A disappearing gun is a type of (mainly coastal) artillery, which can be retracted (or recoils after firing) into a protected housing or bunker. Artillery (from French artillerie) is a military Combat Arm which employs any apparātus machine A military bunker is a hardened shelter often buried partly or fully underground designed to protect the inhabitants from falling bombs or other attacks It is now mostly historical. The advantages of the system were concealment and cover from enemy fire, especially during the reloading stage. The gun was usually moved into the pit or protective housing by force of the shot's recoil, and was raised again by releasing energy stored in a hinged counterweight. Some also used compressed air, while a few were built to be raised by steam. 
Disappearing guns as a functioning concept were invented in the 1860s by Captain Colin Scott Moncrieff who built on his experience in the Crimean War to improve on existing designs for a gun carriage capable of rising over a parapet before being reloaded behind cover. Events and trends Technology The First Transcontinental Railroad in the USA was completed in 1869 The Crimean War, also known in Russia as the Eastern War (Восточная война Vostochnaya Vojna) (March 1854–February 1856 was fought A parapet is a wall-like barrier at the edge of a Roof or structure. Using a counterweight system to raise the gun as well as control the recoil, he promoted his 'Protected Barbette System' as an inexpensive and quickly constructed alternative to a more traditional gun emplacement. A counterweight is an equivalent counterbalancing weight that balances a load This article is about backward Momentum produced in firearms when fired 
This idea was substantially enhanced by Buffington and Crozier, with the systems involved soon getting very elaborate, with hydro-pneumatic recoil-control appearing in the 1880s to assist the counterweight action. Disappearing 'carriages' tended to be extremely ponderous and complicated, with surviving records indicating a rate of fire of 1 per 1 to 2 minutes on a 8-inch (20 cm) gun, far slower than less complicated guns. Inches redirects here To see the Les Savy Fav album see Inches. A centimetre ( American spelling: centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one hundredth Their size and complexity also made them very expensive.  On the positive side, the guns in their simple pits were, at least initially, much more cost-effective than the previous practice of constructing a whole gun fortification. 
A series of Royal Navy/New Zealand Division of the Royal Navy trials carried out in New Zealand (where numerous disappearing guns had been bought and installed during the Russian Scares), revealed the virtual impossibility of a small shore installation being hit by a warship, except by chance. The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service) The Royal New Zealand Navy ( RNZN) (Maori Te Taua Moana, The Sea Army) is the maritime arm of the New Zealand Defence Force. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island The Panjdeh Incident or Panjdeh Scare (Russian Афганский кризис Afghan Crisis or Бой за Кушку Battle of Kushka) was a military  With their protective benefits thus cast into doubt, no further production of the expensive disappearing gun carriages was therefore undertaken.
Though effective against ships, they were still quite vulnerable to air strikes, and after World War I, batteries of disappearing guns were usually casemated or covered with camouflage for protection instead. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All In Military organizations an artillery battery is a unit of Guns mortars or Rockets so grouped in order to facilitate better battlefield A casemate, sometimes rendered casement, is a fortified gun emplacement or armored structure from which guns are fired originally a vaulted chamber in a Fortress. Camouflage became an essential part of modern Military tactics after the increase in accuracy and rate of fire of weapons during the 19th century  The carriages were also never able to elevate high enough (maximum limits were generally reached at 20 degrees) and thus useless for the more powerful long-range guns that were coming into service. 
By 1912, the guns were declared obsolete in the British Army, with only some other countries, particularly the United States, still producing them up to World War I and keeping them active through to the end of World War II. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including 
One unique type and even more complex type of disappearing gun, its first example named Potter Battery, was built on Sandy Hook, New Jersey in 1892, covering the approaches to New York harbor. Sandy Hook is a barrier peninsula, approximately 97 kilometers (between 6 and 7 miles in length and 800 meters (0 New York Harbor, a geographic term refers collectively to the rivers bays and tidal estuaries near the mouth of the Hudson River in the vicinity of New York City Instead of using recoil from the gun to lower the weapon, two 12-inch barbette carriages were placed on individual hydraulic elevators that would raise the 110-ton elevator and gun 14 feet to above a parapet wall to fire. A parapet is a wall-like barrier at the edge of a Roof or structure. Afterwards, it was lowered for reloading which used hydraulic ramrods and a shell hoist. While the operation of the battery was slow, taking 3 minutes per shot, its design allowed an unlimited field of fire.
Battery Potter required a huge amount of machinery to operate the gun lifts, including boilers, steam pressure pumps and two accumulators. Due to the inability to generate steam quickly, Potter's boilers were run nonstop during its 14 year life, adding to its significant cost. After the proving of the Buffington Cozer carriage, the United States Army abandoned plans to build several additional gun lift batteries. The United States Army is a military organization whose primary mission is to "provide necessary forces and capabilities.
At least once, the concept was also attempted for conversion to a real naval use. The HMS Temerarie was built in 1877 equipped with two disappearing gun turrets sinking down into barbette-structures (basically circular metal protective walls over which the gun fired when elevated). For the early 20th Century female impersonator see Barbette (performer A barbette is a protective circular armor feature around a Cannon This was to combine the ability of the early pivot guns to swivel with the protection of more classical fixed naval guns. A pivot gun was a type of Cannon mounted on a fixed central emplacement which permitted it to be moved through a wide horizontal arc However, the design was not successful and apparently never repeated. It is thought that both harsh saltwater environment and the constant swaying and rolling of a ship at sea were to blame for problems with the complex mechanism.  In any case, gun turrets soon afterwards entered naval service, making the idea moot. A gun turret is a device that protects the crew or mechanism of a projectile firing weapon and at the same time lets the weapon be aimed and fired in many directions