Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of groups or states. For Wikipedia's negotiation policy see WikipediaNegotiation. For other uses see Negotiation (disambiguation. It usually refers to international diplomacy, the conduct of international relations through the intercession of professional diplomats with regard to issues of peace-making, trade, war, economics and culture. War is an international relations Dispute, characterized by organized Violence between National Military units Economics is the social science that studies the production distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate" generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic International treaties are usually negotiated by diplomats prior to endorsement by national politicians. A Treaty is an agreement under International law entered into by actors in international law namely States and International organizations. A politician (from Greek " Polis " is an individual who is involved in influencing public decision making through the influence of Politics or a person
The word stems from the Greek word "diploma", which literally means 'folded in two'. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly In ancient Greece, a diploma was a certificate certifying completion of a course of study, typically folded in two. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca In the days of the Roman Empire, the word "diploma" was used to describe official travel documents, such as passports and passes for imperial roads, that were stamped on double metal plates. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Later, the meaning was extended to cover other official documents such as treaties with foreign tribes. In the 1700s the French called their body of officials attached to foreign legations the corps "diplomatique". Legal residents and citizens To be French according to the first article of the Constitution is to be a citizen of France regardless of one's origin race or religion ( The word "diplomacy" was first introduced into the English language by Edmund Burke in 1796, based on the French word "diplomatie". English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Edmund Burke ( 12 January, 1729 9 July, 1797) was an Irish statesman author orator Political theorist, and 
In an informal or social sense, diplomacy is the employment of tact to gain strategic advantage, one set of tools being the phrasing of statements in a non-confrontational, or polite manner. A Strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal, most often "winning
A diplomat is someone involved in diplomacy; the collective term for a group of diplomats from a single country who are resident in another country is a diplomatic mission. A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one State or an international Inter-governmental organization (such as the United Nations) present in Ambassador is the most senior diplomatic rank; a diplomatic mission headed by an ambassador is known as an embassy. An ambassador is the highest ranking Diplomat who represents their country A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one State or an international Inter-governmental organization (such as the United Nations) present in The collective body of all diplomats of particular country is called that country's diplomatic service. Diplomatic service is the body of Diplomats and Foreign policy officers maintained by the Government of a Country to communicate with the governments The collective body of all diplomats assigned to a particular country is the diplomatic corps. The diplomatic corps or corps diplomatique is the collective body of foreign Diplomats accredited to a particular country or body (See also diplomatic rank. The system of diplomatic rank has over time been formalised on an international basis )
The ability to practice diplomacy is one of the defining elements of a state, and diplomacy has been practiced since the first city-states were formed millennia ago. A city-state is a Region controlled exclusively by a City, usually having Sovereignty. For most of human history diplomats were sent only for specific negotiations, and would return immediately after their mission concluded. Diplomats were usually relatives of the ruling family or of very high rank in order to give them legitimacy when they sought to negotiate with the other state.
One notable exception involved the relationship between the Pope and the Byzantine Emperor; papal agents, called apocrisiarii, were permanently resident in Constantinople. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and This is a list of the Emperors of the Eastern Roman Empire, commonly known as the Byzantine Empire by modern historians Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS After the 8th century, however, conflicts between the Pope and Emperor (such as the Iconoclastic controversy) led to the breaking of close ties. Iconoclasm, Greek for "image-breaking" is the deliberate destruction within a culture of the culture's own religious Icons and other symbols or monuments
Modern diplomacy's origins are often traced to the states of Northern Italy in the early Renaissance, with the first embassies being established in the thirteenth century. Related categories Central Italy Southern Italy Insular Italy Northeast Italy The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Milan played a leading role, especially under Francesco Sforza who established permanent embassies to the other city states of Northern Italy. Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. Francesco I Sforza ( July 23, 1401 - March 8, 1466) was an Italian Condottiero, the founder of the Sforza dynasty in It was in Italy that many of the traditions of modern diplomacy began, such as the presentation of an ambassadors credentials to the head of state. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a Monarchic or Republican Nation-state
From Italy the practice was spread to the other European powers. Milan was the first to send a representative to the court of France in 1455. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. However, Milan refused to host French representatives fearing espionage and that the French representatives would intervene in its internal affairs. As foreign powers such as France and Spain became increasingly involved in Italian politics the need to accept emissaries was recognized. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Soon the major European powers were exchanging representatives. Spain was the first to send a permanent representative; it appointed an ambassador to the Court of England in 1487. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland By the late 16th century, permanent missions became customary. The Holy Roman Emperor, however, did not regularly send permanent legates, as they could not represent the interests of all the German princes (who were in theory subordinate to the Emperor, but in practice independent). The Holy Roman Emperor (Römischer Kaiser or Römisch-Deutscher Kaiser Romanorum Imperator was the elected monarch ruling over the many varying numbers of states Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe.
