Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. D. or PhD for the Latin Philosophiæ Doctor, meaning "teacher of philosophy", (or, more rarely, D. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Phil. , for the equivalent Doctor Philosophiæ) is an advanced academic degree awarded by universities. See also Postgraduate Training in Education Postgraduate education (synonymous in North America with graduate education, and sometimes described A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of Higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects In some, but not all countries in the English-speaking world, it has become the highest degree one can earn (but see also the Higher doctorates awarded by universities in the UK, Ireland and some Commonwealth countries) and applies to graduates in a wide array of disciplines in the sciences and humanities. A doctorate is an Academic degree that indicates the highest level of academic achievement Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding The humanities are academic disciplines which study the Human condition, using methods that are primarily Analytic, Critical, or Speculative The Ph. D. has become a requirement for a career as a university professor or researcher in many fields. A terminal degree is the generally accepted highest degree in a field of study A faculty is a division within a University. The concept of a university with different faculties for different subjects dates back to Al-Azhar University, which had In addition, many Ph. D. graduates go on to careers in government departments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), or in the private sector. 
The detailed requirements for award of a Ph. D. vary throughout the world; however, there are a number of common factors. A candidate must submit a thesis or dissertation consisting of a suitable body of original academic research, which is in principle worthy of publication in a peer-refereed context. A dissertation (also called thesis or disquisition) is a document that presents the author's Research and findings and is submitted in support of candidature  In many countries a candidate must defend this work before a panel of expert examiners appointed by the university; in other countries, the dissertation is examined by a panel of expert examiners who stipulate whether the dissertation is in principle passable and the issues that need to be addressed before the dissertation can be passed. There is usually a prescribed minimum period of study — typically two to three years full time — which must take place before submission of the thesis. This requirement is usually waived for academic staff submitting a portfolio of peer-reviewed published work.
The candidate may also be required to successfully complete a certain number of additional, advanced courses relevant to his or her area of specialization. In some countries (the US, Canada, Denmark, for example), most universities require coursework for Ph. D. degrees. In many other countries (especially those which have a greater degree of specialization at the undergraduate level, such as the UK) there is no such condition in general. It is not uncommon, however, for individual universities or departments to specify analogous requirements for students not already in possession of a master's degree. Universities in the non-English-speaking world have begun adopting similar standards to those of the Anglophone Ph. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States An Anglophone (or anglophone) is someone who speaks the English language. D. for their research doctorates (see, for example, Bologna Process). The purpose of the Bologna process (or Bologna accords is to create the European higher education area by making Academic degree standards and quality assurance standards 
The origins of the doctorate dates back to the ijazat attadris wa 'l-ifttd ("license to teach and issue legal opinions") in the medieval Madrasahs from the 9th century, though it was limited to Islamic law at the time, as in a Doctor of Laws degree. A doctorate is an Academic degree that indicates the highest level of academic achievement An ijazah is a certificate used primarily by Muslims to indicate that one has been authorized by a higher authority to transmit a certain subject or text of Islamic knowledge "Madrasa" and "Medrese" redirect here For the village in Azerbaijan see Mədrəsə. Sharia ( Arabic: ar شريعة) is the body of Islamic Religious law. Doctor of Laws ( Latin: Legum Doctor, LLD) is a Doctorate -level Academic degree in Law.  The doctorate was later extended to philosophy in the European universities in the Middle Ages which generally placed all academic disciplines outside the professional fields of theology, medicine and law under the broad heading of "philosophy" (or "natural philosophy" when referring to science). A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects Theology is the study of a god or the gods from a religious perspective Medicine is the art and science of healing It encompasses a range of Health care practices evolved to maintain and restore Human Health by the Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society For the current in the 19th century German idealism see Naturphilosophie Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature (from Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding The degree of Doctor of Philosophy was a doctorate, generally granted as honorary degrees to select and well-established scholars. An honorary degree or a degree honoris causa ( Latin: 'for the sake of the honour' is an Academic degree for which a university (or other degree-awarding
According to Wellington, Bathmaker, Hung, MucCullough and Sikes (2005), the first Ph. D. was awarded in Paris in 1150, but not until the early nineteenth century did the term "Ph. D. " acquire its modern meaning as the highest academic doctoral degree, thanks to university practice in Germany. As Wellington et al. explain, prior to the nineteenth century professional doctoral degrees could only be awarded in theology (Th. D. ), law (J. D. ), or medicine (M. D. ). In 1861, Yale University adopted the German practice (first introduced in the 19th century at the Friedrich Wilhelm University in Berlin) of granting the degree to younger students who had completed a prescribed course of graduate study and successfully defended a thesis/dissertation containing original research in science or in the humanities. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. For other universities in Berlin see List of Universities in Berlin. Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. 
