Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to non-living objects to destroy microorganisms, the process of which is known as disinfection. A mop is a textile mounted on a handle used in cleaning It is generally used for cleaning Floors The inventor Eddy Key received a patent for a mop holder in 1837 An antimicrobial is a substance that kills or inhibits the growth of Microbes such as Bacteria, Fungi, or Viruses. A microorganism (also spelled micro organism or micro-organism and also called a microbe) is an Organism that is Microscopic (usually
Disinfectants should generally be distinguished from antibiotics that destroy microorganisms within the body, and from antiseptics, which destroy microorganisms on living tissue. In modern usage an antibiotic is a Chemotherapeutic agent with activity against Microorganisms such as Bacteria, fungi or Protozoa A microorganism (also spelled micro organism or micro-organism and also called a microbe) is an Organism that is Microscopic (usually Antiseptics (from Greek αντί - anti, '"against" + σηπτικός - septikos, "putrefactive" are antimicrobial Tissue is a cellular organizational level intermediate between cells and a complete organism Sanitizers are substances that reduce the number of microorganisms to a safe level. One official and legal version states that a sanitizer must be capable of killing 99. 999%, known as a 5 log reduction, of a specific bacterial test population, and to do so within 30 seconds. The main difference between a sanitizer and a disinfectant is that at a specified use dilution, the disinfectant must have a higher kill capability for pathogenic bacteria compared to that of a sanitizer. Very few disinfectants and sanitizers can sterilise (the complete elimination of all microorganisms), and those that can depend entirely on their mode of application. Sterilization (or sterilisation, see spelling differences) refers to any process that effectively kills or eliminates transmissible agents (such as Fungi Bacterial endospores are most resistant to disinfectants, however some viruses and bacteria also possess some tolerance. An endospore is a dormant, tough and non-reproductive structure produced by a small number of Bacteria from the Firmicute phylum
A perfect disinfectant would offer complete and full sterilisation, without harming other forms of life, be inexpensive, and non-corrosive. Sterilization (or sterilisation, see spelling differences) refers to any process that effectively kills or eliminates transmissible agents (such as Fungi Unfortunately ideal disinfectants do not exist. Most disinfectants are also, by their very nature, potentially harmful (even toxic) to humans or animals. Toxicity is the degree to which a substance is able to damage an exposed organism They should be treated with appropriate care. Most come with safety instructions printed on the packaging, which should be read in full before using the disinfectant. Post modern household disinfectants contain Bitrex, an exceptionally bitter substance designed to discourage ingestion, as an added safety measure. Denatonium, usually available as denatonium benzoate (under Trade names such as Bitrex or Aversion) and as denatonium Those that are used indoors should never be mixed with other cleaning products as chemical reactions can occur. A chemical reaction is a process that always results in the interconversion of Chemical substances The substance or substances initially involved in a chemical reaction are called They are frequently used in hospitals, dental surgeries, kitchens and bathrooms to kill infectious organisms. A hospital is an institution for Health care providing treatment by specialised staff and equipment and often but not always providing for Dentistry' is the "evaluation diagnosis prevention and/or treatment (nonsurgical surgical or related procedures of diseases disorders and/or conditions of the oral cavity For the Banana Yashimoto novel see Kitchen (novel A kitchen, is a room or part of a room (sometimes called "kitchen A bathroom is a room that may have different functions depending on the cultural context
The choice of the disinfectant to be used depends on the particular situation. Some disinfectants have a wide spectrum (kill nearly all microorganisms), whilst others kill a smaller range of disease-causing organisms but are preferred for other properties (they may be non-corrosive, non-toxic, or inexpensive).
