A distilled beverage, liquor, or spirit is a drinkable liquid containing ethanol that is produced by means of distilling fermented grain, fruit, or vegetables—excluding fermented beverages such as beer and wine. Distillation is a method of separating Mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture Fermentation in Food processing typically refers to the conversion of Sugar to Alcohol using Yeast under Anaerobic conditions Beer is the world's oldest and most widely consumed Alcoholic beverage and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice 
The term spirit generally refers to a distilled beverage that contains no added sugar and has at least 35% alcohol by volume. Alcohol by volume (abbreviated as abv or ABV) is a standard measure of how much alcohol ( Ethanol) is contained in an Alcoholic beverage Popular spirits include absinthe, baijiu, brandy, gin, grappa, rum, tequila, vodka, whisky, and traditional German schnapps. Absinthe is traditionally a distilled, highly alcoholic (45%-75% ABV) beverage See also Chinese wine Baijiu, or shaojiu ( 烧[[wiktionary 酒|酒]] is a Chinese distilled Alcoholic Brandy (from brandywine, derived from Dutch brandewijn — “burnt wine” is a spirit produced by distilling Wine Gin is a spirit flavoured with Juniper berries. Distilled gin is made by redistilling white grain spirit which has been flavoured with juniper Grappa is a fragrant Grape -based Pomace brandy of between 50% and 80% Alcohol by volume (100 to 160 proof) of Italian origin Rum is a Distilled beverage made from Sugarcane by-products such as Molasses and sugarcane Juice by a process of fermentation Tequila is an agave-based spirit made primarily in the area surrounding Tequila, in the northwest of Guadalajara and in the highlands ( Vodka is one of the world's most popular Distilled beverages It is a clear liquid which consists of mostly Water and Ethanol purified by Distillation Whisky (uisge-beatha or whiskey (uisce beatha or fuisce) refers to a broad category of Alcoholic beverages that are distilled from fermented Schnapps is a type of distilled Alcoholic beverage. The word schnapps is derived from the German word Schnaps (plural Schnäpse) which can Distilled beverages that are bottled with added sugar and added flavorings, such as Grand Marnier, Frangelico, and American style schnapps, are liqueurs. Grand Marnier (gʀã maʀnje is a Liqueur created in 1880 by Alexandre Marnier-Lapostolle. Frangelico is a Hazelnut and herb-flavored Liqueur (coloured with Caramel coloring) which is produced in Canale, Italy. A liqueur is a sweet Alcoholic beverage, often flavored with Fruits, Herbs Spices Flowers Seeds Roots Plants Fortified wines are created by adding a distilled beverage to a wine. Fortified wine is Wine to which alcohol (usually Brandy) has been added
Since 1438 burned water is mentioned in the high noble german County of Katzenelnbogen. Katzenelnbogen is the name of a castle and small city in the district of Rhein-Lahn-Kreis in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It was served in a long, tall glass called goderulffe.
Beer and wine were historically limited to a maximum alcohol content of about 15% by volume, beyond which yeast is adversely affected and cannot ferment. Beer is the world's oldest and most widely consumed Alcoholic beverage and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice Alcohol levels higher than 15 percent have been obtained in a number of ways.
Wine heated in an animal bladder draws out water and leaves alcohol behind (the bladder has a natural property which removes water), but there is no evidence this method was used before modern times.
The first evidence of distillation comes from Babylonia and dates from the 2nd millennium BC. Babylonia was an Amorite state in lower Mesopotamia (modern southern Iraq) with Babylon as its capital The 2nd millennium BC marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age. Specially shaped clay pots were used to extract small amounts of distilled alcohol through natural cooling for use in perfumes. By the 3rd century AD, alchemists in Alexandria, Egypt, may have used an early form of distillation to produce alcohol for sublimation or for colouring metal. Alchemy a part of the Occult Tradition is both a philosophy and a practice with an ultimately unknown aim involving the improvement of the alchemist as well as the making of Alexandria ( Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه Eskendereyya; Standard Arabic: ar الإسكندرية Al-Iskandariyya; Ἀλεξάνδρεια This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics.
Alcohol was fully purified for the first time by Muslim chemists in the 8th and 9th centuries.  The development of the still with cooled collector—necessary for the efficient distillation of spirits without freezing—was an invention of Muslim alchemists during this time. A still is an apparatus used to distill Miscible or immiscible (eg In particular, Geber (Jabir Ibn Hayyan, 721–815) invented the alembic still; he observed that heated wine from this still released a flammable vapor, which he described as "of little use, but of great importance to science". For the 12th century astronomer see Jabir ibn Aflah. For the anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist see Pseudo-Geber. An alembic (from Arabic Al-inbiq الأنبيق is an alchemical Still consisting of two Retorts connected by a tube Not much later Al-Razi (864–930) described the distillation of alcohol and its use in medicine. By that time, distilled spirits had become fairly popular beverages: the poet Abu Nuwas (d. A poet is a person who writes Poetry. Etymology From the Ancient greek: ποιέω, poieō: "I make or compose" Abu-Nuwas al-Hasan ben Hani al-Hakami ( 750 &ndash 810) known as Abū-Nuwās ( Arabic: ابونواس) was one of the greatest of classical 813) describes a wine that "has the colour of rain-water but is as hot inside the ribs as a burning firebrand". Events By Place Byzantine Empire June 22 — Byzantine Emperor Michael I Rangabe is defeated in a war against the The terms "alembic" and "alcohol", and possibly the metaphors "spirit" and aqua vitæ ("life-water") for the distilled product, can be traced to Arabic alchemy.