From the United States the degree spread to Canada in 1900, and then to the United Kingdom in 1917. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located  This displaced the existing Doctor of Philosophy degree in some universities; for instance, the D. Phil. (higher doctorate in the faculty of philosophy) at the University of St Andrews was discontinued and replaced with the Ph. A doctorate is an Academic degree that indicates the highest level of academic achievement The University of St Andrews is the oldest University in Scotland and third oldest in the English-speaking world, having been founded between D. (research doctorate). A doctorate is an Academic degree that indicates the highest level of academic achievement Oxford retained the D. The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the Phil. abbreviation for their research degrees. Some newer UK universities, for example Buckingham (est. The University of Buckingham is the only Private university in the United Kingdom. 1976), Sussex (est. The University of Sussex is a British Campus university which is situated next to the East Sussex village of Falmer, and is from Brighton 1961), and, until a few years ago, York (est. The University of York is a Campus university in the city of York, England. 1963), chose to adopt the D. Phil. , as did some universities in New Zealand. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island
Ph. D. s are awarded under different circumstances and with different requirements in many different English-speaking countries.
Due to a continual increase to living costs, many Ph. D. students are forced to live under the poverty line. 
Admission to a Ph. D. program within Australia and New Zealand requires the prospective student to have completed a Bachelor's Degree with an Honours component or a higher degree, such as a post graduate Master's Degree by research or a Master's Degree by course work. A bachelor's degree is usually an Undergraduate Academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three four or in some cases and
In most disciplines, Honours requires an extra year of study including a large research component in addition to coursework; however, in some disciplines such as engineering, law and pharmacy, Honours is automatically awarded to high achievers of the normal four-year program. To obtain a Ph. D. position, students must usually gain a First Class Honours, but may sometimes be admitted with a high Second Class Honours (known as a 2A, or Second Class Honours Division I). Alternatively, a student who fails to achieve a First or Second Class Honours may apply for a Research Masters course (usually 12–18 months) and upgrade to a Ph. D. after the first year, pending sufficient improvement.
In Australia, Ph. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. D. students are sometimes offered a scholarship to study their Ph. D. The most common of these is the government-funded Australian Postgraduate Award (APA), which provides a living stipend to students of approximately AU$ 20,000 a year (tax free). The Australian dollar ( sign: $; code: AUD) is the Currency of the Commonwealth of Australia, including Christmas Most universities also offer a similar scholarship that matches the APA amount, but are funded by the university. In recent years, with the tightening of research funding in Australia, these scholarships have become increasingly hard to obtain. In addition to the more common APA and University scholarships, Australian students also have other sources of funding in their Ph. D. These could include, but are not limited to, scholarships offered by schools, research centres and commercial enterprise. For the latter, the amount is determined between the university and the organisation, but is quite often set at the APA (Industry) rate, roughly AU$7,000 more than the usual APA rate. The Australian dollar ( sign: $; code: AUD) is the Currency of the Commonwealth of Australia, including Christmas Australian students are often also able to tutor undergraduate classes and do guest lectures (much like a teaching assistant in the USA) to generate income. An Australian Ph. D. scholarship is paid for a duration of 3 years, while a 6 month extension is usually possible upon citing delays out of the control of the student.
Australian-citizen and other eligible Ph. D. and Research Masters students in Australia are not charged course fees as these are paid for by the Australian Government under the Research Training Scheme. International students and Coursework Masters students must pay course fees, unless they receive a scholarship to cover them.