The disinfecting properties of sunlight (ultra-violet) are powerful. Sunlight, in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the Electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. Ultraviolet ( UV) light is Electromagnetic radiation with a Wavelength shorter than that of Visible light, but longer than X-rays Rather than total reliance on chemicals, basic hygiene - a pillar of food safety - is important in the effort to control bacteria since they generally prefer a warm-moist-dark environment. Hygiene refers to practices associated with ensuring good health and cleanliness Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling preparation, and storage of Food in ways that prevent Foodborne illness. There are arguments for creating or maintaining conditions which are not conducive to bacterial survival and multiplication, rather than attempting to kill them with chemicals. Bacteria have a very rapid multiplication rate, which enables them to evolve rapidly. Should some bacteria survive a chemical attack, they give rise to the next generation. Thus they are able to develop resistance to hostile chemicals. For this reason, some question the wisdom of impregnating cloths, cutting boards and worktops in the home with bactericidal chemicals. A cutting board is a durable board used to place material on to be cut A bactericide or bacteriocide is a substance that kills bacteria and preferably nothing else
Alcohols, usually ethanol or isopropanol, are sometimes used as a disinfectant, but more often as an antiseptic (the distinction being that alcohol tends to be used on living tissue rather than nonliving surfaces). In Chemistry, an alcohol is any Organic compound in which a Hydroxyl group ( - O[[hydrogen H]]) is bound to a Carbon Isopropyl alcohol (also isopropanol, iso, isopro, Rubbing alcohol, or the abbreviation IPA) is a common name for Antiseptics (from Greek αντί - anti, '"against" + σηπτικός - septikos, "putrefactive" are antimicrobial They have wide microbicidal activity, are non corrosive, but can be a fire hazard. They also have limited residual activity due to evaporation, which results in brief contact times, and have a limited activity in the presence of organic material. Alcohols are more effective combined with purified water—70% isopropyl alcohol or 70% ethyl alcohol is more effective than 90% alcohol, because the higher water content allows for greater diffusion through the cell membrane.  Alcohol is effective against resistant fungal and bacterial spores. 
Aldehydes, such as Glutaraldehyde, have a wide microbiocidal activity and are sporocidal and fungicidal. Glutaraldehyde is a colorless liquid with a pungent odor used to sterilize medical and dental equipment They are partly inactivated by organic matter and have slight residual activity.
Oxidizing agents act by oxidising the cell membrane of microorganisms, which results in a loss of structure and leads to cell lysis and death. Redox (shorthand for reduction-oxidation reaction describes all Chemical reactions in which atoms have their Oxidation number ( Oxidation state Lysis ( Greek, lysis from lyein = to separate refers to the death of a cell by breaking of the cellular membrane often by viral or osmotic A large number of disinfectants operate in this way. Chlorine and oxygen are strong oxidizers, so their compounds figure heavily here. Chlorine (ˈklɔriːn from the Greek word 'χλωρóς' ( khlôros, meaning 'pale green' is the Chemical element with Atomic number 17 and Oxygen (from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys (acid literally "sharp" from the taste of acids and -γενής (-genēs (producer literally begetteris the
Phenolics are active ingredients in some household disinfectants. In Organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of Chemical compounds consisting of a Hydroxyl group (- They are also found in some mouthwashes and in disinfectant soap and handwashes.
Quaternary ammonium compounds (Quats), such as benzalkonium chloride, are a large group of related compounds. Quaternary ammonium cations, also known as quats, are positively charged Polyatomic ions of the structure NR4+ with R being Benzalkonium chloride, also known as alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride and ADBAC, is a mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chlorides of various even-numbered Some have been used as low level disinfectants. They are effective against bacteria, but not against some species of Pseudomonas bacteria or bacterial spores. Pseudomonas is a Genus of gamma Proteobacteria, belonging to the larger family of Pseudomonads Recently 16S rRNA sequence Quats are biocides which also kill algae and are used as an additive in large-scale industrial water systems to minimize undesired biological growth. Quaternary ammonium compounds can also be effective disinfectants against enveloped viruses.
The biguanide polymer polyaminopropyl biguanide is specifically bactericidal at very low concentrations (10 mg/l). Polyaminopropyl biguanide (PAPB also polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB polyhexamethylene guanide or polyhexanide, is a Disinfectant and a It has a unique method of action: the polymer strands are incorporated into the bacterial cell wall, which disrupts the membrane and reduces its permeability, which has a lethal effect to bacteria. It is also known to bind to bacterial DNA, alter its transcription, and cause lethal DNA damage.  It has very low toxicity to higher organisms such as human cells, which have more complex and protective membranes.
High-intensity shortwave ultraviolet light can be used for disinfecting smooth surfaces such as dental tools, but not porous materials that are opaque to the light such as wood or foam. Ultraviolet ( UV) light is Electromagnetic radiation with a Wavelength shorter than that of Visible light, but longer than X-rays Ultraviolet light fixtures are often present in microbiology labs, and are activated only when there are no occupants in a room (e. Microbiology (from Greek grc μῑκρος mīkros, "small" grc βίος bios, " Life " and grc -λογία g. , at night).
One way to compare disinfectants is to compare how well they do against a known disinfectant and rate them accordingly. Phenol is the standard, and the corresponding rating system is called the "Phenol coefficient". Phenol coefficient is a measure of the Bactericidal activity of a chemical compound in relation to Phenol. The disinfectant to be tested is compared with phenol on a standard microbe (usually Salmonella typhi or Staphylococcus aureus). Salmonella enterica is a rod shaped Flagellated Gram-negative Bacterium, and a member of the Genus Salmonella Staphylococcus aureus (ˌstæfɨləˈkɒkəs ˈɔriəs literally "Golden Cluster Seed" and also known as golden staph) is the most common cause of Disinfectants that are more effective than phenol have a coefficient > 1. Those that are less effective have a coefficient < 1.
By far the most cost-effective home disinfectant is the commonly used chlorine bleach (a 5% solution of Sodium hypochlorite) which is effective against most common pathogens, including such difficult organisms tuberculosis (mycobacterium tuberculosis), hepatitis B and C, fungi, and antibiotic-resistant strains of staphylococcus and enterococcus. Sodium hypochlorite is a Chemical compound with the formula NaClO Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or T u' b' erculosis Bacillus --> is a common Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the Bacterium that causes most cases of Tuberculosis. Staphylococcus (in Greek σταφυλη staphyle means bunch of grapes and κοκκος coccos means granule is a genus of Gram-positive Enterococcus is a Genus of Lactic acid bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes. It even has some disinfectant action against parasitic organisms . Positives are that it kills the widest range of pathogens of any inexpensive disinfectant; it is extremely powerful against viruses and bacteria at room temperature; it is commonly available and inexpensive; and it breaks down quickly into harmless components (primarily table salt and oxygen). Negatives are that it is caustic to the skin and eyes, especially at higher concentrations; like many common disinfectants, it degrades in the presence of organic substances; it has a strong odor; it is not effective against giardia lamblia and cryptosporidium; and extreme caution must be taken not to combine it with ammonia or any acid (such as vinegar as this may cause noxious gases to be formed). Giardia lamblia (synonymous with Lamblia intestinalis and Giardia duodenalis) is a Flagellated Protozoan Cryptosporidium is a Protozoan that can cause gastro-intestinal illness with Diarrhea in humans Vinegar is an acidic liquid processed from the Fermentation of Ethanol in a process that yields its key ingredient Acetic acid (also called ethanoic acid The best practice is not to add anything to household bleach except water. Dilute bleach can be tolerated on the skin for a period of time by most persons, as witnessed by the long exposure to extremely dilute "chlorine" (actually sodium or calcium hypochlorite) many children get in swimming pools. Calcium hypochlorite is a Chemical compound with formula (2 It is widely used for Water treatment and as a Bleaching agent (bleaching
To use chlorine bleach effectively, the surface or item to be disinfected must be clean. In the bathroom or when cleaning after pets, special caution must be taken to wipe up urine first, before applying chlorine, to avoid toxic gas by-products. A 1 to 20 solution in water is effective simply by being wiped on and left to dry. The user should wear rubber gloves and, in tight airless spaces, goggles. If parasitic organisms are suspected, it should be applied at 1 to 1 concentration, or even undiluted; extreme caution must be taken to avoid contact with eyes and mucous membranes. Protective goggles and good ventilation are mandatory when applying concentrated bleach.
Commercial bleach tends to lose strength over time, whenever the container is opened. Old containers of partially used bleach may no longer have the labeled concentration.
Where one does not want to risk the corrosive effects of bleach, alcohol-based disinfectants are reasonably inexpensive and quite safe. The great drawback to them is their rapid evaporation; sometimes effective disinfection can be obtained only by immersing an object in the alcohol.
The use of some antimicrobials such as triclosan, particularly in the uncontrolled home environment, is controversial because it may lead to the germs becoming resistant. Chlorine bleach and alcohol do not cause resistance because they are so completely lethal, in a very direct physical way.