctor meaning "Teacher of Medicine" is a doctoral Doctor of Laws ( Latin: Legum Doctor, LLD) is a Doctorate -level Academic degree in Law. Some universities such as the University of Oxford, award Doctor of Civil Law (DCL degrees instead of Doctor of Laws (LL The Doctor of Music degree ( DMus, MusD or MusDoc) like other Doctorates, is an Academic degree of the highest level Doctor of Letters ( Latin: Litterarum doctor; DLitt; or Litt D DSc ScD SD, or DrSc are common abbreviations for the Latin Scientiæ Doctor, meaning Doctor of Science.
Of these, the DD historically ranked highest, theology being the senior faculty in the mediaeval universities. The degree of Doctor of Canon Law was next in the order of precedence, but (except for a brief revival during the reign of Mary Tudor) did not survive the Protestant reformation, a consequence of the fact that the teaching of canon law at Cambridge and Oxford was forbidden by Henry VIII, founder of the Church of England. Doctor of Canon Law ( Latin: Juris Canonici Doctor; JCD) is the Doctoral -level Terminal degree in the studies of Mary Tudor may refer to Mary I of England, daughter of Henry VIII and Katherine of Aragon d The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of This article is an expansion of a section entitled '''History''' from within the main article Church of England The history The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican The DMus was, historically, in an anomalous situation, since a candidate was not required to be a member of Convocation (that is, to be a Master of Arts). A Convocation ( Latin 'calling together' translating the Greek Ecclesia) is a group of people formally assembled for a special purpose A Master of Arts ( Latin: Magister Artium) is a Postgraduate academic Master's degree awarded by universities in a large The DLitt and DSc are relatively recent innovations, dating from the latter part of the 19th century.
Most British universities award degrees honoris causa in order to recognise individuals who have made a substantial contribution to a particular field. Usually an appropriate higher doctorate is used in these circumstances, depending on the achievements of the candidate. However, some universities, in order to differentiate between honorary and substantive doctorates, have introduced the degree of Doctor of the University (DUniv) for these purposes, and reserve the higher doctorates for formal academic research. An honorary degree or a degree honoris causa ( Latin: 'for the sake of the honour' is an Academic degree for which a university (or other degree-awarding
The most common research doctorate is the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. "PhD" redirects here for other uses see PhD (disambiguation. D. ). This degree was first awarded in the U. S. at the 1861 Yale University commencement. Year 1861 ( MDCCCLXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The University of Pennsylvania followed shortly thereafter in 1870, while Harvard (1872) and Princeton (1879) also followed suit. The University of Pennsylvania (also known as Penn) is a private University located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Princeton University is a private Coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. 
The requirements for obtaining Ph. D. s and other research doctorates in the U. S. typically entail successful completion of pertinent classes, passing of a comprehensive examination, and defense of a dissertation. 
In the United States, there are numerous degrees which incorporate the word "doctor" and are known as "professional doctorates. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the " Such fields include audiology, chiropractic, dentistry, law, medicine, occupational therapy, optometry, osteopathic medicine, pharmacy, physical therapy, podiatry, practical theology, psychology, veterinary medicine, and many others that usually require such degress for licensure. Audiology (from Latin la ''audīre'' "to hear" and from Greek grc -λογία -logia) is the branch of Science that studies hearing Chiropractic is a Health care profession that focuses on diagnosis treatment and prevention of mechanical disorders of the Musculoskeletal system, with special emphasis Dentistry' is the "evaluation diagnosis prevention and/or treatment (nonsurgical surgical or related procedures of diseases disorders and/or conditions of the oral cavity Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society Medicine is the art and science of healing It encompasses a range of Health care practices evolved to maintain and restore Human Health by the Occupational Therapy, often abbreviated "OT", is the "use of productive or creative activity in the treatment or rehabilitation of physically cognitively or Optometry is a health care profession concerned with Eyes and related structures as well as vision, Visual systems and vision information Pharmacy (from the Greek φάρμακον 'pharmakon' = drug is the Health profession that links the Health sciences with the chemical sciences Podiatry or podiatric medicine is a field of Healthcare devoted to the study and treatment of disorders of the Foot, Ankle, and the "anatomical Practical theology or applied theology consists of several related sub-fields applied theology (such as missions evangelism pastoral psychology or the psychology of religion Psychology (from Greek grc ψῡχή psȳkhē, "breath life soul" and grc -λογία -logia) is an Academic and Veterinary medicine the application of medical, diagnostic, and therapeutic principles to companion, domestic, exotic, wildlife Licensure refers to the granting of a License, which gives a 'permission to practice Generally, these degrees are considered "first professional degrees. A first professional degree is a type of Academic degree designed to prepare the holder for a particular profession by emphasizing practical skills over theory and analysis "
Professional doctorates were developed in the United States in the 19th century during a movement to improve the training of professionals by raising the requirements for entry and completion of the degree necessary to enter the profession.  These professional doctorates were more rigorous than their bachelor equivalents in the U. S. and replaced them. The first professional doctorate was the M.D. in 1807, which was nearly sixty years before the first Ph. Doctor of Medicine ( MD or MD, from the Latin Medicinæ Doctor meaning "Teacher of Medicine" is a doctoral D. was awarded in the U. S. in 1861.  The Juris Doctor was subsequently established by Harvard University for the same reasons that the M. Juris Doctor (abbreviated JD or JD, from the Latin, Teacher of Law) is a first professional graduate degree and Professional D. was established. 
As part of a reform plan adopted in 2004, South Korea is creating a system of American-style graduate law schools which will award a Juris Doctor (professional doctoral) degree. Only graduates of these law schools, scheduled to matriculate their first students in 2009, will be eligible to take the bar exam.  In Japan, a similar reform was started in 2004 and the degree of Juris Doctor is awarded to graduates of three year graduate studies in law.