A dilemma (Greek δί-λημμα "double proposition") is a problem offering at least two solutions or possibilities, of which none are practically acceptable; one in this position has been traditionally described as being impaled on the horns of a dilemma, neither horn being comfortable. In Informal logic and argument mapping, a lemma is simultaneously a contention for Premises below it and a premise for a contention above A problem is an obstacle which makes it difficult to achieve a desired goal objective or purpose

The dilemma is sometimes used as a rhetorical device, in the form "you must accept either A, or B"; here A and B would be propositions each leading to some further conclusion. Rhetoric has had many definitions no simple definition can do it justice Applied in this way, it may be a fallacy, a false dichotomy. A fallacy is a component of an Argument which being demonstrably flawed in its Logic or form renders the argument invalid in whole The Informal fallacy of false dilemma (also called false Dichotomy, the either-or fallacy, or bifurcation) involves a situation in

In formal logic, the definition of a dilemma differs markedly from everyday usage. Logic is the study of the principles of valid demonstration and Inference. Two options are still present, but choosing between them is immaterial because they both imply the same conclusion. Symbolically expressed thus:

$A \vee B, A \Rightarrow C, B \Rightarrow C \vdash C$

Which can be translated informally as "one (or both) of A or B is known to be true, but they both imply C, so regardless of the truth values of A and B we can conclude C. "

Horned dilemmas can present more than two choices. The number of choices of Horned dilemmas can be used in their alternative names, such as two-pronged (two-horned) or dilemma proper , or three-pronged (three-horned) or trilemma, and so on. A trilemma is a difficult choice from three options each of which is (or appears unacceptable or unfavourable

Constructive dilemmas--

1. (If X, then Y) and (If W, then Z).
2. X or W.
3. Therefore, Y or Z.

Destructive dilemmas--

1. (If X, then Y) and (If W, then Z).
2. Not Y or not Z.
3. Therefore, not X or not W.

## Responses to a Dilemma

In Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance Robert Pirsig outlines possible responses to a dilemma. Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance An Inquiry into Values is the first of Robert M Robert Maynard Pirsig (born September 6, 1928, Minneapolis Minnesota) is an American Writer and Philosopher, mainly known The classical responses are to either choose one of the two horns and refute the other or alternatively to refute both horns by showing that there are additional choices. Pirsig then mentions three illogical or rhetorical responses. One can "throw sand in the bull's eyes" by, for example, questioning the competence of the questioner. One can "sing the bull to sleep" by, for example, stating that the answer to the question is beyond one's own humble powers and asking the questioner for help. Finally one can "refuse to enter the arena" by, for example, stating that the question is unanswerable.

## Named dilemmas

A Cornelian dilemma ( choix cornélien) is a Dilemma in which someone is obliged to choose between two courses of action either of which will have a detrimental effect The Euthyphro dilemma is found in Plato's dialogue Euthyphro, in which Socrates asks Euthyphro "Is the pious ( τὸ ὅσιον The hedgehog's dilemma, or sometimes the porcupine dilemma, is an Analogy about the challenges of Human intimacy. In the platonia dilemma introduced in Douglas Hofstadter 's book Metamagical Themas, an eccentric trillionaire gathers 20 people together and tells The Prisoner's Dilemma constitutes a problem in Game theory. It was originally framed by Merrill Flood and Melvin Dresher Security dilemma is a term used in International relations and refers to a situation wherein two or more States are drawn into conflict possibly even War Stagflation is an economic situation in which Inflation and Economic stagnation occur simultaneously and remain unchecked for a period of time In Game theory, the traveler's dilemma (sometimes abbreviated TD) is a type of non- Zero-sum game in which two players attempt to maximise their own payoff Warnock's Dilemma, named for its originator Bryan Warnock is the problem of interpreting a lack of response to a posting on a mailing list Usenet newsgroup or Web forum In Game theory, coordination games are a class of games with multiple Pure strategy Nash equilibria in which players choose the same or corresponding A dilemma story (also dilemma tale) is an African story-form intended to provoke Discussion. The Informal fallacy of false dilemma (also called false Dichotomy, the either-or fallacy, or bifurcation) involves a situation in A trilemma is a difficult choice from three options each of which is (or appears unacceptable or unfavourable The tetralemma ( catuskoti) is a figure that features prominently in Indian traditional logic

## dilemma

### -noun

1. A circumstance in which a choice must be made between two alternatives that seem equally undesirable.
2. (disputed) A difficult circumstance or problem.
3. (logic) A type of syllogism of the form "if A is true then B is true; if C is true then D is true; either A or C is true; therefore either B or D is true".
© 2009 citizendia.org; parts available under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License, from http://en.wikipedia.org
network: | |