Names like "life water" have continued to be the inspiration for the names of several types of beverages, like Gaelic whisky, Italian grappa 'acquavite', French eaux-de-vie and possibly vodka. The Goidelic languages, (also sometimes called particularly in colloquial situations the Gaelic languages or collectively Gaelic) historically formed a Dialect Whisky (uisge-beatha or whiskey (uisce beatha or fuisce) refers to a broad category of Alcoholic beverages that are distilled from fermented Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Grappa is a fragrant Grape -based Pomace brandy of between 50% and 80% Alcohol by volume (100 to 160 proof) of Italian origin This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Vodka is one of the world's most popular Distilled beverages It is a clear liquid which consists of mostly Water and Ethanol purified by Distillation Also, the Scandinavian akvavit. Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well Akvavit, also known as aquavit or akevitt, is a Scandinavian Distilled beverage of approximately 40% alcohol by volume
Freeze distillation, the "Mongolian still", is known to have been in use in Central Asia sometime in the early Middle Ages. Fractional freezing is a process used in Process engineering and Chemistry to separate two liquids with different melting points The first method involves freezing the alcoholic beverage and removing water crystals. The freezing method had limitations in geography and implementation and thus did not have widespread use, but remained in limited use, for example during the American colonial period applejack was made from cider using this method. Applejack is a strong Alcoholic beverage produced from apples originating from the American colonial period For the non-alcoholic beverage commonly known in the US as "cider" see Apple cider.
Distilled alcohol beverages first appeared in Europe in the mid-12th century among alchemists, who were more interested in medical "elixirs" than making gold from lead. It first appears under the name aqua ardens (burning water) in the Compendium Salerni from the medical school at Salerno. Salerno is a town in southern Italy, capital of the province of the same name in the region of Campania. The recipe was written in code, suggesting it was kept a secret. Taddeo Alderotti in his Consilia medicinalis referred to the "serpente" which is believed to have been the coiled tube of a still.
Paracelsus gave alcohol its modern name, taking it from the Arabic word which means "finely divided", in reference to what is done to wine. Paracelsus (11 November or 17 December 1493 in Einsiedeln Switzerland – 24 September 1541 in Salzburg, Austria) was an alchemist, His test was to burn a spoonful without leaving any residue. Other ways of testing were to burn a cloth soaked in it without actually harming the cloth. In both cases, to achieve this effect the alcohol had to have been at least 95 percent, close to the maximum concentration attainable through fractional distillation (see purification of ethanol).
Claims on the origins of specific beverages are controversial, often invoking national pride, but they are plausible after the 12th century when Irish whiskey, German Hausbrand and German brandy can all be safely said to have arrived. Irish whiskey (Fuisce or Uisce beatha) is a Whiskey made in Ireland. Brandy (from brandywine, derived from Dutch brandewijn — “burnt wine” is a spirit produced by distilling Wine These beverages would have had much lower alcohol content than the alchemists' pure distillations (around 40 percent by volume), and were likely first thought of as medicinal elixirs. Consumption of distilled beverages rose dramatically in Europe in and after the mid 14th century, when distilled liquors were commonly used as remedies for the Black Death. The Black Death, or the Black Plague, was one of the deadliest Pandemics in human history widely thought to have been caused by a bacterium named Yersinia Around 1400 it was discovered how to distill spirits from wheat, barley, and rye beers; even sawdust was used to make alcohol, a much cheaper option than grapes. Thus began the "national" drinks of Europe: jenever (Belgium and the Netherlands), gin (England), schnapps (Germany), grappa (Italy), akvavit (Scandinavia), vodka (Russia and Poland), rakia (the Balkans), poitín (Ireland). Jenever (also known as junever, genievre, genever, jeniever, peket or in England as Holland gin) is the Gin is a spirit flavoured with Juniper berries. Distilled gin is made by redistilling white grain spirit which has been flavoured with juniper Schnapps is a type of distilled Alcoholic beverage. The word schnapps is derived from the German word Schnaps (plural Schnäpse) which can Grappa is a fragrant Grape -based Pomace brandy of between 50% and 80% Alcohol by volume (100 to 160 proof) of Italian origin Akvavit, also known as aquavit or akevitt, is a Scandinavian Distilled beverage of approximately 40% alcohol by volume Vodka is one of the world's most popular Distilled beverages It is a clear liquid which consists of mostly Water and Ethanol purified by Distillation Rakia or rakija (raki arichii rakija ракия rakia rakija ρακί pálinka ракија/rakija rachiu (reg Poitín or Poteen (IPA, also potcheen) is a traditional Irish distilled, highly alcoholic beverage (90%-95% ABV The actual names only emerged in the 16th century but the drinks were well known prior to that date.
