|States' Rights Democratic Party (Dixiecrats)|
|Years active||1948 (though Dixiecrats remained an active political faction within Democratic Party)|
|Political Ideology||State's rights, Conservatism,Racial segregation|
|Preceded by||Democratic Party|
|Succeeded by||American Independent Party|
|See also||Politics of the U.S.|
The States' Rights Democratic Party (commonly known as the Dixiecrats) was a segregationist political party in the United States. Year 1948 ( MCMXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. States' rights refers to the idea in US politics and constitutional law, that U Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favour Tradition, where tradition refers to various religious cultural or nationally defined The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. The American Independent Party is a California Political party. Politics of the United States takes place in the framework of a presidential, Federal republic where the President of the United States (the Head of This list of Political parties in the United States contains past and present political parties in the United States. The United States has a federal government, with elected officials at federal (national state and local level A political party is a Political organization that seeks to attain and maintain political power within Government, usually by participating in electoral The United States of America —commonly referred to as the It split with the Democratic Party in the mid-20th century determined to protect what they saw as the Southern way of life against an oppressive federal government. The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. The Southern United States &mdashcommonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South &mdashconstitutes a large distinctive The federal government of the United States is the central United States Governmental body established by the United States Constitution. 
In the period following the Civil War, Reconstruction took place. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South In the History of the United States, " Reconstruction " refers to the time between 1863 and 1877 when the U The Union Army occupied the states of the former Confederacy, enforcing federal law protecting the rights of blacks, many of whom were freed slaves. The Union Army was the army that fought for the Union during the American Civil War. Federal law is the body of Law created by the Federal government of a country African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa Slavery in the United States began soon after English colonists first settled Virginia in 1607 and lasted until the passage of the Thirteenth Reconstruction abruptly ended in 1877, obliterating many of the gains that had been made in securing political and civil rights for blacks. When Reconstruction ended, the so-called "Redemption" occurred, disenfranchisement began anew, and the region gave its political allegiance almost entirely to the Democratic Party, giving it the name the "Solid South. Disfranchisement after the Civil War Redemption, in the history of the United States, was a term used by white Southerners to refer to the reversion of the U Solid South refers to the electoral support of the Southern United States for Democratic Party candidates for nearly a century from 1877 the end of the Reconstruction "
In the 1930s, after the New Deal under Franklin Delano Roosevelt, a realignment occurred. The New Deal was the name that United States President Franklin D Realigning election or political realignment are terms from Political science and Political history describing a dramatic change in the Political Much of the Democratic Party shifted towards economic intervention and support for civil rights and liberties. Economic interventionism, is a common term used to describe any activity beyond the basic regulation of fraud and enforcement of contracts undertaken by a government in an effort to affect thumb| |Broken Liberty Istanbul Archaeology Museum Civil liberties are freedoms that protect the Individual from the Government. After the crises of the Great Depression, World War II, and the beginning of the Cold War, Southern Democrats began to drift from the mainstream of the party. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the The formation of the Dixiecrat movement heralded an end to the New Deal coalition. The New Deal coalition was the alignment of interest groups and voting blocs that supported the New Deal and voted for Democratic presidential candidates from 1932
The term Dixiecrat is a portmanteau of Dixie, referring to the Southern United States, and Democrat, referring to the United States Democratic Party. Dixie is a nickname for the Southern United States. Origin of Dixie According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the origins The Southern United States &mdashcommonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South &mdashconstitutes a large distinctive The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. Initially, referred of the party in the 1948 presidential election. The United States presidential election of 1948 is considered by most Historians as the greatest election Upset in American history. For more than a century, white Southerners had overwhelmingly been Democrats, but in 1948 many bolted from the party and supported Strom Thurmond's third-party candidacy for president. James Strom Thurmond ( December 5, 1902 – June 26, 2003) was an American politician who served as governor of South Carolina and In a Two-party system of politics the term third party is sometimes applied to a party other than the two dominant ones The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by
Over the next several decades, as the white South slowly realigned from the Democrats to the Republicans, the term came to have a broader usage. For example, it was used to refer to those members of the Electoral College who voted for Harry F. Byrd rather than John F. Kennedy in the 1960 election, and to the white Southern voters and electors who supported George C. Wallace in 1968. The Electoral College consists of 538 popularly elected representatives who formally select the President and Vice President of the United States. Harry Flood Byrd Sr ( June 10, 1887 – October 20, 1966) of Berryville in Clarke County Virginia was an American John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29 1917&ndashNovember 22 1963 often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of The United States presidential election of 1960 marked the end of Dwight D George Corley Wallace Jr (August 25 1919 September 13 1998 was a Democratic Governor of Alabama for four terms (1963-1967 1971-1979 and 1983-1987 and ran for Please DO NOT flip the colors -->The United States presidential election of 1968 was a wrenching national experience and included the assassination of Democratic candidate
The States' Rights Democratic Party was a short-lived splinter group that broke from the Democratic Party in 1948. The United States presidential election of 1948 is considered by most Historians as the greatest election Upset in American history. The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. The States' Rights Democratic Party opposed racial integration and wanted to retain Jim Crow laws and racial segregation. Racial integration, or simply integration includes Desegregation (the process of ending systematic Racial segregation) The Jim Crow laws were state and local laws enacted primarily but not exclusively in the Southern and border states of the United States between 1876 and 1965 The party's slogan was "Segregation Forever!" Members of the States' Rights Democratic Party were often known as Dixiecrats.
During the 1948 Democratic National Convention, Southern delegates were upset by President Harry S. Truman's executive order to racially integrate the armed forces. The Democratic National Convention is a series of presidential nominating conventions held every four years since 1832 by the United States Democratic Party. The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by Executive Order 9981 is an executive order issued on July 26, 1948 by U The Mayor of Minneapolis, Minnesota Hubert Humphrey gave a speech urging the party to adopt an anti-segregationist plank, causing thirty five delegates from Mississippi and Alabama to walk out. Minnesota ( Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers Hubert Horatio Humphrey Jr ( May 27, 1911 &ndash January 13, 1978) was the thirty-eighth Vice President of the United States, serving Mississippi ( is a state located in the Deep South of the United States Alabama (formally the State of Alabama;) is a State located in the southern region of the United States of America. When President Truman endorsed the civil rights plank, governor of South Carolina Strom Thurmond helped organize the walkout delegates into a separate party, whose platform was ostensibly concerned with states' rights. South Carolina ( is a state in the southern region ( Deep South) of the United States of America. James Strom Thurmond ( December 5, 1902 – June 26, 2003) was an American politician who served as governor of South Carolina and States' rights refers to the idea in US politics and constitutional law, that U
The Dixiecrats held their convention in Birmingham, Alabama, where they nominated Thurmond for president and Fielding L. Wright, governor of Mississippi, for vice president. Birmingham (ˈbɝmɪŋhæm is the largest City in the US state of Alabama and is the County seat of Jefferson County. Fielding Lewis Wright ( May 16, 1895 – May 4, 1956) was a Democratic politician who served as Lieutenant Governor of Mississippi Dixiecrat leaders worked to have Thurmond-Wright declared the official Democratic Party ticket in Southern states. They succeeded only in Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina. The State of Louisiana ( or, État de Louisiane, pronounced) is a state located in the southern region of the United States of America In other states, they were forced to run as a third-party ticket. These included Arkansas, whose governor-elect, Sid McMath, a young prosecutor and decorated World War II Marine veteran, vigorously supported Truman in speeches across the region, much to the consternation of the sitting governor, Benjamin Travis Laney, an ardent Thurmond supporter. Sidney Sanders McMath (June 14 1912 October 4 2003 was a decorated U Benjamin Travis Laney Jr ( 25 November 1896 21 January 1977) was the Democratic Governor of Arkansas from Laney later used McMath's pro-Truman stance against him in the 1950 governatorial election, but McMath won the position handily.
Efforts by Dixiecrats to paint other Truman loyalists as turncoats generally failed, although the seeds of discontent were planted which in years to come took their toll on Southern moderates. Among these moderates was Rep. Brooks Hays of the 2nd District of Arkansas, whose efforts at reconciliation during the 1957 Little Rock School Crisis made him vulnerable to defeat in 1958 by a segregationist surrogate fielded by forces loyal to then-Governor Orval Faubus. Lawrence Brooks Hays ( 9 August 1898 - 11 October 1981) was a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives Orville Eugene Faubus ( January 7 1910 December 14 1994) was a six-term Democratic Governor of Arkansas, having served from Faubus had notoriously used the National Guard to bar entry to black pupils in defiance of a Federal court order.
On election day 1948, the Thurmond-Wright ticket carried the previously solid Democratic states of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and South Carolina, receiving 1,169,021 popular votes and 39 electoral votes. The United States presidential election of 1948 is considered by most Historians as the greatest election Upset in American history. Solid South refers to the electoral support of the Southern United States for Democratic Party candidates for nearly a century from 1877 the end of the Reconstruction The State of Louisiana ( or, État de Louisiane, pronounced) is a state located in the southern region of the United States of America The Electoral College consists of 538 popularly elected representatives who formally select the President and Vice President of the United States. Henry A. Wallace drew off a nearly equal number of popular votes (1,157,172) from the Democrats' left wing, although he did not carry any states. Henry Agard Wallace (October 7 1888 &ndash November 18 1965 was the thirty-third Vice President of the United States (1941&ndash45 the eleventh Secretary of The split in the Democratic party in the 1948 election was seen as virtually guaranteeing a victory by the Republican nominee, Thomas E. Dewey of New York, yet Truman was able to narrowly win election. Thomas Edmund Dewey ( March 24, 1902 – March 16, 1971) was the Governor of New York (1943-1955 and the unsuccessful Republican New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous
The States' Rights Democratic Party dissolved after the 1948 election.
Regardless of the power struggle within the Democratic Party concerning segregation policy, the South remained a strongly Democratic voting bloc for local, state, and federal Congressional elections. This was not true of Presidential elections.
In 1960, Democratic electors in Alabama and Mississippi appeared on the ballot as "unpledged electors" instead of as electors pledged to Democratic nominee John F. Kennedy. John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29 1917&ndashNovember 22 1963 often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of All 8 of Mississippi's electors, 6 of Alabama's 11 electors, and one stray elector from Oklahoma (a state carried by Richard Nixon) cast their votes for Senator Harry F. Byrd of Virginia. Harry Flood Byrd Sr ( June 10, 1887 – October 20, 1966) of Berryville in Clarke County Virginia was an American Alabama's remaining 5 electors voted for Kennedy.
In 1968, Alabama's Democratic former governor George C. Wallace ran for President on the American Independent Party ticket, and swept the electoral votes of the Deep South. George Corley Wallace Jr (August 25 1919 September 13 1998 was a Democratic Governor of Alabama for four terms (1963-1967 1971-1979 and 1983-1987 and ran for The American Independent Party is a California Political party. The American Independent Party failed to keep its foothold in the South. Its 1972 candidate was John G. Schmitz, a John Bircher from California, whose strongest showing in the 1972 election was 10% in Idaho, but who did poorly in the South. John George Schmitz (August 12 1930 &ndash January 10 2001 was a conservative Republican member of the United States House of Representatives from Orange The John Birch Society is a political education and action organization founded by Robert W Subsequent southern Dixiecrats running on the American Independent Party ticket included Lester Maddox and John Rarick, but these campaigns did not succeed either. Lester Garfield Maddox ( September 30, 1915 – June 25, 2003) was an American Democratic Party politician who was John Richard Rarick Sr (born January 29, 1924) is a lawyer in St
In the 1960s, the courting of white Southern Democratic voters was the basis of the "southern strategy" of the Republican Party's Presidential Campaigns. The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969 In American politics, the Southern strategy refers to a Republican method of carrying Southern states in the latter decades of the 20th century and first decade of Republican Presidential Candidate Barry Goldwater carried the Deep South in 1964, despite losing in a landslide in the rest of the nation to President Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas. The Deep South is a descriptive category of cultural and geographic subregions in the American South. Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. Johnson surmised that his advocacy behind passing the Civil Rights Act of 1964 would lose the South for the Democratic party and it did. Origins The bill was introduced by President John F Kennedy in his civil rights speech of June 11 1963, in which he asked for legislation "giving The only Democratic presidential candidate after 1956 to solidly carry the Deep South was President Jimmy Carter in the 1976 election. James Earl "Jimmy" Carter Jr (born October 1 1924 was the thirty-ninth President of the United States, serving from 1977 to 1981 and the recipient of the 2002
Senator Strom Thurmond switched parties and became a Republican as a result of his support for the Barry Goldwater campaign in 1964. Jesse Helms also switched his party registration to Republican in 1970 and won a Senate seat in North Carolina in 1972. Jesse Alexander Helms Jr (October 18 1921 – July 4 2008 was a five-term Republican United States Senator from North Carolina who served as chairman Phil Gramm of Texas, at the time a member of the House of Representatives, switched his party registration from Democrat to Republican in 1983. William Philip Gramm (born July 8 1942, in Fort Benning, Georgia, USA is an American politician who served as a Democratic Year 1983 ( MCMLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar) Several other Southern senators, such as Richard Russell, Jr. of Georgia and James Eastland and John Stennis of Mississippi remained in the Democratic Party. Richard Brevard Russell Jr ( November 2, 1897 – January 21, 1971) was an American Democratic Party politician who James Oliver Eastland ( November 28, 1904 – February 19, 1986) was an American politician from Mississippi who served John Cornelius Stennis ( August 3, 1901 – April 23, 1995) was a U They went on to become prominent senators who served multiple terms in the service of their respective states. These long careers in the Senate elevated their seniority and put them in positions of power and prestige.
Into the late 20th century, the South changed from a Democratic monolith to a majority Republican sector of the country with GOP gains in state legislatures. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on This change, which became quite evident in 1972 with the electoral success of Richard Nixon's "Southern Strategy", peaked with the elections of Ronald Reagan in 1980 and George Bush in 1988. In American politics, the Southern strategy refers to a Republican method of carrying Southern states in the latter decades of the 20th century and first decade of George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12 1924 served as the forty-first President of the United States from 1989 to 1993 It was consolidated in 1994 when Republicans gained a majority in the House of Representatives under the leadership of Newt Gingrich. The term can also refer to the 1911 Xinhai Revolution that led to the establishment of the Republic of China. Newton "Newt" Leroy Gingrich, (born Newton Leroy McPherson on June 17, 1943) is an American politician and author who served as the Speaker
- NOTE: check state legislature history for name and/or association.