In the Latin American docta, the admission to a Ph. Education in Argentina, the so-called "Latin American docta" has a convoluted history Argentina is sometimes referred to as the Latin American docta (in Spanish La docta Latinoamericana) D. program at an Argentine University requires the full completion of a Master's degree or a Licentiate's degree. Licentiate (from Latin licentia docendi = permission/right to teach is the title of a person who holds an Academic degree called a License. Non-Argentinian Master's titles are generally accepted into a Ph. D. program when the degree comes from a recognized university.
While a significant portion of postgraduate students finance their tuition and living costs with teaching or research work at private and state-run institutions, international institutions, such as the Fullbright Program and the Organization of American States (OAS), have been known to grant full scholarships for tuition with apportions for housing. 
Upon completion of at least two years' research and course work as a graduate student, a candidate must demonstrate truthful and original contributions to his or her specific field of knowledge within a frame of academic excellence.  The doctoral candidate's work should be presented in a dissertation or thesis prepared under the supervision of a tutor or director, and reviewed by a Doctoral Committee. This Committee should be composed of examiners external to the program, and at least one of them should also be external to the institution. The academic degree of Doctor — abbreviated, "Dr. ", with a suffix appropriate to the specific field — is received after a successful defense of the candidate’s dissertation. 
Admission to a Ph. D. program at a Canadian university may require completion of a Master's degree in a related field, with sufficiently high grades and proven research ability. In some cases, a student may progress directly from an Honours Bachelor's degree to a Ph. A bachelor's degree is usually an Undergraduate Academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three four or in some cases and D. program. The student usually submits an application package including a research proposal, letters of reference, transcripts, and in some cases, a sample of the student's writing. A common criterion for prospective Ph. D students is the comprehensive or qualifying examination, a process that often commences in the second year of a graduate program. Generally, successful completion of the qualifying exam permits continuance in the graduate program. Formats for this examination include oral examination by the student's faculty committee (or a separate qualifying committee), or written tests designed to demonstrate the student's knowledge in a specialized area (see below).
At English-speaking universities, a student may also be required to demonstrate English language abilities, usually by achieving an acceptable score on a standard examination (e. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States g. , Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL)). The Test of English as a Foreign Language (or TOEFLs, pronounced "toe-full" or sometimes "toy-ful" evaluates the potential success of an individual to use Depending on the field, the student may also be required to demonstrate ability in one or more additional languages. A prospective student applying to French-speaking universities may also have to demonstrate some English language ability.
While some students work outside the university (or at student jobs within the university), in some programs students are advised (or must agree) not to devote more than ten hours per week to activities (i. e. , employment) outside of their studies.
At some Canadian universities, most Ph. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page D. students receive an award equivalent to the tuition amount for the first four years (this is sometimes called a tuition deferral or tuition waiver). Other sources of funding include teaching assistantships and research assistantships; experience as a teaching assistant is encouraged but not requisite in many programs. A teaching assistant (TA is a junior Scholar employed on a temporary contract by a College or University in teaching-related responsibilities Some programs may require all Ph. D. candidates to teach, which may be done under the supervision of their supervisor or regular faculty.
Besides these sources of funding, there are also various competitive scholarships, bursaries, and awards available, such as those offered by the federal government via NSERC, CIHR, or SSHRC. The Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC is a Canadian government division that provides grants for research in the Natural sciences Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR is the major federal agency responsible for funding health research in Canada. The Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC is an arm's length Canadian federal funding agency
In general, the first two years of study are devoted to completion of coursework and the comprehensive examinations. A comprehensive examination (or comprehensive exam or exams often abbreviated as "comps" is a specific type of Examination that must be completed by Graduate At this stage, the student is known as a "Ph. D. student. " It is usually expected that the student will have completed most of his or her required coursework by the end of this stage. Furthermore, it is usually required that by the end of eighteen to thirty-six months after the first registration, the student will have successfully completed the comprehensive exams.
Upon successful completion of the comprehensive exams, the student becomes known as a "Ph. D. candidate. " From this stage on, the bulk of the student's time will be devoted to his or her own research, culminating in the completion of a Ph. D. thesis or dissertation. The final requirement is an oral defence of the thesis, which is open to the public.