During that period the rules of modern diplomacy were further developed. The top rank of representatives was an ambassador. An ambassador is the highest ranking Diplomat who represents their country At that time an ambassador was a nobleman, the rank of the noble assigned varying with the prestige of the country he was delegated to. Strict standards developed for ambassadors, requiring they have large residences, host lavish parties, and play an important role in the court life of their host nation. In Rome, the most prized posting for a Catholic ambassador, the French and Spanish representatives would have a retinue of up to a hundred. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Catholic is an Adjective derived from the Greek adjective '' / 'katholikos' meaning "whole" or "complete". Even in smaller posts, ambassadors were very expensive. Smaller states would send and receive envoys, who were a rung below ambassador. Somewhere between the two was the position of minister plenipotentiary. The system of diplomatic rank has over time been formalised on an international basis
Diplomacy was a complex affair, even more so than now. The ambassadors from each state were ranked by complex levels of precedence that were much disputed. States were normally ranked by the title of the sovereign; for Catholic nations the emissary from the Vatican was paramount, then those from the kingdoms, then those from duchies and principalities. As a Christian Ecclesiastical term Catholic —from the Greek adjective, meaning "general" or "universal"—is described The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or A duchy is a territory fief, or domain ruled by a Duke or Duchess. A principality (or princedom) is a monarchical feudatory or Sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a monarch with the title of Prince Representatives from republics were considered the lowest of the low. A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its Determining precedence between two kingdoms depended on a number of factors that often fluctuated, leading to near-constant squabbling.
Ambassadors, nobles with little foreign experience and no expectation of a career in diplomacy, needed to be supported by large embassy staff. These professionals would be sent on longer assignments and would be far more knowledgeable than the higher-ranking officials about the host country. Embassy staff would include a wide range of employees, including some dedicated to espionage. The need for skilled individuals to staff embassies was met by the graduates of universities, and this led to a great increase in the study of international law, modern languages, and history at universities throughout Europe. International law is the term commonly used for referring to the system of implicit and explicit agreements that bind together nation-states in adherence to recognized values and standards A modern language is any Human Language that is currently in use
At the same time, permanent foreign ministries began to be established in almost all European states to coordinate embassies and their staffs. These ministries were still far from their modern form, and many of them had extraneous internal responsibilities. Britain had two departments with frequently overlapping powers until 1782. They were also far smaller than they are currently. France, which boasted the largest foreign affairs department, had only some 70 full-time employees in the 1780s.
The elements of modern diplomacy slowly spread to Eastern Europe and Russia, arriving by the early eighteenth century. Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The entire edifice would be greatly disrupted by the French Revolution and the subsequent years of warfare. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an The revolution would see commoners take over the diplomacy of the French state, and of those conquered by revolutionary armies. Ranks of precedence were abolished. Napoleon also refused to acknowledge diplomatic immunity, imprisoning several British diplomats accused of scheming against France. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe.
After the fall of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna of 1815 established an international system of diplomatic rank. The Congress of Vienna was a conference of ambassadors of the major powers of Europe, chaired by the Austrian statesman Clemens Wenzel von Metternich The system of diplomatic rank has over time been formalised on an international basis Disputes on precedence among nations (and therefore the appropriate diplomatic ranks used) persisted for over a century until after World War II, when the rank of ambassador became the norm. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including An ambassador is the highest ranking Diplomat who represents their country In between that time, figures such as the German Chancellor Otto von Bismark were renowned for international diplomacy. Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck Count of Bismarck-Schönhausen Duke of Lauenburg Prince of Bismarck ( April 1, 1815 July 30, 1898)
Diplomatic relations within the Early Modern era of Asia were depicted as an environment of prestige and Status. The early modern period is a term initially used by historians to refer mainly to the period roughly from 1500 to 1800 in Western Europe ( Early modern Europe) It was maintained that one must be of noble ancestry in order to represent an autonomous state within the international arena. An ancestor is a Parent or ( recursively) the parent of an ancestor (i Therefore the position of diplomat was often revered as an element of the elitist class within Asia. Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting Negotiations between representatives of groups or states A state’s ability to practice diplomacy has been one of the underlying defining characteristics of an autonomous state. It is this practice that has been employed since the conception of the first city-states within the international spectrum. Diplomats in Asia were originally sent only for the purpose of negotiation. For Wikipedia's negotiation policy see WikipediaNegotiation. For other uses see Negotiation (disambiguation. They would be required to immediately return after their task was completed. The majority of diplomats initially constituted the relatives of the ruling family. A high rank was bestowed upon them in order to present a sense of legitimacy with regards to their presence. Italy, the Ottoman Empire, and China were the first real states that perpetuated environments of diplomacy. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National During the early modern era diplomacy evolved to become a crucial element of international relations within the Mediterranean and Asia.
Diplomatic traditions outside of Europe were more or less very different. A feature necessary for diplomacy is the existence of a number of states of somewhat equal power, as existed in Italy during the Renaissance, and in Europe for much of the modern period. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere By contrast, in Asia and the Middle East, China and the Ottoman Empire were reluctant to practice bilateral diplomacy as they viewed themselves to be unquestionably superior to all their neighbours (hence, set up smaller nations as tributaries and vassals). The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. The Ottoman Turks, for instance, would not send missions to other states, expecting representatives to come to Istanbul. The Ottoman Turks were the subdivision of the Ottoman Muslim Millet that dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. Istanbul (historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see the other Names of Istanbul) is the largest city of Turkey It would not be until the nineteenth century that the Ottoman Empire established permanent embassies in other capitals.
The Ottoman Empire was extremely crucial to the spectrum of politics, culture, and economics between Italy and themselves. There were numerous Italian settlements within the Ottoman Empire. This created the arena necessary for the emergence of Italian-Ottoman relations. Italian innovation for trade organizations and commercial experimentation could be attributed to the growing presence within the Ottoman diplomatic and transnational arena. The Genoese and Venetian governments of the early modern era regularly maintained that their atmosphere of commerce depended less and less upon there nautical capabilities, and more and more upon the perpetuation of good relations with the Ottomans. Interactions between various merchants, diplomats, and religious men between the Italian and Ottoman empires helped inaugurate and create new forms of diplomacy and statecraft. Eventually the primary purpose of a diplomat, which was originally a negotiator, evolved into a persona that represented an autonomous state in all aspects of political affairs. It became evident that all other sovereigns felt the need to accommodate themselves diplomatically, due to the emergence of the powerful political environment of the Ottoman Empire. Sovereignty is the exclusive Right to control a Government, a country, a people or oneself One could come to the conclusion that the atmosphere of diplomacy within the early modern period revolved around a foundation of conformity to Ottoman culture.
The origins of modern diplomacy within the international spectrum of politics, could often be traced back to the states of Northern Italy. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest This was during the early renaissance, where the first diplomatic embassies were established in the thirteenth century. The state of Milan played an incredible part in the establishment of permanent embassies within the city states of Northern Italy. Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. Various diplomatic traditions were also conceived within Italy. The presentation of an Ambassador’s credentials and acknowledgments are elements that were inaugurated in Italian early modern diplomacy. An ambassador is the highest ranking Diplomat who represents their country
The practice of diplomacy and its various intricacies were also spread to various other autonomous European states. Milan created the first diplomatic international gesture in 1455, by sending a representative to the court of France. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. It was extremely controversial however, that they would not accept the same gesture from France, due to the fears of espionage and intervention in internal affairs. It had eventually become evident that as super powers such as France and Spain grew in size and strength, and there was an overarching necessity to accept any form of diplomatic effort within the international arena. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Eventually Italy paved the way for all European power to exchange representatives. By the late 16th century, permanent emissaries were standard practice.
The Koreans and Japanese during the Chinese Tang Dynasty (618–907 AD) looked to the Chinese capital of Chang'an as the hub of civilization and emulated its central bureaucracy as the pristine model of governance. Imperial China had a long tradition of Foreign relations. From the Qin Dynasty until the Qing Dynasty, Chinese civilization The Japanese sent frequent embassies to China in this period, although they halted these trips in 894 during the Tang's imminent collapse. However, there were periods of Chinese history where China was weakened and threatened enough so that skillful international diplomacy was necessary.
One of the earliest realists in international relations theory was the 6th century BC military strategist Sun Tzu, author of The Art of War. International relations theory attempts to provide a conceptual model upon which international relations can be analyzed Sun Tzu ( ("Master Sun" also called Sun Wu ( is traditionally considered to be the author of The Art of War (also simply called the The Art of War ( is a Chinese military Treatise that was written during the 6th century BC by Sun Tzu. He lived during the Warring States Period (403 BC-221 BC), a time in which rival states no longer paid traditional respects of tutelage to the Zhou Dynasty figurehead monarchs and each vied for power and total conquest. The Warring States Period ( also known as the Era of Warring States covers the period from some time in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by the The Zhou Dynasty ( POJ: Chiu Tiau 1122 BC to 256 BC was preceded by the Shang Dynasty and followed by the Qin Dynasty in China. However, a great deal of diplomacy in establishing allies, bartering land, and signing peace treaties was necessary for each warring state.
After the devastating An Shi Rebellion from 755 to 763, the Tang Dynasty was in no position to reconquer Central Asia and the Tarim Basin. The An Shi Rebellion ( took place in China during the Tang Dynasty, from December 16 755 to February 17 763. The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east and from southern Russia in the north to northern Pakistan in the south The Tarim Basin ( is a large Endorheic basin occupying an area of more than 400000 km² After several conflicts with the Tibetan Empire spanning several different decades, the Tang finally made a truce and signed a peace treaty with them in 841. Tibetan history is characterized by a special dedication to the Buddhist religion both in the eyes of its own people as well as for the Mongol and Manchu
In the 11th century during the Song Dynasty (960–1279), there were cunning ambassadors such as Shen Kuo and Su Song who achieved diplomatic success with the Liao Dynasty, the often hostile Khitan neighbor to the north. The Song Dynasty ( Wade-Giles: Sung Ch'ao was a ruling dynasty in China between 960&ndash1279 CE it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Shen Kuo or Shen Kua ( (1031&ndash1095 style name Cunzhong and pseudonym Mengqi Weng, was a Polymathic Chinese Su Song ( style name: Zirong 子容 (1020&ndash1101 AD was a renowned Chinese statesman, astronomer, cartographer, The Liao Dynasty ( 907 - 1125, also known as the Khitan Empire (契丹國 was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria Both diplomats secured the rightful borders of the Song Dynasty through knowledge of cartography and dredging up old court archives. There was also a triad of warfare and diplomacy between these two states and the Tangut Western Xia Dynasty to the northwest of Song China (centered in modern-day Shaanxi). The Tangut ( identified with the state of Western Xia, were a Qiangic - Tibetan people who moved to northwestern China sometime before Xi Xia redirects here For a Chinese general whose name may be transliterated as Xi Xia see Xi Qia The Western Xia Dynasty ( or ( Postal map spelling: Shensi) is a north-central province of the People's Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess
Long before the Tang and Song dynasties, the Chinese had sent envoys into Central Asia, India, and Persia starting with Zhang Qian in the 2nd century BC. Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east and from southern Russia in the north to northern Pakistan in the south India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia Zhang Qian ( 張[[wikt 騫|騫]] Wade-Giles Chang Ch'ien was an imperial envoy to the outside world in the 2nd century BC during the time of the Han Dynasty Another notable event in Chinese diplomacy was the Chinese embassy mission of Zhou Daguan to the Khmer Empire of Cambodia in the 13th century. Diplomatic Journey to Cambodia On 20 February 1296, Zhou Daguan set sail from Wenzhou of Zhejiang province on a compass guided ship passed The Khmer Empire was the largest empire of South East Asia based in what is now Cambodia. The Kingdom of Cambodia ( formerly known as Kampuchea (, transliterated: Preăh Réachéanachâkr Kâmpŭchea) is a country in South East Chinese diplomacy was a necessity in the distinctive period of Chinese exploration. Chinese exploration was an age of exploratory Chinese travels abroad on land and by sea from the 2nd century BC until the 15th century Since the Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD), the Chinese also became heavily invested in sending diplomatic envoys abroad on maritime missions into the Indian Ocean, to India, Persia, Arabia, East Africa, and Egypt. Sailing is the art of controlling a Sailing vessel. By changing the Rigging, Rudder and dagger or centre board a Sailor manages the force The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's Oceanic divisions covering about 20% of the water on the Earth 's surface The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية šibh al-jazīra al-ʻarabīya or جزيرة العرب jazīrat al-ʻarab) East Africa is the Easternmost Region of the African Continent. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Chinese maritime activity was increased dramatically during the commercialized period of the Song Dynasty, with new nautical technologies, many more private ship owners, and an increasing amount of economic investors in overseas ventures.
During the Mongol Empire (1206-1294) the Mongols created something similar to today's diplomatic passport called paiza. The Mongol Empire ( Mongolyn Ezent Güren or mn Их Mонгол улс Ikh Mongol Uls; 1206–1368 was the largest contiguous Empire The paiza were in three different types (golden, silver, and copper) depending on the envoy's level of importance. With the paiza, there came authority that the envoy can ask for food, transport, place to stay from any city, village, or clan within the empire with no difficulties.
Since the 17th century, there was a series of treaties upheld by Qing Dynasty China and Czarist Russia, beginning with the Treaty of Nerchinsk in the year 1689. Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China Tsar csar and tzar redirect here For other uses see Tsar (disambiguation. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The Treaty of Nerchinsk (Russian Нерчинский договор Chinese 尼布楚 條約 Pinyin Níbùchǔ tiáoyuē was the first treaty between Russia and the This was followed up by the Aigun Treaty and the Convention of Peking in the mid 19th century. The Treaty of Aigun was the Russian Chinese treaty that established the modern borders of the Russian Far East and northern China. The Convention of Peking or the First Convention of Peking is the name used for three different treaties which were concluded between Qing China and the
As European power spread around the world in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries so too did its diplomatic model and system become adopted by Asian countries.
Real world diplomatic negotiations are very different from intellectual debates in a university where an issue is decided on the merit of the arguments and negotiators make a deal by splitting the difference. Though diplomatic agreements can sometimes be reached among liberal democratic nations by appealing to higher principles, most real world diplomacy has traditionally been heavily influenced by hard power. Hard power is a term describing power obtained from the utilisation of military and/or economic power to influence the behaviour or interests of other political bodies
The interaction of strength and diplomacy can be illustrated by a comparison to labor negotiations. If a labor union is not willing to strike, then the union is not going anywhere because management has absolutely no incentive to agree to union demands. On the other hand, if management is not willing to take a strike, then the company will be walked all over by the labor union, and management will be forced to agree to any demand the union makes. The same concept applies to diplomatic negotiations.
There are also incentives in diplomacy to act reasonably, especially if the support of other actors is needed. The gain from winning one negotiation can be much less than the increased hostility from other parts. This is also called soft power. Soft power is a term used in International relations theory to describe the ability of a Political body such as a State, to indirectly influence the behavior
Many situations in modern diplomacy are also rules based. When for instance two WTO countries have trade dispute, it is in the interest of both to limit the spill over damage to other areas by following some agreed-upon rules.
The sanctity of diplomats has long been observed. Diplomatic immunity is a form of legal immunity and a policy held between governments which ensures that Diplomats are given safe passage and are considered not This sanctity has come to be known as diplomatic immunity. Diplomatic immunity is a form of legal immunity and a policy held between governments which ensures that Diplomats are given safe passage and are considered not While there have been a number of cases where diplomats have been killed, this is normally viewed as a great breach of honour. Genghis Khan and the Mongols were well known for strongly insisting on the rights of diplomats, and they would often wreak horrific vengeance against any state that violated these rights. Genghis Khan ( or;, Chinggis Khaan, ʧiŋgɪs χaːŋ Činggis Qaɣan; 1162–1227 born (meaning "ironworker" was the Mongol founder
Diplomatic rights were established in the mid-seventeenth century in Europe and have spread throughout the world. These rights were formalized by the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, which protects diplomats from being persecuted or prosecuted while on a diplomatic mission. The Vienna Conventions on Diplomatic Relations is an international Treaty on diplomatic intercourse and the privileges and immunities of a Diplomatic The prosecutor is the chief legal representative of the prosecution in countries with either the Common law Adversarial system, or the civil law If a diplomat does commit a serious crime while in a host country he may be declared as persona non grata (unwanted person). Persona non grata ( Latin, Plural: personae non gratae, also abbreviated PNG literally meaning "an unwelcome person" is a term used Such diplomats are then often tried for the crime in their homeland.
Diplomatic communications are also viewed as sacrosanct, and diplomats have long been allowed to carry documents across borders without being searched. The mechanism for this is the so-called "diplomatic bag" (or, in some countries, the "diplomatic pouch"). A diplomatic bag, also known as a diplomatic pouch, is an envelope parcel shipping container or any other kind of receptacle used by Diplomatic missions As long In recent years, however, signals intelligence has led to this use of diplomatic bags being largely discarded.
In times of hostility, diplomats are often withdrawn for reasons of personal safety, as well as in some cases when the host country is friendly but there is a perceived threat from internal dissidents. Ambassadors and other diplomats are sometimes recalled temporarily by their home countries as a way to express displeasure with the host country. In both cases, lower-level employees still remain to actually do the business of diplomacy.
In the Ottoman Empire, the diplomats of Persia and other states were seen as a guarantee of good behavior. If a nation broke a treaty or if their nationals misbehaved the diplomats would be punished. Diplomats were thus used as an enforcement mechanism on treaties and international law. To ensure that punishing a diplomat mattered rulers insisted on high-ranking figures. This tradition is seen by supporters of Iran as a legal basis of the 1979 Iranian hostage crisis. The Iran hostage crisis ( Persian: تصرف سفارت آمریکا was a diplomatic crisis between Iran and the United States where 52 In imitation of alleged previous practices supporters of the Iranian Revolution attempted to punish the United States for its alleged misdeeds by holding their diplomats hostage. The Iranian Revolution' (mostly known as the Islamic Revolution, Persian: انقلاب اسلامی Enghelābe Eslāmi was the Revolution that transformed Diplomats as a guarantee were also employed sometimes in pre-modern Europe and other parts of Asia.
Diplomacy is closely linked to espionage or gathering of intelligence. Embassies are bases for both diplomats and spies, and some diplomats are essentially openly-acknowledged spies. For instance, the job of military attachés includes learning as much as possible about the military of the nation to which they are assigned. A military attaché is a Military Expert who is part of a Diplomatic mission; this post is normally filled by a high-ranking officer They do not try to hide this role and, as such, are only invited to events allowed by their hosts, such as military parades or air shows. There are also deep-cover spies operating in many embassies. These individuals are given fake positions at the embassy, but their main task is to illegally gather intelligence, usually by coordinating spy rings of locals or other spies. For the most part, spies operating out of embassies gather little intelligence themselves and their identities tend to be known by the opposition. If discovered, these diplomats can be expelled from an embassy, but for the most part counter-intelligence agencies prefer to keep these agents in situ and under close monitoring. This article is a subset article of Intelligence cycle security.
The information gathered by spies plays an increasingly important role in diplomacy. Arms-control treaties would be impossible without the power of reconnaissance satellites and agents to monitor compliance. A spy satellite (officially referred to as a reconnaissance satellite) is an Earth observation satellite or Communications satellite deployed for Information gleaned from espionage is useful in almost all forms of diplomacy, everything from trade agreements to border disputes.
Various processes and procedures have evolved over time for handling diplomatic issues and disputes.
For more information, see Category:Diplomatic conferences
Nations sometimes resort to international arbitration when faced with a specific question or point of contention in need of resolution. For most of history, there were no official or formal procedures for such proceedings. They were generally accepted to abide by general principles and protocols related to international law and justice. International law is the term commonly used for referring to the system of implicit and explicit agreements that bind together nation-states in adherence to recognized values and standards
Sometimes these took the form of formal arbitrations and mediations. In such cases a commission of diplomats might be convened to hear all sides of an issue, and to come some sort of ruling based on international law.
In the modern era, much of this work is often carried out by the International Court of Justice at the Hague, or other formal commissions, agencies and tribunals, working under the United Nations. See also International Commission of Jurists The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; Cour The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Below are some examples.
Other times, resolutions were sought through the convening of international conferences. In such cases, there are fewer ground rules, and fewer formal applications of international law. However, participants are expected to guide themselves through principles of international fairness, logic, and protocol.
Some examples of these formal conferences are:
Sometimes nations convene official negotiation processes to settle an issue or dispute between several nations which are parties to a dispute. These are similar to the conferences mentioned above, as there are technically no established rules or procedures. However, there are general principles and precedents which help define a course for such proceedings.
Some examples are
Diplomatic recognition is an important factor in determining whether a nation is an independent state. Diplomatic recognition in international law is a unilateral political act with domestic and international legal consequences whereby a state acknowledges an act Receiving recognition is often difficult, even for countries which are fully sovereign. For many decades after becoming independent, even many of the closest allies of the Dutch Republic refused to grant it full recognition. "United Netherlands" redirects here For the "Kingdom of the United Netherlands" see United Kingdom of the Netherlands. Today there are a number of independent entities without widespread diplomatic recognition, most notably the Republic of China on Taiwan. ||}These lists of unrecognized or partially recognized countries give an overview of contemporary geopolitical entities that wish to be recognized as Sovereign REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Taiwan ( Taiwanese: Tâi-oân/Tāi-oân (historically 大灣/台員/大員/台圓/大圓/台窩灣 is an Island in East Asia. Since the 1970s, most nations have stopped officially recognizing the ROC's existence on Taiwan, at the insistence of the People's Republic of China. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Currently, the United States and other nations maintain informal relations through de facto embassies, with names such as the American Institute in Taiwan. The American Institute in Taiwan ( AIT) serves as the representative office of the United States in Taiwan. Similarly, Taiwan's de facto embassies abroad are known by names such as the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office. A Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office ( TECRO) sometimes known as a Taipei Economic and Cultural Office ( TECO) or a Taipei Representative This was not always the case, with the US maintaining official diplomatic ties with the ROC, recognizing it as the sole and legitimate government of all of China until 1979, when these relations were broken off as a condition for establishing official relations with Communist China.
The Palestinian Authority has its own diplomatic service, however Palestinian representatives in most Western countries are not accorded diplomatic immunity, and their missions are referred to as Delegations General.
Other unrecognized countries include Abkhazia, Transnistria, Somaliland, Nagorno Karabakh, and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. Abkhazia (Аҧсны Apsny აფხაზეთი Apkhazeti or Abkhazeti Абха́зия Abhazia) is a De facto Transnistria, also known as Trans-Dniester, Transdniestria, and Pridnestrovie (full name Pridnestrovian For the republic see Nagorno-Karabakh Republic Nagorno-Karabakh is a Region in the South Caucasus. The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus ( TRNC) (Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti KKTC) commonly called Northern Cyprus (Kuzey Kıbrıs though its Lacking the economic and political importance of Taiwan, these nations tend to be much more diplomatically isolated.
Though used as a factor in judging sovereignty, Article 3 of the Montevideo Convention states, "The political existence of the state is independent of recognition by other states. The Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States was a treaty (which was later accepted as part of customary international law signed at Montevideo, Uruguay "
Informal diplomacy (sometimes called Track II diplomacy) has been used for centuries to communicate between powers. Most diplomats work to recruit figures in other nations who might be able to give informal access to a country's leadership. In some situations, such as between the United States and the People's Republic of China a large amount of diplomacy is done through semi-formal channels using interlocutors such as academic members of thinktanks. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A think tank (also called a policy institute) is an organization institute corporation or group that conducts Research and engages in advocacy in areas such This occurs in situations where governments wish to express intentions or to suggest methods of resolving a diplomatic situation, but do not wish to express a formal position.
Track II diplomacy is a specific kind of informal diplomacy, in which non-officials (academic scholars, retired civil and military officials, public figures, social activists) engage in dialogue, with the aim of conflict resolution, or confidence-building. Sometimes governments may fund such Track II exchanges. Sometimes the exchanges may have no connection at all with governments, or may even act in defiance of governments; such exchanges are called Track III.
Paradiplomacy refers to the international relations conducted by subnational, regional, local or non-central governments. The concept of paradiplomacy refers to the international relations conducted by subnational regional local or non-central governments on their own with a view to promoting their The most ordinary case of paradiplomatic relation refer to co-operation between bordering political entities. However, interest of federal states, provinces, regions etc. , may extend over to different regions or to issues gathering local governments in multilateral fora worldwide. Some non-central governments may be allowed to negotiate and enter into agreement with foreign central states.
Cultural diplomacy is a part of diplomacy. Cultural diplomacy specifies a form of Diplomacy that carries a set of prescriptions which are material to its effectual practice these prescriptions include the unequivocal It alludes to a new way of making diplomacy by involving new non governmental and non professional actors in the making of diplomacy. In the frame of globalization, culture plays a major role in the definition of identity and in the relations between people. Joseph Nye points out the importance of having a soft power besides a hard power. When classical diplomacy fails, a better knowledge can help bridging the gap between different cultures. Cultural diplomacy becomes a subject of academic studies based on historical essays on the United States, Europe, and the Cold War. Cultural diplomacy specifies a form of Diplomacy that carries a set of prescriptions which are material to its effectual practice these prescriptions include the unequivocal
Pro Deo Et Mundo (For God and the World)
Faith based diplomacy for Mediation,peacebuilding and long term conflict resolution, migration diplomacy.