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There are many divisions of Islam into sects, schools, traditions, and related faiths. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Aqidah (sometimes spelled Aqeeda, Aqidah or Aqida) (عقيدة is an Islamic term meaning Creed. Allah ( Arabic: الله, ʔalˤːɑːh) is the standard Arabic word for ' In Islam, God is believed to be the only real supreme being all-powerful and all knowing Creator Sustainer Ordainer and Judge of the universe Islam puts a heavy emphasis IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics Muslims regard as Prophets of Islam ( Arabic: نبي) those non-divine humans chosen by Allah as Prophets The Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic أركان الإسلام is the term given to the five duties incumbent on every Muslim. The Shahada ( Arabic: ar الشهادة, from the verb ar شهد "to testify" is the Islamic Creed. Ṣalāt ( Arabic: صلاة, pl ṣalawāt, Qur'anic Arabic: صلوة ṣalawah) (also munz in Pashto and Sawm ( Arabic: صوم is an Arabic word for Fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. Zakaat ( زكاة zækæːh zakaat or zakāh, has the implied The Hajj (حج is a pilgrimage to Mecca (Makkah It is the largest annual pilgrimage in the world Muslim history began in Arabia with the Muhammad 's first recitations of the Qur'an in the 7th century Caliph Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam There is much more to Muslim history than its military and political aspects this particular chronology is almost entirely of military and political nature See also Muhammad's wives Ahl al-Bayt ( Arabic:ar أهل البيت is an Arabic phrase literally meaning People of the House, or family In Islam, the Ṣaḥābah (الصحابة "Companions" were the companions of the Islamic prophet Muḥammad. The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( ar الخلفاء الراشدون) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first Imāmah (إمامة is the Shī‘ah doctrine of religious spiritual and political leadership of the Ummah. Qur'an Text Surahs ** Ayah Commentary/Exegesis Tafsir Sharia ( Arabic: ar شريعة) is the body of Islamic Religious law. The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran Sunnah ar (سنة plural سنن Sunan literally means “trodden path” and therefore the sunnah of the prophet means “the way and the manners of the prophet” Hadith ( ar الحديث, pl aḥadīth; lit. "narrative" are oral Traditions relating to the words and deeds of the Islamic Fiqh ( Arabic: فقه, fɪqəh is Islamic Jurisprudence. Fiqh is an expansion of the Sharia Islamic law—based directly on the Sharia ( Arabic: ar شريعة) is the body of Islamic Religious law. Kalām (علم الكلام is the Islamic philosophy of seeking Islamic theological principles through Dialectic. Sufism ( تصوّف - taṣawwuf, Persian: صوفیگری sufigari, Turkish: tasavvuf, Urdu: تصوف Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic Muslim Culture is a term primarily used in Secular Academia to describe all cultural practices common to historically Islamic peoples The term Muslim world (or Islamic world) has several meanings This is a sub-article to Religious education, Academic discipline, and Islam. This article is about Animals in Islamic thought The Qur'an assigns an inferior status to animals in comparison with humans and has a tendency towards Islamic art encompasses the arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people (not necessarily Muslim) who lived within the territory that was inhabited by culturally The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar ( Arabic: التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī; Persian: تقویم هجری قمری The topic of Islam and children includes the rights of children in Islam children's duties towards their parents and parent's rights over their children both males and females Listing of Muslims by country Important note Population counts by religious affiliation like most demographic characteristics of a Population Muslim holidays are mostly based around the life of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, especially the events surrounding the first hearing of the Qur'an. A "mosque" in English refers to all types of buildings dedicated for Islamic worship although there is a distinction in Arabic between the smaller privately owned mosque and the larger Islamic philosophy is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between Philosophy ( Reason) and the religious teachings See also Modern Islamic philosophy, Islamism, Islamic terrorism Political aspects of Islam are derived from the Quran, the Sunna Over the centuries of Islamic history, Muslim rulers Islamic scholars, and ordinary Muslims have held many different attitudes towards other religions The historical interaction between Christianity and Islam, in the field of Comparative religion, connects fundamental ideas in Christianity with similar ones in Islam Hinduism and Islam, from the of arrival of the Arabs as far back as the eighth century AD has had a checkered history Islam and Jainism came in close contact with each other following the Islamic conquest from Central Asia and Persia in the seventh The historical interaction of Judaism and Islam started in the 7th century CE with the origin and spread of Islam in the Arabian peninsula. In Islam, Muhammad is the last and final Prophet of God Islam views Jews Christians and Muslims as " People of the Book Arguments critical to religion in general or specific to monotheism such as the Existence of God, are not dealt with here Islamophobia is a Neologism that refers to Prejudice or Discrimination against Islam or Muslims The term itself dates back to the The following list consists of Concepts that are derived from both Islamic and Arab tradition which are expressed as words in the Arabic language. In the Sociology of religion a sect is generally a smaller religious or political group that has broken off from a larger group for example from a The two main approaches to division are either the grouping of Muslims into sects, or into Kalam or theological schools.
Shia Islam is the second largest denomination of Islam. Shi`a Muslims believe that, similar to the appointment of prophets, Imams after Muhammad are also chosen by God. According to Shi`as, Ali was chosen by Allah and thus appointed by Muhammad to be the direct successor and leader of the Muslim community. They regard him as the first Shia Imam, which continued as a hereditary position through Fatimah and Ali's descendants. Imāmah (إمامة is the Shī‘ah doctrine of religious spiritual and political leadership of the Ummah. Fatimah (فاطمة c 605 –632 was a daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad from his first wife Khadija.
Sunni Muslims, often referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h or Ahl as-Sunnah, are the largest denomination of Islam. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion Church (disambiguation A religious denomination is a subgroup within a Religion that operates under a common name tradition and identity For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation.
The word Sunni comes from the word Sunnah, which means the teachings and actions or examples of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. Sunnah ar (سنة plural سنن Sunan literally means “trodden path” and therefore the sunnah of the prophet means “the way and the manners of the prophet” Muslims regard as Prophets of Islam ( Arabic: نبي) those non-divine humans chosen by Allah as Prophets IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics Therefore, the term Sunni refers to those who follow or maintain the Sunnah of Muhammad.
The Sunni believe that Muhammad died without appointing a successor to lead the Muslim ummah (community). Ummah (أمة is an Arabic word meaning Community or Nation. It is commonly used to mean either the collective nation of states, or (in the After an initial period of confusion, a group of his most prominent companions gathered and elected Abu Bakr, Muhammad's close friend and father-in-law, as the first Caliph. Early life Abu Bakr was born at Mecca some time in the year 573 CE, in the Banu Taym branch of the Quraysh tribe The Caliph is the Head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah Sunnis regard the first four caliphs, Abu Bakr, Umar (`Umar ibn al-Khattāb), Uthman Ibn Affan and Ali (Ali ibn Abu Talib) as the al-Khulafā’ur-Rāshidūn or "Rashidun" (The Rightly Guided Caliphs). Umar (a=عمر بن الخطاب|t=`Umar ibn al-Khattāb c 581-83 CE &ndash 7 November, 644) also known as Umar the Great or Omar the Great Early life Uthman was born in Ta’if, which is situated on a hill and the presumption is that Uthman was born during the summer months since wealthy Meccans ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (a=علي بن أﺑﻲ طالب|t=ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib 13th Rajab, 24 BH – 21st Ramaḍān, 40 AH The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( ar الخلفاء الراشدون) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first
Sunnis believe that the position of Caliph may be democratically chosen, but after the first four Rightly Guided Caliphs the position turned into a hereditary dynastic rule. A dynasty is a succession of rulers who belong to the same family for generations After the fall of the Ottoman Empire in 1923, there has never been another widely recognized Caliph. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish
Kharijite (lit. Kharijites (Arabic Khawārij خوارج literally "Those who Went Out" is a general term embracing various Muslims who while initially supporting the "those who seceded") is a general term embracing a variety of Islamic sects which, while originally supporting the Caliphate of Ali, eventually rejected his legitimacy after he negotiated with Mu'awiya during the 7th Century Islamic civil war (First Fitna). Mu'awiyah I (a=معاوية بن أبي سفيان|t=Mu‘āwīyah ibn Abī Sufyān 602-680 was a Sahaba (companion of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad The First Islamic Civil War (656–661 also called the First Fitna (a=فتنة مقتل عثمان|t=Fitnah Maqtal Uthmān was the first major Civil  Their complaint was that the Imam must be spiritually pure, and that Ali's compromise with Mu'awiya was a compromise of his spiritual purity, and therefore of his legitimacy as Imam or Caliph. While there are few remaining Kharijite or Kharijite-related groups, the term is sometimes used to denote Muslims who refuse to compromise with those with whom they disagree.
Not strictly a denomination, Sufism is a mystical-ascetic form of Islam practised by many Sunni Muslims. Sufism ( تصوّف - taṣawwuf, Persian: صوفیگری sufigari, Turkish: tasavvuf, Urdu: تصوف Tariqah ( ar طريقه; pl طرق; Ṭuruq or Persian: Tarighat, Turkish: Tarikat) means "way" Mysticism (from the Greek grc μυστικός mystikos, an initiate of a Mystery religion) is the pursuit of communion with identity Ascetic redirects here You might also be looking for Acetic acid. By focusing on the more spiritual aspects of religion, Sufis strive to obtain direct experience of God by making use of "intuitive and emotional faculties" that one must be trained to use.  Sufism is usually considered to be complementary to orthodox Islam, although Sufism has been criticized by many Muslims for being an unjustified Bid‘ah or religious innovation. In Islam, bid‘ah ( is any type of Innovation. Though innovations in worldly matters are acceptable to an extent innovation within the religion is seen as a sin One starts with sharia (Islamic law), the exoteric or mundane practice of Islam and then is initiated into the mystical (esoteric path of a Tariqah (Sufi Order). Sharia ( Arabic: ar شريعة) is the body of Islamic Religious law. Exoteric refers to knowledge that is outside of and independent from anyone's experience and can be ascertained by anyone Sufi followers consider themselves as Sunni, while there are a few others who consider themselves as just 'Sufi' or Sufi-influenced.
Kalam is one of the 'religious sciences' of Islam. Kalām (علم الكلام is the Islamic philosophy of seeking Islamic theological principles through Dialectic. In Arabic, the word means "speech" or "discourse", and refers to the Islamic tradition of seeking theological principles through dialectic. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language In classical Philosophy, dialectic (διαλεκτική is controversy the exchange of arguments and counter-arguments respectively advocating Propositions The term is usually translated as 'theology'. Kalam traditions are divisions orthogonal to sectarian divisions of Islam, and a Mu'tazili may for example, belong to Jafari, Zaidi, or even a Hanafi sect/jurisprudence school, though the latter is usually a rare occurrence. Muʿtazilah ( Arabic المعتزلة al-mu`tazilah) is a theological school of thought within Sunni Islam. Kalam may sometimes be considered an extra-religious discipline like philosophy, to highlight the difference of it's logical foundation from revelatory foundation for religious knowledge, like jurisprudence, or fiqh. This is done by groups such as Salafis, whose intention is to alienate Kalam from Islam, or the Mu'tazili, who, in the positive end, exalt the knowledge of Kalam as preceding religious revelation.
Mu'tazili theology originated in the 8th century in al-Basrah when Wasil ibn Ata left the teaching lessons of Hasan al-Basri after a theological dispute. Muʿtazilah ( Arabic المعتزلة al-mu`tazilah) is a theological school of thought within Sunni Islam. Basra ( BGN: AlBasrah also called Basorah Abillah and Uruk or IRAQ The name that British colony has adopted for Basra TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Wasil ibn Ata (700–748 (واصل بن عطاء was a Muslim theologian TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> al-Hasan al-Basri (الحسن البصري (Abu Sa'id al-Hasan ibn Abi-l-Hasan Yasar He and his followers expanded on the logic and rationalism of Greek philosophy, seeking to combine them with Islamic doctrines and show that the two were inherently compatible. Ancient Greek philosophy focused on the role of Reason and Inquiry. The Mu'tazili debated philosophical questions such as whether the Qur'an was created or eternal, whether evil was created by God, the issue of predestination versus free will, whether God's attributes in the Qur'an were to be interpreted allegorically or literally, and whether sinning believers would have eternal punishment in hell. Evil, in many cultures is used to describe acts or thoughts which are contrary to some particular religion This is a sub-article of Sunni Islam, Aqidah and Predestination. Free will might be a good model for a longer lead--> Free will in theology is an important part of the debate on Free will in general Hell, according to many Religious beliefs, is a location in the Afterlife, which may be described as a place of suffering
Ash'ari is a school of early Islamic philosophy founded in the 10th century. The Ash'ari theology ( Arabic الأشاعرة al-asha`irah) is a school of early Muslim speculative theology founded by the theologian Abu al-Hasan Early Islamic philosophy or classical Islamic philosophy is a period of intense philosophical development beginning in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar It was instrumental in drastically changing the direction of Islam and laid the groundwork to "shut the door of ijtihad" centuries later in the Ottoman Empire. Ijtihad (Arabic اجتهاد is a technical term of Islamic law that describes the process of making a legal decision by independent interpretation of the legal sources The Asharite view was that comprehension of the unique nature and characteristics of God were beyond human capability. God is the principal or sole Deity in Religions and other belief systems that worship one deity.
A Maturidi is one who follows Abu Mansur Al Maturidi's theology, which is a close variant of the Ash'ari school. In Islam, a Maturidi ( Arabic: الماتريدي) is one who follows Abu Mansur Al Maturidi 's theology which is a close variant of the Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Mahmud Abu Mansur al-Samarqandi al-Maturidi al-Hanafi ( Arabic: محمد بن محمد بن محمود أبو منصور الماتريدي السمرقندي Points which differ are the nature of belief and the place of human reason. The Maturidis state that belief (iman) does not increase nor decrease but remains static; it is piety (taqwa) which increases and decreases. Taqwá (التقوى) is the Islamic concept of " God -consciousness" or Higher consciousness. The Ash'aris say that belief does in fact increase and decrease. The Maturidis say that the unaided human mind is able to find out that some of the more major sins such as alcohol or murder are evil without the help of revelation. The Ash'aris say that the unaided human mind is unable to know if something is good or evil, lawful or unlawful, without divine revelation.
Athari is a school that derives its name from the Arabic word Athar, meaning "Narrations". Athari ( al-Athariyya) in English is translated as textualism which is derived from the Arabic word Athar, which means "Narrations" The Athari methodology is to avoid delving into extensive theological speculation. They use the Qur'an, the Sunnah, and sayings of the Sahaba. The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran
Murji'ah (Arabic المرجئة) is an early Islamic school, whose followers are known in English as Murjites or Murji'ites (Arabic المرجئون). Murji'ah (Arabic المرجئة is an early Islamic school whose followers are known in English language as Murjites or Murji'ites (Arabic المرجئون English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States During the early centuries of Islam, Muslim thought encountered a multitude of infuences from various ethnic and philosophical groups that it absorbed. Murji'ah emerged as a theological school that was opposed to the Kharijites on questions related to early controversies regarding sin and definitions of what is a true Muslim. Kharijites (Arabic Khawārij خوارج literally "Those who Went Out" is a general term embracing various Muslims who while initially supporting the
They advocated the idea of "delayed judgement". Only God can judge who is a true Muslim and who is not, and no one else can judge another as an infidel (kafir). In Islam, God is believed to be the only real supreme being all-powerful and all knowing Creator Sustainer Ordainer and Judge of the universe Islam puts a heavy emphasis This article is on the Islamic religious term For the pejorative racial slur see Kaffir (ethnic slur. Therefore, all Muslims should consider all other Muslims as true and faithful believers, and look to Allah to judge everyone during the last judgment. Allah ( Arabic: الله, ʔalˤːɑːh) is the standard Arabic word for ' This theology promoted tolerance of Umayyads and converts to Islam who appeared half-hearted in their obedience. The Murjite opinion would eventually dominate that of the Kharijites.
The Murjites exited the way of the Sunnis when they declared that no Muslim would enter the hellfire, no matter what his sins. Jahannam (جهنم(in Turkish: cehennem in Bosnian: džehennem is the Islamic equivalent to Gei Hinnom, or Hell. This contradicts the traditional Sunni belief which states that some Muslims will enter the hellfire temporarily. Therefore the Murjites are classified as Ahlul Bid'ah or "People of Innovation" by traditional Ashari or Maturidi Sunni Muslims.
Twelvers are members of the group of Shi'a Islam who believe in twelve Imams. See also Shi'a Islam Twelver Shi'ism ( ar اثنا عشرية Ithnāˤashariyyah) is the largest branch of Shi'a branch of Islam The twelfth Imam is believed to be in occultation, and will appear again just before the Qiyamah (Islamic view of the Last Judgment). This is a sub-article to Imamah (Shi'a doctrine and is specifically about the Shi'a Twelver conception of the term In Shia Islam The Occultation is a term used to designate the hidden state of the Imam of the Time. In Islam, Yawm al-Qiyāmah "the Day of Resurrection" (يوم القيامة or Yawm ad-Din "the Day of Faith" (يوم الدين is God's final The Shi`a Hadiths include the sayings of the Imams. Many Muslims criticise the Shia for certain beliefs and practices, including practices such as the Mourning of Muharram (Mätam). See also Day of Ashura The Mourning of Muharram is an important period of mourning in the Shi'a branch of Islam, taking place in Muharram They are the largest Shi'a school of thought (80%), predominant in Azerbaijan, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon and Bahrain and are also present in the Indian subcontinent, Kuwait and the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Azerbaijan ( English; Azərbaycan officially the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası is the largest and most populous country in the South For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية The Kingdom of Bahrain (in مملكة البحرين,, literally Kingdom of the Two Seas) is an Island country in the Persian Gulf The State of Kuwait ( دولة الكويت IPA [dawlatt̪ alkuwajt̪]) is a sovereign Arab Emirate on the coast of the Persian Gulf, enclosed Eastern Province (الشرقية Ash-Sharqīyah) is the largest province of Saudi Arabia, located in the east of the country on the Persian
The Usuli form the overwhelming majority within the Twelver Shia denomination. Usulis ( are the majority Twelver Shi'a Muslim group They differ from their now much smaller rival Akhbari group in favoring the use of They follow Ayatollahs on the subject of taqlid and fiqh. Ayatollah ( Persian: آيتالله, âyato-llâh, from Arabic: آية الله, āyatu 'llāh, meaning 'the sign of Taqlid or taqleed ( Arabic تَقْليد taqlīd) is an Arabic term meaning "to follow (someone" or "to imitate" They are concentrated in Iran, Iraq, and Lebanon.
Alevis are sometimes categorized as part of Twelver Shi'a Islam, and sometimes as its own religious tradition, as it has markedly different philosophy, customs, and rituals. Alevis (Aleviler Elewî are a religious sub-ethnic and cultural community in Turkey, numbering in the millions They have many Sufi characteristics and express belief in the Qur'an and the Shi'a Imams, but reject polygamy and accept religious traditions predating Islam, like Turkish shamanism. Sufism ( تصوّف - taṣawwuf, Persian: صوفیگری sufigari, Turkish: tasavvuf, Urdu: تصوف The term polygamy (a Greek word meaning "the practice of multiple marriage" is used in related ways in Social anthropology, Sociobiology, and They are significant in East-Central Turkey. They are sometimes considered a Sufi sect, and have an untraditional form of religious leadership that is not scholarship oriented like other Sunni and Shia groups. They number around 25 million worldwide, of which 22 million are in Turkey, with the rest in the Balkans, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Azerbaijan, Iran and Syria. This article is about the country in southern Europe For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Albania topics. Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Latin script: Bosna i Hercegovina, Cyrillic script: Босна и Херцеговина is a country on the Balkan Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية
Akhbari, similar to Usoolis, however reject ijtihad in favor of hadith. The Akhbārī s ( "Traditionalists" are Twelver Shī‘a Muslims who reject the use of Ijtihad or reasoning in the creation of new laws Concentrated in Bahrain.
Alawites are also called Nusayris, Nusairis, Namiriya or Ansariyya. For the Alaouite dynasty of Morocco see Alaouite Dynasty, for the former state now in Yemen see Alawi (sheikhdom The Alawites Alawites claim to be Muslims, but they are not considered so by many Muslims, as their religion contains elements of other faiths, such as Christianity. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Alawis do not have a central religious or temporal authority. They do not set aside a particular building for worship and only men take part in worship. Because many of the tenets of the faith are secret, Alawites have refused to discuss their faith with outsiders. Slightly over one million of them live in Syria and Lebanon. 
Shaykhism is an Islamic religious movement founded by Shaykh Ahmad in the early 19th century Qajar, Iran, now retaining a minority following in Iran and Iraq. Shaykhism ( Arabic, الشيخية) is an Islamic religious movement founded by Shaykh Ahmad in early 19th century Qajar Iran Shaykh Ahmad ibn Zayn ad-Dín ibn Ibráhím al-Ahsá'í ( was ( 1753 - 1826) was the founder of a 19th century Shi`i school in the Persian and The Qajar dynasty (also known as Ghajar or Kadjar ( ( - or دودمان قاجار) is a common term to describe Iran (then known as Persia) under It began from a combination of Sufi and Shi‘a and Akhbari doctrines. In the mid 19th century many Shaykhis converted to the Bábí and Bahá'í religions, which regard Shaykh Ahmad highly. Bábism () is a religious movement that flourished in Persia from 1844 to 1852 then lingered on in exile in the Ottoman Empire (especially Cyprus) as The Bahá'í Faith is a Religion founded by Bahá'u'lláh in nineteenth-century Persia, emphasizing the spiritual unity of all humankind
The Ismailis and Twelvers both accept the same initial Imams from the descendants of Muhammad through his daughter Fatima Zahra and therefore share much of their early history. For the Egyptian city see Ismaïlia. The Ismāʿīlī ( Urdu: إسماعیلی Ismāʿīlī, Arabic: الإسماعيليون However, a dispute arose on the succession of the Sixth Imam, Ja'far al-Sadiq. Jaʿfar al-Sadiq (702-765 in accurate transliteration Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq Arabic: جعفر الصادق in full Jaʿfar ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Husayn The Ismailis are those who accepted Ja'far's eldest son Ismail as the next Imam, whereas the Twelvers accepted a younger son, Musa al-Kazim. Isma'il ibn Jafar ( Arabic: إسماعيل بن جعفر c 721 CE/103 AH - 755 CE/138AH was the eldest son of the sixth Shia Imam, Jafar as-Sadiq Mūsá ibn Ja‘far ibn Muḥammad al-Kāżim (الإمام موسى الكاظم ( October 28, 746 AD - September 1, 799 / Today, Ismailis are concentrated in Pakistan and other parts of South Asia. Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and
The Nizāriyya are the largest branch (90%) of Ismaili, they are the only Shia group to be have their absolute temporal leader in the rank of Imamate, which is currently invested in Aga Khan IV. See also Ismaili The Nizārī s (النزاريون an-Nizāriyyūn) are the largest branch of the Ismā‘īlī (اسماعیلیه and comprise Karīm al-Hussaynī Āgā Khān IV, KBE, CC, GCC, GCIH ( سمو الأمیر شاہ کریم الحسیني آغا خان Their present living Imam is Mawlānā Shah Karim Al-Husayni who is the 49th Imam. The Nizāriyya believe that the successor-Imām to the Fatimid caliph al-Mustansir was his elder son al-Nizār. For the 13th century Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad see Al-Mustansir. Abū Manṣūr an-Nizār al-Mustafa ad-Dīni l-Lāh was a Fatimid Caliph and a Nizāri Ismā‘ilī Imām. However, the Fatimid Regent appointed al-Mustansir's younger son al-Mustaˤlī as caliph and as a result, an-Nizār died in prison after he failed to claim the throne by rebellion. Aḥmad al-Musta‘lī (احمد المستعلى d 1101 was the ninth Fatimid Caliph. They are the spiritual descendants of the so called "Assassins" of Alamut under the leadership of Dā'ī Hassan as-Sabbaħ
The Mustaali group of Ismaili Muslims differ from the Nizāriyya in that they believe that the successor-Imām to the Fatimid caliph, al-Mustansir, was his younger son al-Mustaˤlī, who was made Caliph by the Fatimad Regent Al-Afdal Shahanshah. The Hashshashin (also Hashishin, Hashashiyyin, Hashasheen or Assassins) were an offshoot of the Ismā'īlī sect of Shia Alamūt ( Persian الموت "Eagle Peak" often appearing in the folk etymological form قلعه الموت Qal‘atu l-Mūt "the Castle of Death" Hassan-i Sabbāh (حسن صباح حسن الصباح Hassan aṣ-Ṣabbāḥ, c See also Imamah (Shi'a Ismaili doctrine The Musta‘lī (مستعلي Ismā'īlī Muslims are so named because they accept al-Musta‘lī al-Malik al-Afdal ibn Badr al-Jamali Shahanshah (1066 &ndash December 11, 1121) (الأفضل شاهنشاه بن بدر الجمالي was a Vizier of
In contrast to the Nizaris, they accept the younger brother al-Mustaˤlī over Nizar as their Imam. See also Imamah (Shi'a Ismaili doctrine The Musta‘lī (مستعلي Ismā'īlī Muslims are so named because they accept al-Musta‘lī The Bohras are an offshoot of the Taiyabi, which itself was an offshoot of the Mustaali. A branch of Mustaali Ismailism that split with the Fatimid supporting Hafizi branch by believing Tayyab Abī l-Qāsim was the rightful Imam The Taiyabi, supporting another offshoot of the Mustaali, the Hafizi branch, split with the Mustaali Fatimid, who recognized Al-Amir as their last Imam. A branch of Mustaali Ismailism that believed the current ruler of the Fatimid Empire after the reign of Al-Amir Bi-Ahkamillah, Al-Hafiz was also Al-Amīr bi'Aḥkāmi l-Lah (1096&ndash1130 (الآمر بأحكام الله was the tenth Fatimid Caliph (1101&ndash1130 The split was due to the Taiyabi believing that Tayyab Abī al-Qāsim was the next rightful Imam after Al-Amir. According to Taiyabi Mustaaali Ismaili Muslims, Taiyab abi al-Qasim (or Tayyib Arabic طيب was the 21st and last Fatimid Imam (or hereditary The Hafizi themselves however considered Al-Hafiz as the next rightful Imam after Al-Amir. Al-Ḥāfiz (الحافظ) (died 1149 was the eleventh Caliph of the Fāṭimids (r
The Bohras believe that their 21st Imam, Taiyab abi al-Qasim, went into seclusion and established the offices of the Da'i al-Mutlaq (داعي المطلفق), Ma'zoon (مأذون) and Mukasir (مكاسر). The term Dāˤī al-Mutlaq (الداعي المطلق literally means "the absolute or unrestricted missionary " The Bohras are the only surviving branch of the Mustaali and themselves have split into the Dawoodi Bohra, Sulaimani Bohra, and Alavi Bohra. Dawoodi Bohras ( Arabic: داؤدی بوہرہ Hindi: दवूदि बोह्रा are the main branch of the Bohras, a Musta‘lī subsect Sulaymanis are a Musta‘lī Ismaili community that predominantly reside in Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Pakistan and India Alavi Bohra (علوی بوہرہ are a subsect of Ismaili Mustaali.
The Dawoodi Bohras are a denomination of the Bohras. Dawoodi Bohras ( Arabic: داؤدی بوہرہ Hindi: दवूदि बोह्रा are the main branch of the Bohras, a Musta‘lī subsect After offshooting from the Taiyabi the Bohras split into two, the Dawoodi Bohra and the Sulaimani Bohra, over who would be the correct dai of the community. Da‘wah usually denotes proselytizing of Islam. The Arabic دعوة da‘wah means literally "issuing a summons" Concentrated mainly in Pakistan and India. Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and
The Sulaimani Bohra named after their 27th Da'i al-Mutlaq, Sulayman ibn Hassan, are a denomination of the Bohras. Sulaymanis are a Musta‘lī Ismaili community that predominantly reside in Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Pakistan and India The term Dāˤī al-Mutlaq (الداعي المطلق literally means "the absolute or unrestricted missionary " After offshooting from the Taiyabi the Bohras split into two, the Sulaimani Bohra and the Dawoodi Bohra, over who would be the correct dai of the community. Concentrated mainly in Yemen. Yemen ( Arabic: اليَمَن al-Yaman officially the Republic of Yemen ( Arabic: الجمهورية اليمنية al-Jumhuuriyya
Split from the Dawoodi Bohra over who would be the correct dai of the community. Alavi Bohra (علوی بوہرہ are a subsect of Ismaili Mustaali. The smallest branch of the Bohras.
Zaidiyyahs separated from the Twelver and Ismaili sects of Shi'a Islam over a disagreement as to who the fifth Imam was. Zaidiyya, Zaidism or Zaydism (Arabic الزيدية az-zaydiyya, adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi) is a Shī'a Madhhab Twelvers and Ismailis believe it was Muhammad al-Baqir, while Zaidis hold that it was his half-brother, Zayd ibn Ali. Muḥammad ibn ‘Alī al-Baqir (محمد ابن علي الباقر) (676-743 AD or 1 Rajab 57 AH – 7 Dhu al-Hijjah 114 AH was the Fifth Imām Zayd ibn ‘Alī ( زيد بن علي, also spelled Zaid) (695-740 He was given the title "Zayd the Martyr" ( Zayd ash-Shahīd) by his sympathizers
Madhhab is an Islamic term that refers to a school of thought or religious jurisprudence, or fiqh, within Sunni Islam. Madhhab or Mazhab ( Arabic مذهب mæðhæb pl مذاهب mæðæːhıb) is an Islamic school of thought, or Fiqh ( Arabic: فقه, fɪqəh is Islamic Jurisprudence. Fiqh is an expansion of the Sharia Islamic law—based directly on the Each of the Sahaba had a unique school of jurisprudence, but these schools were gradually consolidated or discarded so that there are currently four recognized schools. In Islam, the Ṣaḥābah (الصحابة "Companions" were the companions of the Islamic prophet Muḥammad. The differences between these schools of thought manifest in minor practical differences, as most Sunni Muslims consider them all fundamentally the same. Sunnis generally do not identify themselves with a particular of the following schools of thought - simply calling themselves "Sunnis".
Founded by Imam Abu Hanifa an-Nu‘man, Hanafi is considered to be the school most open to modern ideas. The Hanafi ( Arabic حنفي school is the oldest of the four schools of thought ( Madhhabs An imam (إمام plural ائمة A'immah, امام is an Islamic leader often the leader of a Mosque and/or community Al-Imam al-A'zam ( الامام الاعظم) "The Greatest Imam" Nu’man bin Thabit bin Zuta bin Mahan ( النعمان بن ثابت) better known by It is predominant among Sunni Muslims in Pakistan, northern Egypt, the Indian subcontinent, Iraq, Turkey, Balkans and in many western countries. Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia For geopolitical treatments see South Asia. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches
One of the two major divisions of the Hanafi school of thought. The Deobandi ( Urdu: دیو بندی devbandī) is a Sunni Islamic revivalist movement which started in India and has more recently Deobandi are Muslims of South Asia and Afghanistan, and have more recently spread to other countries such as South Africa and the United Kingdom. Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Deobandis follow the fiqh of Imam Abu Hanifa and the Maturidi school of kalam. It is a reformationist movement within the Hanafi school of fiqh that advocates a return to the early days of Islam, quite like the Wahabis in the Hanbali school of fiqh. Wahhabism ( Arabic: Al-Wahhābīyya الوهابية or Wahabism is a conservative reformist call of Sunni Islam attributed to Hanbali ( حنبلى) is one of the four schools ( Madhhabs of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam (the other three being The Taliban are reputed to follow the teachings of the Deoband school, although a strict and simplistic version of the school's teachings. The Taliban ( طالبان, also anglicised as Taleban; translation "students" is a Sunni Islamist, predominately Depite their differences with the Barelwis or traditionalists, they consider themselves the Ahle Sunnah Wal Jamaah.
The Barelwi movement, which started in India, is one of the two major divisions of the Hanafi school of thought. Barelwi or Barelvi ( Hindi: बरेलवी Urdu: بریلوی is a movement of Sunni Sufism in South Asia that was founded by India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country They follow the fiqh of Imam Abu Hanifa and one of the Ash'ari/Maturidi schools of kalam. The Hanafi ( Arabic حنفي school is the oldest of the four schools of thought ( Madhhabs The Ash'ari theology ( Arabic الأشاعرة al-asha`irah) is a school of early Muslim speculative theology founded by the theologian Abu al-Hasan In Islam, a Maturidi ( Arabic: الماتريدي) is one who follows Abu Mansur Al Maturidi 's theology which is a close variant of the Kalām (علم الكلام is the Islamic philosophy of seeking Islamic theological principles through Dialectic. They are traditionalist and orthodox in approach, and defend several traditional acts such as visiting graves, limited veneration of Muhammad or walis and Mawlid, all of which are discouraged by the Deobandis. Wali (Arabic ولي, plural Awliya ' أولياء) is an Arabic word meaning trusted one or friend generally denoting Mawlid ( Eid Milad an Nabi ( Turkish:Mevlid ( Qur'anic مَوْلِدُ آلنَبِيِّ mawlidu n-nabiyyi, “Birth of the Prophet” The Deobandi ( Urdu: دیو بندی devbandī) is a Sunni Islamic revivalist movement which started in India and has more recently The chief opponents of the Barelwis are Sunni reformationist movements such as Deobandism in India, and Salafism in Saudi Arabia. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi The Barelwi constitute the majority of the Hanafis, and generally call themselves the Ahle Sunnah Wal Jamaah, or often, simply Sunnis.
Hanbali is considered to be the most conservative of the four schools and the one that relies on Hadith the most. Hanbali ( حنبلى) is one of the four schools ( Madhhabs of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam (the other three being Hadith ( ar الحديث, pl aḥadīth; lit. "narrative" are oral Traditions relating to the words and deeds of the Islamic The school was started by the students of Imam Ahmad. Ahmed ibn Hanbal ( Arabic: أحمد بن حنبل Ahmad bin Hanbal) (780 - Hanbali jurisprudence is predominant among Muslims in the Arabian Peninsula. The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية šibh al-jazīra al-ʻarabīya or جزيرة العرب jazīrat al-ʻarab)
The Maliki school derives from the work of Imam Malik ibn Anas. The Maliki Madhhab ( Arabic مالكي) is one of the four schools of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Malik ibn Anas ibn Malik ibn 'Amr al-Asbahi ( Arabic مالك بن أنس Maliki is practiced in North and West Africa. North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan West Africa or Western Africa is the Westernmost Region of the African Continent. It is the second-largest of the four schools, followed by approximately 25% of Muslims.
Shafi`i was founded by Imam Muhammad ibn Idris ash-Shafi`i, and has adherents among many high ranking Islamic scholars. The Shāfi‘ī Madhab ( ar شافعي) is one of the four schools of Fiqh, or religious law within TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Al-Shafi'i, Arabic Jurist (150 AH/767 AD - 204 AH/820 AD It is practiced throughout the Ummah, but is most prevalent in Egypt, Somalia, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore and the Philippines, and is the school of thought officially followed by the government of Brunei Darussalam and Malaysia. Somalia ( Soomaaliya; الصومال) officially the Somali Republic ( Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya, جمهورية الصومال) and formerly known The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj Singapore The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP Brunei Darussalam, (bruːˈnaɪ in English officially the State of Brunei Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam Jawi: برني دارالسلام For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and It is followed by approximately 15% of Muslims world-wide.
The only surviving Kharijite sect -at least by name- is the Ibādī. The Ibadi movement or Ibadiyya (Arabic الاباضية al-Ibāḍiyyah is a form of Islam distinct from the Shi'a and Sunni denominations The sect developed out of the 7th century Islamic sect of the Kharijites. Nonetheless, Ibadis see themselves as quite different from the Kharijite. Believed to be one of the earliest schools, it is said to have been founded less than 50 years after the death of Muhammad.
It is the dominant form of Islam in Oman, but small numbers of Ibadi followers may also be found in countries in Northern and Eastern Africa. Oman, officially the Sultanate of Oman ( Arabic: سلطنة عُمان) is an Arab Country in Southwest Asia on the southeast East Africa is the Easternmost Region of the African Continent. The early medieval Rustamid dynasty in Algeria was Ibadi. The Rustamid (or Rustumid, Rostemid) dynasty of Ibāḍī Kharijite imāms ruled the central Maghreb as a Muslim theocracy Algeria ( ar [[Arabic]] الجزائر, Al Jaza'ir ælʤæˈzæːʔir Amazigh: ⴷⵥⴰⵢⴻⵔ Dzayer) officially the People's
Ibadis usually consider non-Ibadi Muslims as unbelievers, though nowadays this attitude has highly relaxed. They approve of the caliphates of Abū Bakr and Umar ibn al-Khattab, whom they regard as the "Two Rightly Guided Caliphs". Specific beliefs include: walāyah- friendship and unity with the practicing true believers and the Ibadi Imams, barā'ah- dissociation and hostility towards the unbelievers and sinners, and wuqūf- reservation towards those whose status is unclear. While Ibadi Muslims maintain most of the beliefs of the original Kharijites, they have rejected the more aggressive methods.
The Sufris (Arabic: سفريين) were a sect of Islam in the 7th and 8th centuries, and a part of the Kharijites. The Sufris (سفريين were a Sect of Islam in the 7th and 8th centuries, and a part of the Kharijites. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language They believe Sura 12 (Yusuf) of the Qur'an is not an authentic Sura. Sura Yusuf ( سورة يوسف, Sūratu Yūsuf, " Joseph " is the 12th sura of the Qur'an, with 111 Ayat. Sura (sometimes spelt "Surah" ar سورة, plural "Suwar" ar سور is an Arabic term literally meaning "something enclosed or surrounded
The Bektashi Order was founded in the 13th century by the Islamic saint Hajji Bektash Wali, and greatly influenced during its fomulative period by the Hurufi Ali al-'Ala in the 15th century and reorganized by Balim Sultan in the 16th century. Bektashism (Bektaşilik is an Islamic Sufi order ( Tariqat) considered to be a distinct branch of Shi'a Islam Hajji Bektash Wali ( Ḥājī Baktāš Wālī; Turkish: Hacı Bektaş Veli) was a Persian Hurufism ( حروفية hurufiyya, adjective form hurufi) was a mystical kabbalistic Sufi doctrine which spread in areas of western Persia, Bektashi are concentrated in Turkey and Albania.
The Chishti Order (Persian: چشتیہ ) was founded by (Khawaja) Abu Ishaq Shami ("the Syrian") (d. The Chishti Order ( - Češtī) is a Sufi order within the mystic branches of Islam which was founded in Chisht, a small town near Herat Khawaja or Khwaja ( Arabic: خواجة khawājah, Persian: خواجه pronounced khâje) is a title used A Sufi Sheikh Abu Ishaq Shami is one of the first among the Chishti Sufi order to call himself Chisti ( of Chisht) 941) who brought Sufism to the town of Chisht, some 95 miles east of Herat in present-day Afghanistan. Chisht is a town near Herat in Afghanistan. It is important in Sufism because the Chishti Sufi Order originated there area3018 sq mi Herāt ( classically called the Aria, is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. Before returning to the Levant, Shami initiated, trained and deputized the son of the local Emir, (Khwaja) Abu Ahmad Abdal (d. Emir ( Arabic: ar أمير;, female أميرة; emira;) ( Farsi and Urdu: امیر) Abu Ahmad Abdal was son of Sultan Farsanafah He was a Sufi saint of Chishti order 966). Under the leadership of Abu Ahmad’s descendants, the Chishtiyya as they are also known, flourished as a regional mystical order.
The Naqshbandi order is one of the major Sufi orders of Islam. Naqshbandi ( Naqshbandiyya) is one of the major Tasawwuf orders ( Tariqa) of Islam. Formed in 1380, the order is considered by some to be a "sober" order known for its silent dhikr (remembrance of God) rather than the vocalized forms of dhikr common in other orders. Dhikr ذکر Plural اذكار Adhkaar ( Zikir in Turkish and Malay, Zikr in Urdu, Jikir in Bengali and Zekr The word Naqshbandi نقشبندی is Persian, taken from the name of the founder of the order, Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari. Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari ( 1318 – 1389) was the founder of what would become one of the largest and most influential Sufi Muslim orders Some have said that the translation means "related to the image-maker," some also consider it to mean "Pattern Maker" rather than "image maker," and interpret "Naqshbandi" to mean "Reformer of Patterns", and others consider it to mean "Way of the Chain" or "Golden Chain. "
The Oveyssi Order was founded 1,400 years ago by Oveys Gharani from Yemen. Uwais al-Qarni or "Oways b Anis al-Qarni" "Oveys Gharani" or "Veysel Karani"( Arabic: أويس بن انيس القرني (died 657 Oveys received the teachings of Islam inwardly through his heart and lived by the principles taught by him, although he had never physically met Muhammad. At times Muhammad would say of him, "I feel the breath of the Merciful, coming to me from Yemen. " Shortly before Muhammad passed away, he directed Umar (second Caliph) and Ali (the first Imam of the Shi'a) to take his cloak to Uwais. According to Ali Hujwiri, Farid ad-Din Attar of Nishapur and Sheikh Muhammad Ghader Bagheri, the first recipient of Muhammad’s Cloak was Oveys. Abul Hassan Ali Ibn Usman al-Jullabi al-Hajvery al-Ghaznawi or Abul Hassan Ali Hajvery (علی بن عثمان الجلابی الهجویری الغزنوی (sometimes Abū Hamīd bin Abū Bakr Ibrāhīm (born 1145-46 in Nishapur &ndash died c Nishapur, or Neyshābūr ( is a city in the Razavi Khorasan province in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot
The Oveyssi order is still in existence today, with over 500,000 students and numerous centers worldwide. The present Pir, Molana Salaheddin Ali Nader Shah Angha, was officially appointed as the forty-second Sufi master in the unbroken chain of transmission on September 4, 1970, when the cloak of Muhammad was bestowed upon him by his father Shah Maghsoud Sadegh Angha. Pir ( Persian: (پیر literally "old " is a title for a Sufi master Events 476 - Romulus Augustus, last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, is deposed when Odoacer proclaims himself Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
The Qadiri Order is one of the oldest Sufi Orders. Qadiriyyah ( Arabic: القادريه, Turkish: Kadirilik) (also Transliterated Kadri, Elkadry, Kadray It derives its name from Abdul-Qadir Gilani (1077-1166), a native of the Iranian province of Gīlān. Shaikh Sayyid 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani ( Persian / Urdu: عبد القادرگیلانی) (also spelled Abdelkader Abdul Qadir Abdul Khadir - Jilani Jeelani Jilali The order is one of the most widespread of the Sufi orders in the Islamic world, and can be found in India, Pakistan, Turkey and the Balkans and much of East and West Africa. The Qadiriyyah have not developed any distinctive doctrines or teachings outside of mainstream Islam. They believe in the fundamental principles of Islam, but interpreted through mystical experience.
The Suhrawardiyya order (Arabic: سهروردية ) is a Sufi order founded by Abu al-Najib al-Suhrawardi (1097 – 1168). Suhrawardiyya ( Arabic: سهروردية) is the name of a Sufi order founded by Iranian Sufi Diya al-din Abu 'n-Najib as-Suhrawardi ( 1097 – Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language Abu al-Najib al-Suhrawardi (1097–1168 CE was an Iranian Sufi.
Salafis preach Islamic monotheism (tawhid), and gained significant teachings from Ibn Taymiyyah, a 14th century Syrian scholar. For the Celtic Frost album see Monotheist (album In Theology, monotheism (from Greek grc [[wiktμόνος μόνος]] Taqi ad-Din Ahmad ibn Taymiyyah ( January 22, 1263 &ndash 1328 was a Sunni Islamic scholar born in Harran, located Salafism is in general opposed to Sufism and Shi'a Islam, which they regard as heresies. Heresy is an introduced change to some system of belief especially a religion that conflicts with the previously established canon of that belief Salafi theology advocates a puritanical and legalistic stance in matters of faith and religious practice. They see their role as a movement to restore Islam from what they perceive to be innovations, superstitions, deviances, heresies and idolatries. Superstition ( Latin superstitio, literally "standing over" derived perhaps from standing in awe used in Latin as a unreasonable or excessive belief Idolatry is usually defined as Worship of any Cult image, Idea, or object, as opposed to the worship of a monotheistic God.
Wahhabism was revived by the 18th century teacher Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab in the Arabian peninsula, and was instrumental in the rise of the House of Saud to power. Wahhabism ( Arabic: Al-Wahhābīyya الوهابية or Wahabism is a conservative reformist call of Sunni Islam attributed to Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab at-Tamimi' (1703&ndash1792 ( Arabic: محمد بن عبد الوهاب التميمي)was an Islamic scholar born in The House of Saud ( Arabic: آل سعود romanized Āl Suʿūd is the Royal family of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Wahhabism is a puritanical and legalistic Islamic movement under the Sunni umbrella, and is the dominant form of Islam in Saudi Arabia. The terms "Wahhabism" and "Salafism" are often used interchangeably. In addition to the Qur'an and hadith, Wahhabi followers also accept various commentaries including Ibn Abd al-Wahhab's Kitab al-Tawhid ("Book of Monotheism"), and the works of earlier scholars like Ibn Taymiyya for religious guidance. They are often associated with the Hanbali madh'hab.
Liberal and progressive movements have in common a religious outlook which depends mainly on ijtihad or re-interpretations of scriptures. Progressive Muslims have produced a considerable body of liberal thoughts within Islam (in Arabic: الإسلام الاجتهادي Liberal Muslims believe in greater autonomy of the individual in interpretation of scripture, a critical examination of religious texts, gender equality, and a modern view of culture, tradition, and other ritualistic practices in Islam.
Islamism is a term that refers to a set of political ideologies derived from various fundamentalist views, which hold that Islam is not only a religion, but a political system governing the legal, economic and social imperatives of the state. Islamism ( Islam + ism; Arabic: al-'islāmiyya) a set of ideologies holding that Islam is not only An ideology is a set of beliefs aims and Ideas especially in politics Islamic fundamentalism Arabic: usul (from usul the "fundamentals"] is a term used to describe religious ideologies seen as advocating a return to the A political system is a System of Politics and Government. It is usually compared to the Law system, Economic system, Cultural Islamists often do not refer to themselves as such and it is not a united movement. Religious views of its adherents vary and may be Shia or Sunni. Islamist groups include Al-Qaeda, the organizer of the September 11, 2001 attacks and perhaps the most prominent; the Muslim Brotherhood, perhaps the oldest, which also forms the largest opposition grouping in Egypt. Al-Qaeda, alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qa`ida or al-Qa`idah, ( Arabic:; ar-Latn ''al-qāʿidah'' Translation: The The Muslim Brothers ( Arabic: الإخوان المسلمون al-ikhwān al-muslimūn, full title The Society of the Muslim Brothers, often simply الإخوان Others include the Jamaat-e-Islami political parties in South Asia, Hizb ut Tahrir and Hezbollah in Lebanon. Jamaat-e-Islami ( Urdu: جماعتِ اسلامی, " Islamic Block " Jamaat, JI) is an Islamist Hezbollah (حزب الله, literally " party of God " is a Shi'a Islamic political and Paramilitary organisation Although violence is often employed by some organizations, not all Islamist movements are violent.
Originating in India in 1938 in Mewat, Tablighi Jama'at aims to bring spiritual awakening to the world Muslims. Tablighi Jamaat ("Conveying Group" ( Arabic: جماعة التبليغ, also Tabligh) is a Muslim Missionary and revival Mewat District is a district of Haryana Haryana state in India. It was Maulana Ilyas who laid the spiritual foundation of the Movement. Maulana Muhammad Ilyas Kandhelvi ( was the founder of the Islamic revivalist movement Tablighi Jamaat.
These religious traditions are not recognized as sects of Islam by mainstream Islamic fiqh, but claim themselves to be Muslim. Fiqh ( Arabic: فقه, fɪqəh is Islamic Jurisprudence. Fiqh is an expansion of the Sharia Islamic law—based directly on the They are considered heretical by mainstream Muslims.
Members of the Ahmadiyya (also known as the Qadiani and Mirzai) movement are followers of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, who claimed to be the Mujaddid of the 14th Islamic century, the promised Messiah ("Second Coming of Christ") and Mahdi, as well as the likeness of Krishna, and the likeness of other Islamic prophets. Ahmadiyya ( احمدیہ Ahmadiyya) is a movement that arose out of mainstream Islam towards the end of the 19th century Mirza Ghulām Ahmad of Qadian ( ميرزا غلام احمد) ( February 13, 1835 – May 26, 1908 CE Shawal 14 1250 – A Mujaddid (مجدد in Islamic tradition refers to a person who Muslims believe is sent by God in the first half of every century of the Islamic The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar ( Arabic: التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī; Persian: تقویم هجری قمری This article is about the concept of a Messiah in religion notably in the Christian Islamic and Jewish traditions In Christianity, the Second Coming is the anticipated return of Jesus Christ from Heaven to earth an event that will fulfill aspects of Messianic Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) In Islamic eschatology the Mahdi ( ar مهدي, also Mehdi; "Guided One" is the prophesied redeemer of Islam who will stay on earth Krishna (कृष्ण in Devanagari kṛṣṇa in IAST, ˈkr̩ʂɳə in classical Sanskrit is a deity worshiped across many traditions of Hinduism The followers are divided into two groups, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community and the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement for the Propagation of Islam, the former believing that Mirza Ghulam Ahmad was a non-law bearing prophet and the latter believing that he was only a religious reformer though a prophet in an allegorical sense. The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community ( Arabic: الجماعة الأحمدية; transliterated: al-Jamā'a al-Ahmadīya) is the larger community of The Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement for the Propagation of Islam, Ahmadiyya Anjuman Ishaat-i-Islam (أحمدية أنجومان اشاعات الاسلام (not to be confused Followers of Ghulam Ahmad consider themselves Muslim but are considered non-Muslim by the other Muslims because of the issue of Ahmad's prophethood.
The Druze are a small distinct traditional religion that developed in the 11th century. The Druze ( Arabic: درزي derzī or durzī, plural دروز durūz) are a religious community found primarily in Syria, Lebanon It began as an offshoot of the Ismaili sect of Islam, but is unique in its incorporation of Gnostic, neo-Platonic and other philosophies. Druze are considered heretical and non-Muslims by most other Muslims because they are believed to address prayers to the Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, the third Fatimid caliph of Egypt, whom they regard as "a manifestation of God in His unity. Tāriqu l-Ḥākim, called bi Amr al-Lāh ( Arabic: الحاكم بأمر الله; literally "Ruler by God's Command" was the sixth Fatimid " The Druze believe that he had been hidden away by God and will return as the Mahdi on Judgement Day. In Islamic eschatology the Mahdi ( ar مهدي, also Mehdi; "Guided One" is the prophesied redeemer of Islam who will stay on earth Like Alawis, most Druze keep the tenets of their Faith secret, and very few details are known. They neither accept converts nor recognize conversion from their religion to another. They are located primarily in the Levant. See also Names of the Levant The Levant (lə'vænt is a geographical term that denotes a large area in Western Asia, roughly bounded on the north by the Druze in different states can have radically different lifestyles. Some claim to be Muslim, some do not, though the Druze faith itself abides by Islamic principles.
Zikri is claimed to be based around the teachings of Sayyid Muhammad Jaunpuri, a 15th century Mahdi claimant. The Zikri (ذكرى faith is an offshoot of Islam concentrated in Makran, Balochistan ( Pakistan and Iran) In religious practice, the Zikris differ greatly from mainstream Muslims. Zikris perform prayers, called Dhikr, five times a day, in which sacred verses are recited, as compared to the orthodox practice of Salah. Dhikr ذکر Plural اذكار Adhkaar ( Zikir in Turkish and Malay, Zikr in Urdu, Jikir in Bengali and Zekr Ṣalāt ( Arabic: صلاة, pl ṣalawāt, Qur'anic Arabic: صلوة ṣalawah) (also munz in Pashto and Most Zikris live in Balochistan, but a large number also live in Karachi, the Sindh interior, Oman and Iran. Balochistan, or Baluchistan, Pashto, ( Balochi, Hazara, Brahui, Sindhi, Urdu: بلوچستان (ڪراچي) is the largest city in Pakistan. It is the world's second largest city proper behind Mumbai in terms of population which exceeds 10 million Sindh ( Sindhī: سنڌ Urdu: سندھ is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis.
The Nation of Islam was founded by Wallace Fard Muhammad in 1930 with a declared aim of "resurrecting" the spiritual, mental, social and economic condition of the black man and woman of America and the world. The Nation of Islam ( NOI) (أمة الإسلام Ummah al-Islāmu) is a group founded in Detroit, Michigan, Wallace Fard Muhammad (born between 1877 and 1893 year of death unknown was a Preacher and founder of the Nation of Islam (NOI African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa The expressed teachings of the Nation of Islam have been subject to many changes, with at one point believing Fard to be God incarnate, being re-named the Muslim American Society, having a major division, and then a reconciliation. The Muslim American Society ( MAS) is a Nonprofit organization It is viewed by almost all Muslims as a heretical cult. This article discusses cult in the original and typically ancient sense of "religious practice" (cultus Warith Deen Mohammed, a former leader of the Nation of Islam and now a Sunni Muslim, as well as many other former members and others have been calling the Nation of Islam to merge into mainstream Sunni Islam. Warith Deen Mohammed ( October 30, 1933 - September 9, 2008) was an American Muslim leader and the son of Clara
This faith was founded by Timothy Drew in 1913 in the United States. The Moorish Science Temple of America is a Religious organization founded in 1913 by Noble Drew Ali The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Its main tenet is that African Americans were descended from the Moors and thus were originally Islamic. The description Moors has referred to several historic and modern populations of Muslim (and earlier non-Muslim people of Berber and Arab descent Its followers claim it to be a sect of Islam but it also has almost equal influences in Buddhism, Christianity, Freemasonry, Gnosticism and Taoism. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Gnosticism (γνώσις gnōsis, Knowledge) refers to a diverse Syncretistic Religious movement consisting of various Belief systems Taoism (pronounced /ˈdaʊɪzəm/ or /ˈtaʊɪzəm/ also spelled '''Daoism''') refers to a variety of related Philosophical and Religious traditions They have their own book that they call "Circle Seven Koran". The Circle Seven Koran comprises the holy scriptures of the Moorish Science Temple of America, authored by their prophet the Noble Drew Ali.
The United Submitters International (USI) is a religious group, founded by Dr. The United Submitters International is a minor Islamic group founded by Rashad Khalifa. Rashad Khalifa. Rashad Khalifa ( Arabic: رشاد خليفة; November 19, 1935 &ndash January 31, 1990) was an Egyptian-American Submitters considers themselves to be adhering to "true Islam", but prefer not to use the terms "Muslim" or "Islam," instead using the English equivalents: "Submitter" or "Submission. " Submitters consider Khalifa to be a Messenger of God. Specific beliefs of the USI include: the dedication of all worship practices to God alone, upholding the Qur'an alone (with the exception of two rejected Qur'an verses, and rejecting the Islamic traditions of hadith and sunnah attributed to Muhammad. The main group attends "Masjid Tucson" in Arizona, US. The State of Arizona ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States.
"Qur'an-Aloners", "Qur'anites" or "Qur'anists" refer to those who follow the Quran alone without additional details or hadiths. Qur'an alone Muslims Qur'anic Muslims, or sometimes Anti-Hadith Muslims, is a term used to refer to Muslims who reject Hadith, or reported traditions of There are multiple "Qur'an-Aloner" groups and movements based on the ideology.
The followers of these religions do not consider themselves to be Muslims, but have a strong connection to the religion of Islam.
The Yazidi are adherents of a small Middle Eastern religion. The Yazidi (also Yezidi, Kurdish: ئزیدی or Êzidî, Arabic: يزيدي or ايزدي Assyrian/Syriac: ܓ̰ܠܟܝܐ is a They are primarily ethnic Kurds, and most live near Mosul, Iraq. For the village in Azerbaijan see Mosul Azerbaijan. Mosul (الموصل Al Mūṣul, Kurdish: Mosul/Ninawa, Musul Yazidi theology is complex and are closely guarded secrets. They venerate a supreme creator God, and another entity called "Melek Taus", variably translated as "King Peacock". Melek Taus, "The Peacock Angel " (in Arabic script ملك طاووس is the Yazidis name for the central figure of their faith They celebrate Sheikh Adi ibn Musafir, a 12th century leader who reformed the religion. Shaykh ‘Adī ibn Musāfir al-Umawī (Arabic عدي بن مسافر الاموي Kurdish Şêx Adî (/ʃex ɑdi/ (died 1162 a descendant of Umayyad Like the Druze and the Mandaeans, they have suffered persecution from the dominant Muslims. Mandaeism or Mandaeanism ( Mandaic: Mandaiuta, مندائية Mandā'iyya) is a Monotheistic Religion with a strongly
In 1844 a young man from Shiraz, Iran proclaimed to be the Mahdi and took on the title of "The Báb". Bábism () is a religious movement that flourished in Persia from 1844 to 1852 then lingered on in exile in the Ottoman Empire (especially Cyprus) as Shiraz ( شیراز Shīrāz) is the fifth most populated city in Iran and the capital of Fars Province. Siyyid `Alí Muḥammad ( ( October 20, 1819 – July 9, 1850) was the founder of Bábism, and one of three central figures of the The religion he began officially broke away from Islam, and gained a significant following in Iran. His followers were called heretics by the state, and in 1850 the Báb was publicly executed. Most Babis accepted the claims of Bahá'u'lláh, henceforth considering themselves Bahá'ís. Bahá'u'lláh ( ba-haa-ol-laa "Glory of God" ( November 12, 1817 – May 29, 1892) born Mírzá Ḥusayn-`Alí Nuri 
Following the death of the Báb the majority of Bábís turned to Bahá'u'lláh, a respected leader of that community, eventually calling themselves Bahá'ís. The Bahá'í Faith is a Religion founded by Bahá'u'lláh in nineteenth-century Persia, emphasizing the spiritual unity of all humankind Bahá'u'lláh ( ba-haa-ol-laa "Glory of God" ( November 12, 1817 – May 29, 1892) born Mírzá Ḥusayn-`Alí Nuri Bahá'ís believe that the Bábí and Islamic prophecies of the end times and the return of the Mahdi and Jesus were fulfilled. Islamic eschatology is concerned with the al-Qiyāmah "Last Judgement" As does the Shaykhi school of Islamic interpretation, to which this group is historically connected, Bahá'ís interpret Islamic (and other) eschatology symbolically and metaphorically. Eschatology (from the Greek, Eschatos meaning "last" and -logy meaning "the study of" is a part of Theology Bahá'ís believe Bahá'u'lláh to be a Manifestation of God, a messenger on par with Muhammad. The Manifestation of God is a concept in the Bahá'í Faith that refers to what are commonly called Prophets The Manifestations of God are a series of personages Due to its background and history, it is sometimes categorized as a sect of Islam, which is denied by its adherents and the Muslim mainstream. Bahá'ís have been persecuted as apostates in some Islamic countries, especially Iran.
Sikhism has had strong influence from both Islam and Hinduism. Sikhism ( IPA: or; ਸਿੱਖੀ sikkhī, IPA:) founded on the teachings of Nanak and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. During the 17th century, a great number of ethnic Punjabis were beginning to convert from Hinduism to Islam. The Punjabi people ( Punjabi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ پنجابی also Panjabi people) are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group from South Asia. A string of gurus, however, began to preach a new religion with adopted aspects of both Islam (such as the belief in One God and forbidding making images of God) and Hinduism (such as reincarnation and the concept of karma). Karma ( Sanskrit: कर्म, kárman - "act action performance" Pali: kamma) is the concept of "action" This led to the evolution of the Sikh religion. Sikh (English or; ਸਿੱਖ sikkh, IPA) is the title and name given to an adherent of Sikhism.
Today, Sikhism is the second largest religion among Punjabis, after Islam. Sikhism ( IPA: or; ਸਿੱਖੀ sikkhī, IPA:) founded on the teachings of Nanak and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century The Punjabi people ( Punjabi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ پنجابی also Panjabi people) are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group from South Asia. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation.
A spinoff of the Nation of Islam, this group was formed in Harlem, New York City in the 1960s by Clarence 13X, who proclaimed himself to be Allah (God). The Nation of Gods and Earths, sometimes referred to as the Five-Percent Nation, the Five-Percent Nation of Islam, or the Five Percenters was founded in Harlem is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Manhattan, long known as a major African American cultural and business center The City of New York Clarence 13X, born Clarence Jowars Smith ( February 22 1928, Danville Virginia, USA &ndash June 13 1969, The group believes God is black and focuses on bringing justice to African-American youth. They have little relation to mainstream Islam, except that they use the expression Allahu Akbar. The takbīr or takbeer (ar تَكْبِير is the act of saying the phrase, ar الله أكبر
At various times known as the Ansaaru Allah Community, Nubian Islamic Hebrews, and Nuwaubians, this group no longer claims to be Muslim. Nuwaubianism is an Umbrella term used to refer to the doctrines and teachings of the followers of Malachi Z Its founder and leader, Dwight York, was known as As Sayyid Al Imaam Issa Al Haadi Al Mahdi (which means the Chief, the Leader Jesus, the Guide, the Messiah in Arabic) and other similar names when he was claiming to be a Muslim and the successor to Elijah Muhammad. Dwight D York (born June 26 1945 or 1935 better known as Dr Malachi Z Elijah Muhammad (born Elijah Poole, October 7 1897 - February 25 1975) is notable for his leadership of the Black Muslims The religion is now based on ancient Sumerian and Egyptian religions with extraterrestrial revelations from the alien spirit inhabiting York. Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian Akkadian Assyrian and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris Ancient Egyptian religion encompasses the various religious beliefs and rituals practiced in Ancient Egypt from the predynastic period until the adoption of Christianity