At most Canadian universities, the time needed to complete a Ph. D. typically ranges from four to six years. It is, however, not uncommon for students to be unable to complete all the requirements within six years, particularly given that funding packages often support students for only two to four years; many departments will allow program extensions at the discretion of the thesis supervisor and/or department chair. Alternate arrangements exist whereby a student is allowed to let their registration in the program lapse at the end of six years and re-register once the thesis is completed in draft form. The general rule is that graduate students are obligated to pay tuition until the initial thesis submission has been received by the thesis office. In other words, if a Ph. D. student defers or delays the initial submission of their thesis they remain obligated to pay fees until such time that the thesis has been received in good standing.
Due to the differences in French education systems in comparison to anglophone systems, students who want to earn the Ph. D. degree must complete a Master of Science program which lasts for 2 years after graduation with a Bachelor's degree (5 years in total).
In France, the Masters program is divided into two branches, Master of Engineering which orients the students towards the working world. On the other hand, a Master of Science orients the students towards research. The Ph. D admission is adopted by a graduate school (in French, école doctorale), a Ph. D Student has to follow some courses offered by the graduate school while continuing his/her research at laboratory. His/her research may be carried out in a laboratory, at a university, or in a company. In the last case, The company hires the student as an engineer and the student is supervised by both the company's tutor and a labs' professor. The validation of the Ph. D degree requires generally 3 to 4 years after the Master degree. Consequently, the Ph. D degree is considered in France as a "Bac +8" diploma . "Bac" stands for Baccalauréat which is the French High-school diploma.
The financing of Ph. D studies comes mainly from funds for research of French Ministry of National Education. These grants often depend of the results and the student's file. However, the student can apply for funds from a company who can host him/her at its premise (as in the case where Ph. D students do their researches in a company). Other resources come from some regional/city projects, some associations, etc.
In Germany a Master, Diplom, Magister or Staatsexamen (state examination) degree is usually required to gain admission to a doctoral program. Responsibility for German education system lies primarily with the states while the federal government only has a minor role Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. See also Diploma Diplom (from Greek Δίπλωμα Diploma) is an Academic degree in some European countries including Magister (also magistar, from lat: magister = Teacher) is an Academic degree used in various systems of higher education The de Staatsexamen is a German Government licensing examination that future Doctors Teachers Lawyers Judges Public Sometimes good grades or a degree in a related field are additional requirements. The candidate must also find a tenured professor to serve as the formal advisor on the Dissertation throughout the doctoral program. A dissertation (also called thesis or disquisition) is a document that presents the author's Research and findings and is submitted in support of candidature This advisor is informally termed Doktorvater.
Doctoral programs in Germany generally take three to five years to complete, strongly depending on the subject. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Because there usually are no formal classes, but instead independent research is conducted under the tutelage of a single professor, a good deal of doctoral candidates work as teaching or research assistants, and are paid a reasonably competitive salary. This is a considerable difference from the situation in many other countries (such as the U. S. ) where doctoral candidates are often referred to as Ph. D. "students"; whereas with German candidates, this rather
misleading inaccurate term should be avoided.
In early university history the Doctorate was awarded as a first degree. It has since evolved into a research degree.
In German-speaking countries, most Eastern European countries, the former Soviet Union, most parts of Africa, Asia, and many Spanish-speaking countries the corresponding degree is simply called "Doctor" and is distinguished by subject area with a Latin suffix (e. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. g. "Dr. med. " for doctor medicinæ, which is a scientifical title unlike an M. D. , "Dr. rer. nat" for doctor rerum naturalium — Doctor of Science, "Dr. phil. " for doctor philosophiæ, "Dr. iur. " for doctor iuris, which is not equal to a J. D. , etc. ).
In principle, a university is free to admit anyone to a Ph. D. programme; however, in practice, admission is usually conditional on the prospective student having successfully completed an undergraduate degree with at least upper second-class honours, or a postgraduate master's degree.
In the United Kingdom, funding for Ph. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located D. students is sometimes provided by government-funded Research Councils or the European Social Fund, usually in the form of a tax-free bursary which consists of tuition fees together with a stipend of around GBP 12,600 per year for three years (rising to £14,300 per year in London), whether or not the degree continues for longer. The UK Research Councils are government agencies responsible for co-ordinating and funding particular areas of research including the arts humanties all areas of science and The European Social Fund (ESF is the oldest of four European Structural Funds that provide grants to support economic development within the European Union A bursary is strictly an office for a Bursar and his or her staff in a school or college Tuition means instruction or teaching. In American English, the term tuition is often used to refer to a fee charged for educational instruction A stipend is a form of Monetary payment or salary such as for an Internship or Apprenticeship. The Pound Sterling ( symbol £; ISO code: GBP) subdivided into 100 pence (singular penny) is the Currency Research Council funding is sometimes 'earmarked' for a particular department or research group, who then allocate it to a chosen student, although in doing so they are generally expected to abide by the usual minimum entry requirements (typically a first degree with upper second class honours, although successful completion of a postgraduate master's degree is usually counted as raising the class of the first degree by one division for these purposes). However, the availability of funding in many disciplines (especially humanities, social studies, and pure science subjects) means that in practice only those with the best research proposals, references and backgrounds are likely to be awarded a studentship. The ESRC (Economic and Social Science Research Council) explicitly state that a 2. 1 minimum (or 2. 2 plus additional masters degree) is required - no additional marks are given for students with a first class honours or a distinction at masters level.
Since 2002, there has been a move by research councils to fund interdisciplinary doctoral training centres such as MOAC which concentrate on communication between traditional disciplines and an emphasis on transferable skills in addition to research training.
Many students who are not in receipt of external funding may choose to undertake the degree part time, thus reducing the tuition fees, as well as creating free time in which to earn money for subsistence.
Students may also take part in tutoring, work as research assistants, or (occasionally) deliver lectures, at a rate of typically US$25–30 per hour, either to supplement existing low income or as a sole means of funding. 
Funding typically lasts for three or four years full-time (this period is usually extended pro rata for part-time students) at the end of which the thesis is submitted. Typically, there is a first-year assessment which could for example be a Certificate of postgraduate studies. The Certificate of Postgraduate Studies (CPGS is a Postgraduate certificate offered by a variety of British Universities. With special dispensation, the final date for the thesis can be extended for up to four additional years, for a total of seven, but it is rare for students to spend more than four years in the programme. Since the early 1990s, the UK funding councils have adopted a policy of penalising the departments of students who fail to submit their theses in four years (or equivalent) by reducing the number of funded places in subsequent years. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located
In the United Kingdom Ph. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located D. 's are distinct from other doctorates, most notably the higher doctorates such as D.Litt. (Doctor of Letters) or D.Sc. (Doctor of Science), which are granted on the recommendation of a committee of examiners on the basis of a substantial portfolio of submitted (and usually published) research. A doctorate is an Academic degree that indicates the highest level of academic achievement Doctor of Letters ( Latin: Litterarum doctor; DLitt; or Litt D DSc ScD SD, or DrSc are common abbreviations for the Latin Scientiæ Doctor, meaning Doctor of Science.
Recent years have seen the introduction of vocational doctorates, most notably in the fields of engineering (Eng. D.), education (Ed. The Engineering Doctorate scheme is a British postgraduate education programme promoted by the UK's Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council D. ), clinical psychology (D. Clin. Psychol. ) and business administration (D. B. A. ). These typically have a more formal taught component, as well as a research component which is not equivalent to that of a Ph. D. This research component typically takes the form of a portfolio of two or three smaller research studies, rather than a single dissertation focusing on one larger academic project.
In the United States, the Ph. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the D. is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in many fields of study. A terminal degree is the generally accepted highest degree in a field of study  American students typically undergo a series of three phases in the course of their doctoral work, after they have obtained at least a bachelor's degree, or in some cases a master's degree: the first phase consists of coursework in the student's field of study and requires one to three years to complete. This often is followed by a preliminary or comprehensive examination and/or a series of cumulative examinations where the emphasis is on breadth rather than depth of knowledge. The use of the term Prelim (short for preliminary examination varies and is synonymous with qualifying exam but it generally refers to an examination (usually one from a sequence that Some Ph. D. programs require the candidate to complete successfully requirements in pedagogy (taking courses on higher level teaching and teaching undergraduate courses) and/or applied science (e. g. , clinical practica and predoctoral clinical internship in Ph. D. programs in clinical or counseling psychology).
Another two to four years are usually required for the composition of a substantial and original contribution to human knowledge in the form of a written dissertation, which in the social sciences and humanities is typically 50 to 450 pages in length. A dissertation (also called thesis or disquisition) is a document that presents the author's Research and findings and is submitted in support of candidature In many cases, depending on the discipline, a dissertation would consist of (i) a comprehensive literature review, (ii) an outline of methodology, and (iii) several chapters of scientific, social, historical, philosophical, or literary analysis. Typically, upon completion, the candidate undergoes an oral examination, sometimes public, by his or her supervisory committee with expertise in the given discipline.
As the Ph. D. is often a preliminary step toward a career as a professor, throughout the whole period of study and dissertation research the student may be required or at least offered the opportunity, depending on the university and degree, to teach undergraduate or sometimes graduate courses in relevant subjects.
The Ph. D. is often misunderstood to be synonymous with the term "doctorate". A doctorate is an Academic degree that indicates the highest level of academic achievement While the Ph. D. is the most common doctorate, the term "doctorate" can refer to any number of doctoral degrees in the United States. The U.S. Department of Education and the National Science Foundation recognize numerous doctoral degrees as "equivalent", and do not discriminate between them. The United States Department of Education (also referred to as ED, for Education Department is a Cabinet -level department of the United States The National Science Foundation (NSF is a United States Government agency that supports fundamental Research and Education in all the non-medical (See Doctoral Degree in the United States). A doctorate is an Academic degree that indicates the highest level of academic achievement
There are 282 universities in the United States that award the Ph. D. , and those universities vary widely in their criteria for admission, as well as the rigor of their academic programs.  Typically, Ph. D. programs require applicants to have a Bachelor's degree in a relevant field, reasonably high grades, several letters of recommendation, relevant academic coursework, a cogent statement of interest in the field of study, and satisfactory performance on a graduate-level exam specified by the respective program (e. g. , GRE, GMAT). Graduate Record Examination or GRE is a commercially-run Standardized test that is an admissions requirement for many Graduate schools principally in the GMAT redirects here for other uses see GMAT (disambiguation. The Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT pronounced G-mat is Specific admissions criteria differ substantially according to university admissions policies and fields of study; some programs in well-regarded research universities (i. e. , Research 1 universities) may admit less than 5% of applicants and require an exceptional performance on the GRE along with near-perfect grades, strong support in letters of recommendation, substantial research experience, and academically sophisticated samples of their writing. Research I university was a category previously used by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education to indicate those universities that engaged
As applicants to many Ph. D. programs are not required to have Master's Degrees, many programs award a Master of Arts or Master of Science degree "in passing" or "in course" based on the graduate work done in the course of achieving the Ph. A Master of Arts ( Latin: Magister Artium) is a Postgraduate academic Master's degree awarded by universities in a large A Master of Science ( Latin: Magister Scientiæ; abbreviated MSc, M D. Students who receive such Master's Degrees are usually required to complete a certain amount of coursework and a master's thesis. A dissertation (also called thesis or disquisition) is a document that presents the author's Research and findings and is submitted in support of candidature Depending on the specific program, masters-in-passing degrees can be either mandatory or optional. Not all Ph. D. students choose to complete the additional requirements necessary for the M. A. or M. S. if such requirements are not mandated by their programs. Those students will simply obtain the Ph. D. at the end of their graduate study.
Some programs also include a Master of Philosophy degree as part of the Ph. In the usage of India, United Kingdom, United States, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong and some other countries the Master D. program.  The M. Phil. , in those universities that offer it, is usually awarded after the appropriate M. A. or M. S. (as above) is awarded, and the degree candidate has completed all further requirements for the Ph. D. (which may include additional language requirements, course credits, teaching experiences, and comprehensive exams) aside from the writing and defense of the dissertation itself. This formalizes the "all but dissertation" (ABD) status used informally by some students, and represents that the student has achieved a higher level of scholarship than the M. A. /M. S. would indicate - as such, the M. Phil. is sometimes a helpful credential for those applying for teaching or research posts while completing their dissertation work for the Ph. D. itself. 
Depending on the specific field of study, completion of a Ph. D. program usually takes four to eight years of study after the Bachelor's Degree; those students who begin a Ph. A bachelor's degree is usually an Undergraduate Academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three four or in some cases and D. program with a Master's Degree may complete their Ph. D. a year or two sooner.  As Ph. D. programs typically lack the formal structure of undergraduate education, there are significant individual differences in the time taken to complete the degree. Many US universities have set a 10-year limit for students in Ph. D. programs, or refuse to consider graduate credit older than ten years as counting towards a Ph. D. Similarly, students may be required to re-take the comprehensive exam if they do not defend their dissertations within five years of taking it. Overall, 57% of students who begin a Ph. D. program in the US will complete their degree within 10 years, approximately 30% will drop out or be dismissed, and the remaining 13% of students will continue on past 10 years. 
Doctoral students are usually discouraged from engaging in external employment during the course of their graduate training. As a result, Ph. D. students at U. S. universities typically receive a tuition waiver and some form of annual stipend. The source and amount of funding varies from field to field and university to university. Many U. S. graduate students work as teaching assistants or research assistants while they are doctoral students. A teaching assistant (TA is a junior Scholar employed on a temporary contract by a College or University in teaching-related responsibilities A Research Assistant is a junior graduate Scholar, employed on a temporary contract by a College or University for the purpose of academic Graduate schools increasingly encourage their students to seek outside funding; many are supported by fellowships they obtain for themselves or by their advisors' research grants from government agencies such as the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health. The National Science Foundation (NSF is a United States Government agency that supports fundamental Research and Education in all the non-medical "NIH" redirects here For other meanings of NIH see NIH (disambiguation. Many Ivy League and other well-endowed universities provide funding for the entire duration of the degree program (if it is short) or for most of it. The Ivy League is an Athletic conference comprising eight private institutions of higher education in the Northeastern United States.
Ph. D. Candidate, sometimes called Candidate of Philosophy, is a stage of university education in North American and some European universities. Candidate of Philosophy is any of the following academic degrees a Bachelor's level Master's level higher than Master's level or Doctorate level degree depending on the country A Ph. D. Candidate is a postgraduate student in the doctoral level who has successfully satisfied the requirements for doctoral studies, minus the thesis or dissertation. As such, a Ph. D. Candidate is sometimes called an ABD (All But Dissertation). The process through which a doctoral student becomes a Ph. A doctorate is an Academic degree that indicates the highest level of academic achievement D. Candidate varies based on the country and even the university. However, it often consists of a series of oral and written examinations, as well as an occasional defense of a dissertation project or topic. Although a minor distinction in postgraduate study, achieving Ph. D Candidacy is not without additional benefit. For example, in many courses of study and universities, promotion to Ph. D. Candidate status coincides with an increase in the student's monthly stipend and may make them eligible for Teaching Assistantships.
At some universities, there may be training for those wishing to supervise Ph. D. studies. There is now a lot of literature published for academics who wish to do this, such as Delamont, Atkinson and Parry (1997). Indeed, Dinham and Scott (2001) have argued that the worldwide growth in research students has been matched by increase in a number of what they term "how-to" texts for both students and supervisors, citing examples such as Pugh and Phillips (1987). These authors report empirical data on the benefits that Ph. D. students may gain if they publish their work, and note that Ph. D. students are more likely to do this with adequate encouragement from their supervisors.
Wisker (2005) has noticed how research into this field has distinguished between two models of supervision: The technical-rationality model of supervision, emphasising technique; The negotiated order model, being less mechanistic and emphasising fluid and dynamic change in the Ph. D. process. These two models were first distinguished by Acker, Hill and Black (1994; cited in Wisker, 2005). Considerable literature exists on the expectations that supervisors may have of their students (Phillips & Pugh, 1987) and the expectations that students may have of their supervisors (Phillips & Pugh, 1987; Wilkinson, 2005) in the course of Ph. D. supervision. Similar expectations are implied by the Quality Assurance Agency's Code for Supervision (Quality Assurance Agency, 1999; cited in Wilkinson, 2005).
International Ph. D. Equivalent Degrees: