A dilemma (Greek δί-λημμα "double proposition") is a problem offering at least two solutions or possibilities, of which none are practically acceptable; one in this position has been traditionally described as being impaled on the horns of a dilemma, neither horn being comfortable. In Informal logic and argument mapping, a lemma is simultaneously a contention for Premises below it and a premise for a contention above A problem is an obstacle which makes it difficult to achieve a desired goal objective or purpose
The dilemma is sometimes used as a rhetorical device, in the form "you must accept either A, or B"; here A and B would be propositions each leading to some further conclusion. Rhetoric has had many definitions no simple definition can do it justice Applied in this way, it may be a fallacy, a false dichotomy. A fallacy is a component of an Argument which being demonstrably flawed in its Logic or form renders the argument invalid in whole The Informal fallacy of false dilemma (also called false Dichotomy, the either-or fallacy, or bifurcation) involves a situation in
In formal logic, the definition of a dilemma differs markedly from everyday usage. Logic is the study of the principles of valid demonstration and Inference. Two options are still present, but choosing between them is immaterial because they both imply the same conclusion. Symbolically expressed thus:
Which can be translated informally as "one (or both) of A or B is known to be true, but they both imply C, so regardless of the truth values of A and B we can conclude C. "
Horned dilemmas can present more than two choices. The number of choices of Horned dilemmas can be used in their alternative names, such as two-pronged (two-horned) or dilemma proper , or three-pronged (three-horned) or trilemma, and so on. A trilemma is a difficult choice from three options each of which is (or appears unacceptable or unfavourable
In Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance Robert Pirsig outlines possible responses to a dilemma. Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance An Inquiry into Values is the first of Robert M Robert Maynard Pirsig (born September 6, 1928, Minneapolis Minnesota) is an American Writer and Philosopher, mainly known The classical responses are to either choose one of the two horns and refute the other or alternatively to refute both horns by showing that there are additional choices. Pirsig then mentions three illogical or rhetorical responses. One can "throw sand in the bull's eyes" by, for example, questioning the competence of the questioner. One can "sing the bull to sleep" by, for example, stating that the answer to the question is beyond one's own humble powers and asking the questioner for help. Finally one can "refuse to enter the arena" by, for example, stating that the question is unanswerable.