The actual process of distillation itself has not changed since the 8th century. There have, however, been many changes in both the methods by which organic material is prepared for the still and in the ways the distilled beverage is finished and marketed. Knowledge of the principles of sanitation and access to standardised yeast strains have improved the quality of the base ingredient; larger, more efficient stills produce more product per square foot and reduce waste; ingredients such as corn, rice, and potatoes have been called into service as inexpensive replacements for traditional grains and fruit. Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica Rice is a Cereal foodstuff which forms an important part of the diet of many people worldwide and as such it is a staple food for many The potato is a Starchy Tuberous crop Vegetable from the perennial Solanum tuberosum of the Solanaceae Chemists have discovered the scientific principles behind aging, and have devised ways in which aging can be accelerated without introducing harsh flavours. Modern filters have allowed distillers to remove unwanted residue and produce smoother finished products. Most of all, marketing has developed a worldwide market for distilled beverages among populations which in earlier times did not drink spirits.
Microdistilling is a trend that began to develop in the United States following the emergence and immense popularity of microbrewing and craft beer in the last decades of the 20th century. A microdistillery is a small often ' Boutique ' Distillery, most commonly in the United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A microbrewery, or craft brewery, is a modern Brewery which produces a limited amount of beer usually with an orientation toward distinctive and flavorful products A microbrewery, or craft brewery, is a modern Brewery which produces a limited amount of beer usually with an orientation toward distinctive and flavorful products It is specifically differentiated from megadistilleries in the quantity, and arguably quality, of output.
In most jurisdictions, including those which allow unlicensed individuals to make their own beer and wine, it is illegal to distill beverage alcohol without a license - with the notable exception of New Zealand where personal alcohol distillation is legal (although selling still requires an appropriate license). Homebrewing typically refers to the Brewing of Beer and similar Alcoholic beverages (and sometimes soft drinks on a very small scale as a Hobby New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island 
A distilled beverage is typically manufactured by distillation, aging if applicable and dilution to the set percentage of ethanol.
Distillation is done at least twice, due to the chemistry involved. Copper is typically used as a chemically near-inert metal for the equipment. However, it is still very much a transition metal catalyst, and catalyzes the formation of poisonous and harmful by-products, such as urethane. In Chemistry, the term transition metal (sometimes also called a transition element) has two possible meanings It commonly refers to any element in Catalysis is the process in which the rate of a Chemical reaction is increased by means of a Chemical substance known as a catalyst Catalysis is the process in which the rate of a Chemical reaction is increased by means of a Chemical substance known as a catalyst Ethyl carbamate (also called urethane) is a substance first prepared in the nineteenth century Removal of these is necessary and warrants a second distillation step. Most "colored" alcohols are distilled in a batch process, but continuous processes are found in the production of flavorless vodka and similar drinks. Vodka is one of the world's most popular Distilled beverages It is a clear liquid which consists of mostly Water and Ethanol purified by Distillation
After distillation, the alcohol may be aged in traditional oak casks. Whiskey, for example, is aged at 77%. Dilution is done to attain the standard percentage, from 30 to 80%. The (arbitrary) percentage of 40% is the most common "standard". However, a lower percentages such as 38% may make the drink more palatable. Also people often mix water into the drink to suit their tastes.
The final drink contains water, ethanol, fusel oils, and flavoring compounds. Fusel alcohols, also sometimes called fusel oils, or potato oil in Europe are higher order (more than two carbons Alcohols formed by fermentation In some cases, sugar is added. Fusel alcohols are higher alcohols than ethanol, are mildly toxic, and have a strong, disagreeable smell and taste. Fusels in moderate quantities are considered to be essential parts of the taste profile of flavored drinks such as whiskey and cognac. Whisky (uisge-beatha or whiskey (uisce beatha or fuisce) refers to a broad category of Alcoholic beverages that are distilled from fermented Cognac (ˈkɒnjæk named after the town of Cognac in France, is a Brandy produced in the region surrounding the town In drinks intended to be relatively flavorless (such as vodka), they are defects. Vodka is one of the world's most popular Distilled beverages It is a clear liquid which consists of mostly Water and Ethanol purified by Distillation Incompetently distilled drinks also contain distillation heads, which are poisonous in large amounts and consist mostly of methanol and foul-smelling byproducts of fermentation. Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a Chemical compound
The source for "liquor" and its close relative, liquid, come from the Latin verb liquere, meaning "to be fluid. " According to the Oxford English Dictionary, an early use of the word in the English language, meaning simply "a liquid", can be dated to at least 1225. The Oxford English Dictionary ( OED) published by the Oxford University Press (OUP is a comprehensive Dictionary of the English The first use OED mentions in reference to a "liquid for drinking" comes from the early to mid 1300s, while its reference to an intoxicating alcoholic drink appears by at least the 16th century.
Spirits may be served in a variety of ways, some of which include: