Affinity • Attachment • Bonding • Boyfriend • Casual • Cohabitation • Compersion • Concubinage • Consort • Courtship • Divorce • Domestic partnership • Dower, dowry, and bride price • Family • Friendship • Girlfriend • Husband • Infatuation • Intimacy • Jealousy • Limerence • Love • Marriage • Monogamy • Nonmonogamy • Passion • Pederasty • Platonic love • Polyamory • Polyfidelity • Polygamy • Psychology of monogamy • Relationship abuse • Romance • Separation • Sexuality • Serial monogamy • Sexual orientation • Significant other • Soulmate • Wedding • Widowhood • Wife
Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. An interpersonal relationship is a relatively long-term association between two or more people Affinity in terms of Sociology, refers to " Kinship of Spirit " interest and other interpersonal commonalities. Attachment in adults deals with the theory of attachment in adult romantic relationships Human bonding refers to the development of a close Interpersonal relationship between family members or friends NOTICE*************** Casual relationship is a term used to describe the physical and emotional relationship between two people who may have a Sexual relationship or a near-sexual relationship without Cohabitation is when people live together in an emotionally- and/or physically- Intimate relationship. Compersion is a term used by practitioners of Polyamory or Swingers to describe the experience of taking pleasure that one's partner is with another person Concubinage is the state of a woman or youth in an ongoing quasi-matrimonial relationship with a man of higher social status CONSORT is the name of the combined Integrated library system shared by the CONSORT Colleges. Courtship is the traditional dating period before engagement and marriage A domestic partnership is a legal or Personal relationship between two individuals who live together and share a common domestic life but are neither joined by a traditional Not to be confused with Dowry, or with Dour. Dower or morning gift ( Latin doarium, or Latinized A dowry (also known as trousseau or tocher) is the money goods or estate that a woman brings to her soon to be husband in marriage Bride price also known as bride wealth is an amount of Money or Property or Wealth paid by the groom or his family to the Parents of Family denotes a group of People affiliated by consanguinity affinity or co-residence Friendship is a term used to denote co-operative and supportive behavior between two or more beings Girlfriend is a term that can refer to either a Female partner in a non- marital romantic relationship or a female non-intimate Friend A husband is a Male spouse (participant in a Marriage, Civil union or Civil partnership. Infatuation is the state of being completely carried away by unreasoned passion or Love; addictive love The meaning of intimacy varies from relationship to relationship and within a given relationship Limerence, as posited by psychologist Dorothy Tennov, is an involuntary Cognitive and emotional state in which a person feels an intense romantic Love is any of a number of Emotions and experiences related to a sense of strong Affection. NOTICE TO WOULD-BE ROMEOS ************** Monogamy is the custom or condition of having only one mate in a Relationship, thus forming a Couple. Nonmonogamy is a Blanket term covering several different types of Interpersonal relationship in which some or all participants have multiple marital, Passion (from the Latin patior, meaning to suffer or to endure is an emotion of feeling very strongly about a person Pederasty or paederasty refers to an erotic relationship sexually expressed or not between an adolescent boy and an adult male outside his immediate family Amor Platonicus The term amor platonicus was coined as early as the 15th century by the Florentine scholar Marsilio Ficino Polyamory (from Greek el πολυ meaning many or several and Latin la amor “love” is the desire practice or acceptance of having more than one Polyfidelity is a form of polyamorous Group marriage wherein all members consider each other to be primary partners and agree to be sexual only with other members The term polygamy (a Greek word meaning "the practice of multiple marriage" is used in related ways in Social anthropology, Sociobiology, and The psychology of monogamy deals with the thoughts feelings and behaviors that commonly occur in monogamous relationships Abuse refers to the use or treatment of something (a person item substance concept or vocabulary that is harmful NOTICE TO WOULD-BE-ROMEOS*************** Legal separation (sometimes "separate maintenance" " divorce a mensa et thoro," or "divorce from bed-and-board" is a possible step towards Human sexual behavior or different human sexual practices encompass a wide range of activities such as strategies to find or attract partners ( Mating and display Serial monogamy is characterized by a series of long- or short-term exclusive Sexual relationships entered into consecutively over the lifespan Sexual orientation is believed to refer to "an enduring pattern of emotional romantic and/or sexual attractions to men women or both sexes NOTICE TO WOULD-BE-ROMEOS*************** Soulmate (or soul mate) is a term sometimes used to designate someone with whom one has a feeling of deep and natural affinity Friendship, Love, Intimacy A wedding is the Ceremony in which two people are united in Marriage. WIDOW is a full-length Album recorded by British rock band Ritual released in 1983 A wife is a Female spouse or participant in a Marriage, or Civil union or Civil partnership. NOTICE TO WOULD-BE ROMEOS **************
It can be contrasted with an annulment, which is a declaration that a marriage is void, though the effects of marriage may be recognized in such unions, such as spousal support or alimony, child custody, child support, and distribution of property. Annulment in the Catholic Church See also Annulment (Catholic Church In the Roman Catholic Church, a marriage is considered to be a valid contract Effects of marriage is a Legal term of art used to describe all of the rights and obligations that individuals may be subject and entitled to if they are in a Common-law Alimony, maintenance or spousal support is an obligation established by Law in many countries that is based on the premise that both spouses have an absolute Child custody and '''guardianship''' are Legal terms which are sometimes used to describe the legal and practical relationship between a Parent and his In family law and government policy child support or child maintenance is the ongoing obligation for a periodic payment made directly or indirectly by a non-custodial parent Distribution of property is the division of Property, due to a death or the Dissolution of a marriage which was owned by the deceased or acquired during the
Divorce laws vary considerably around the world. It is banned in Malta and in the Philippines, but an annulment is permitted. Malta, officially the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta is a European Microstate, comprising an Archipelago of three islands The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP
In some jurisdictions, a divorce must be certified by a court of law, as a legal action is needed to dissolve the prior legal act of marriage. A court is a forum used by a power base to adjudicate disputes and dispense civil, labour administrative and criminal Justice under its Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society The terms of the divorce are also determined by the court, though they may take into account prenuptial agreements or postnuptial agreements, or simply ratify terms that the spouses have agreed on privately. A prenuptial agreement, antenuptial agreement, or premarital agreement, commonly abbreviated to prenup or prenupt, is a Contract entered Often, however, the spouses disagree about the terms of the divorce, which can lead to stressful and expensive litigation. In law a lawsuit is a civil action brought before a Court in which the party commencing the action the Plaintiff, seeks a legal or equitable remedy Less adversarial approaches to divorce settlements have recently emerged, such as mediation and collaborative divorce, which negotiate mutually acceptable resolution to conflicts. Mediation, a form of Alternative dispute resolution (ADR or "appropriate Dispute resolution " aims to assist two (or more disputants in reaching Overview and History Collaborative Family Law (also called Collaborative Practice Collaborative Divorce and Collaborative Law was originally a family law procedure in which In some other countries, like Portugal, when the spouses agree to divorce and to the terms of the divorce, it can be certified by a non judiciary administrative entity, where also can be served an Electronic Divorce since March 2008. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Electronic Divorce is the mean that allows two persons Married under certain Jurisdictions, such as Portugal, to file an Electronic request for
The subject of divorce as a social phenomenon is an important research topic in sociology. Sociology (from Latin: socius "companion" and the suffix -ology "the study of" from Greek λόγος lógos "knowledge" In many developed countries, divorce rates increased markedly during the twentieth century. Among the nations in which divorce has become commonplace are the United States, Canada, and members of the European Union. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Japan retains a markedly lower divorce rate, though it has increased in recent years. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics.
The approach to divorce varies by jurisdiction.
Under a no-fault divorce system the dissolution of a marriage does not require an allegation or proof of fault of either party to be shown. No-fault divorce is a Divorce in which the dissolution of a marriage requires neither a showing of wrong-doing of either party nor any evidentiary proceedings at all Common reasons for no-fault divorce include: incompatibility, irreconcilable differences, and irremediable breakdown of the marriage. Forty-nine of the United States have adopted unilateral no-fault divorce laws. No-fault divorce has been in operation in Australia since 1975 and the only thing the applicant needs to show is separation (or "deemed separation") for 12 months. The divorce application can be made by both parties jointly.
Fault divorces used to be the only way to break a marriage, and people who had differences only had the option to separate (and were prevented from legally remarrying). In the United States, only the state of New York still requires fault for a divorce. All other states have adopted no-fault divorce statutes.
However there are ways (defenses) to prevent a fault divorce:
A defense is expensive, and not usually practical as eventually most divorces are granted. Condonance may be made when an accuser has previously forgiven or condoned (in some way or at some level Supported the act about which they are complaining A legal finding of connivance may be made when an accuser has assisted in the act about which they are complaining Also see Provocation in English law. In Criminal law, provocation is a possible defense by excuse or exculpation Collusion is an agreement usually secretive which occurs between two or more persons to deceive mislead or defraud others of their legal rights or to obtain an objective forbidden
Comparative rectitude is a doctrine used to determine which spouse is more at fault when both spouses are guilty of breaches.
Fault divorce can affect the distribution of property, and will allow an immediate divorce, in states where there is a waiting period required for no-fault divorce.
Residency requirements vary from state to state, and a spouse may separate, move to a state with divorce laws of their choice, establish residency, and file. However, this typically does not change the state in which property and other issues are decided.
A summary (or simple) divorce, available in some jurisdictions, is used when spouses meet certain eligibility requirements, or can agree on key issues beforehand.
It is estimated that upwards of 95% of divorces in the US are "uncontested," because the two parties are able to come to an agreement (either with or without lawyers/mediators/collaborative counsel) about the property, children and support issues. A mortgage loan is a Loan secured by Real property through the use of a Mortgage (a legal instrument When the parties can agree and present the court with a fair and equitable agreement, approval of the divorce is almost guaranteed. If the two parties cannot come to an agreement, they may ask the court to decide how to split property, deal with the custody of their children.
Collaborative divorce is becoming a popular method for divorcing couples to come to agreement on divorce issues. Overview and History Collaborative Family Law (also called Collaborative Practice Collaborative Divorce and Collaborative Law was originally a family law procedure in which In a collaborative divorce, the parties negotiate an agreed resolution with the assistance of attorneys who are trained in the collaborative divorce process and in mediation, and often with the assistance of a neutral financial specialist and/or divorce coach(es). Overview and History Collaborative Family Law (also called Collaborative Practice Collaborative Divorce and Collaborative Law was originally a family law procedure in which The parties are empowered to make their own decisions based on their own needs and interests, but with complete information and full professional support. Once the collaborative divorce starts, the lawyers are disqualified from representing the parties in a contested legal proceeding, should the collaborative law process end prematurely. Overview and History Collaborative Family Law (also called Collaborative Practice Collaborative Divorce and Collaborative Law was originally a family law procedure in which Most attorneys who practice collaborative divorce claim that it can be substantially less expensive than other divorce methods (regular divorce or mediation). However, should the parties not reach any agreements, any documents or information exchanged during the collaborative process cannot later be used in further legal proceedings, as the collabrative process is confidential proceedings. Furthermore, there are no set enforceable timelines for completion of a divorce using collabrative divorce.
Divorce mediation is an alternative to traditional divorce litigation.  In a divorce mediation session, a mediator facilitates the discussion between the husband and wife by assisting with communication and providing information and suggestions to help resolve differences. At the end of the mediation process, the separating parties have typically developed a tailored divorce agreement that can be submitted to the court. Mediation sessions can include the party's attorneys or a neutral attorney or an attorney-mediator who can inform both parties of their legal rights, but does not provide advice to either, or can be conducted without attorneys. Divorce mediators may be attorneys who have experience in divorce cases. Divorce mediation can be significantly less expensive than litigation. . The adherence rate to mediated agreements is much higher than that of adherence to court orders.
Divorce existed in antiquity, dating at least back to ancient Mesopotamia. "Ancient" redirects here For other uses see Ancient_(disambiguation. Mesopotamia (from the Greek meaning "land between the rivers" is an area geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers largely corresponding The ancient Athenians liberally allowed divorce, but the person requesting divorce had to submit the request to a magistrate, and the magistrate could determine whether the reasons given were sufficient. The History of Athens is one of the longest of any city in Europe and in the world A magistrate is a judicial officer In Common law systems a magistrate usually has limited authority to administer and enforce the Law.
Divorce was rare in early Roman culture however. But as their empire grew in power and authority Roman civil law embraced the maxim, “matrimonia debent esse libera” ("marriages ought to be free"), and either husband or wife could renounce the marriage at will. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Roman law is the legal system of Ancient Rome. As used in the West the term commonly refers to legal developments prior to the Roman/Byzantine state's adopting Though civil authority rarely intervened in divorces, social and familial taboos guaranteed that divorce occurred only after serious circumspection.
The Christian emperors Constantine and Theodosius restricted the grounds for divorce to grave cause, but this was relaxed by Justinian in the sixth century. Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (27 February ca. 272 &ndash 22 May 337 commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or Saint Constantine After the fall of the empire, familial life was regulated more by ecclesiastical authority than civil authority. By the ninth or tenth century, the divorce rate had been greatly reduced under the influence of the Christian Church, which considered marriage a sacrament instituted by God and Christ indissoluble by mere human action. Church (disambiguation Christian Church and the word church are used to denote both a Christian association of people and a Place of worship A sacrament, as defined in Hexam's Concise Dictionary of Religion is "a Rite in which God is uniquely active God is the principal or sole Deity in Religions and other belief systems that worship one deity. Christ is the English term for the Greek ( Khristós) meaning "the anointed " 
Although divorce, as known today, was generally prohibited after the tenth century, separation of husband and wife and the annulment of marriage were well-known. Annulment in the Catholic Church See also Annulment (Catholic Church In the Roman Catholic Church, a marriage is considered to be a valid contract What is today referred to as “separate maintenance” (or "legal separation") was termed “divorce a mensa et thoro” (“divorce from bed-and-board”). Legal separation (sometimes "separate maintenance" " divorce a mensa et thoro," or "divorce from bed-and-board" is a possible step towards Legal separation (sometimes "separate maintenance" " divorce a mensa et thoro," or "divorce from bed-and-board" is a possible step towards The husband and wife physically separated and were forbidden to live or cohabit together; but their marital relationship did not fully terminate. Cohabitation is when people live together in an emotionally- and/or physically- Intimate relationship.  Civil courts had no power over marriage or divorce. In law a lawsuit is a civil action brought before a Court in which the party commencing the action the Plaintiff, seeks a legal or equitable remedy The grounds for annulment were determined by Church authority and applied in ecclesiastical courts. An ecclesiastical court (also called "Court Christian" or "Court Spiritual" is any of certain Courts having Jurisdiction mainly in spiritual or Annulment was known as “divorce a vinculo matrimonii,” or “divorce from all the bonds of marriage,” for canonical causes of impediment existing at the time of the marriage. Canon law is internal ecclesiastical law governing the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox churches and the Anglican Communion of churches “For in cases of total divorce, the marriage is declared null, as having been absolutely unlawful ab initio. ”  The Church held that the sacrament of marriage produced one person from two, inseparable from each other: “By marriage the husband and wife are one person in law: that is, the very being of legal existence of the woman is suspended during the marriage or at least incorporated and consolidated into that of the husband: under whose wing, protection and cover, she performs everything. ”  Since husband and wife became one person upon marriage, that oneness could only be annulled if the parties improperly entered into the marriage initially.
Marriage later came to be considered a civil contract, and on that basis civil authorities gradually asserted their power to decree divorce. A civil union is a legally recognized union similar to Marriage. Civil authority is that apparatus of the State other than its Military units that enforces law and order. Since no precedents existed defining the circumstances under which marriage could be dissolved, civil courts heavily relied on the previous determinations of the ecclesiastic courts and freely adopted the requirements set down by those courts. In Common law legal systems, a precedent or authority is a Legal case establishing a principle or rule that a Court or other judicial Ecclesiology (from Greek grc ἐκκλησίᾱ ekklēsiā, "congregation church" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study of the As the civil courts assumed the power to dissolve marriages, courts still strictly construed the circumstances under which they would grant a divorce, and now considered divorce to be contrary to public policy. Public policy is the body of fundamental principles that underpin the operation of legal systems in each state. Because divorce was considered to be against the public interest, civil courts refused to grant a divorce if evidence revealed any hint of complicity between the husband and wife to divorce, or if they attempted to manufacture grounds for a divorce. Divorce was granted only because one party to the marriage had violated a sacred vow to the "innocent spouse. A vow ( Lat votum, vow promise see Vote) is a promise or Oath. " If both husband and wife were guilty, "neither would be allowed to escape the bonds of marriage. "  Eventually, the idea that a marriage could be dissolved in cases in which one of the parties violated the sacred vow gradually allowed expansion of the grounds upon which divorce could be granted from those grounds which existed at the time of the marriage to grounds which occurred after the marriage, but which exemplified violation of that vow, such as abandonment, adultery, or “extreme cruelty. The term abandonment has a multitude of uses legal and extra-legal Adultery is the voluntary Sexual intercourse between a married person and another person who is not his or her Spouse, though in many places it is ”
In post Victorian America divorce rates sky rocketed as was shown in Elaine Tyler May's Great Expectations: Divorce in post Victorian America which argued that the shift from the repression of desire to pursuing it due to increased leisure time and the eight hour day, Americans expected more than duty from their spouses. The American home was no longer an abode for discipline and suppression of desire but a place for the pursuit of happiness and satisfaction. Divorce before the 1920's was based on the husband not providing 'life' necessities' for his child and wife. Later it became clear that men and women wanted to be sexually satisfied in their marriages as well as have the public chaste image. This clash in expecting old values with the best of the modern values cause much grief between couples leading to monetary problems and problems sexually, leading to divorce. The shift in the 1920's, to expect more from married life other than duty and chastity from the wife and hard work and suppression of vice from the husband leads us into the present predicament of the high divorce rates in this country.
The National Center for Health Statistics reports that from 1975 to 1988 in the US, in families with children present, wives file for divorce in approximately two-thirds of cases. National Center for Health Statistics ( NCHS) is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC which is part of the United States Department of In 1975, 71. 4% of the cases were filed by women, and in 1988, 65% were filed by women. 
According to a study published in the American Law and Economics Review, women currently file slightly more than two-thirds of divorce cases in the US.  There is some variation among states, and the numbers have also varied over time, with about 60% of filings by women in most of the 19th century, and over 70% by women in some states just after no-fault divorce was introduced, according to the paper. Evidence is given that among college-educated couples, the percentages of divorces initiated by women is approximately 90%.
In their study titled "Child Custody Policies and Divorce Rates in the US," Kuhn and Guidubaldi find it reasonable to conclude that women anticipate advantages to being single, rather than remaining married. 
When women anticipate a clear gender bias the courts regarding custody, they expect to be the primary residential parent for the children and the resulting financial child support, maintaining the marital residence, receiving half of all marital property, and gaining total freedom to establish new social relationships. Sexism is the belief or attitude that one Gender or Sex is inferior to or less valuable than the other and can also refer to a Hatred or distrust towards In their detailed analysis of divorce rates, Kuhn and Guidubaldi conclude that acceptance of joint physical custody may reduce divorce. States whose family law policies, statutes, or judicial practice encourage joint custody have shown a greater decline in their divorce rates than those that favor sole custody.
Many religions have varied attitudes towards divorce, ranging from prohibited to acceptable behavior. Relationship counseling is the process of Counseling the parties of a relationship in an effort to recognize and to better manage or reconcile troublesome differences Many countries in Europe, such as France, once prohibited Divorce, as it is not condoned by the Roman Catholic Church.
At times these religious attitudes may create a conflict with secular legal systems.
There are significant emotional, financial, medical and psychological implications of divorce. Emotional implications Divorce is often one of the most traumatic periods in a person's life
Different societies and legal jurisdictions have varying attitudes towards divorce. This article is a general overview of divorce laws around the world