Digital preservation refers to the management of digital information over time. A digital system uses discrete (discontinuous values usually but not always Symbolized Numerically (hence called "digital" to represent information for Preservation of digital information is widely considered to require more constant and ongoing attention than preservation of other media. This constant input of effort, time, and money to handle rapid technological and organisational advance is considered the main stumbling block for preserving digital information. Indeed, while we are still able to read our written heritage from several thousand years ago, the digital information created merely a decade ago is in serious danger of being lost, creating a digital Dark Age. The Digital Dark Age is a term used to describe a possible future situation where it will be difficult or impossible to read historical documents because they have been stored in an obsolete
Digital preservation can therefore be seen as the set of processes and activities that ensure continued access to information and all kinds of records, scientific and cultural heritage existing in digital formats. This includes the preservation of materials resulting from Digital Reformatting, but particularly information that is born-digital and has no analog counterpart. Digital reformatting is the process of converting analogue materials into a digital format as a surrogate of the original Born-digital is a term from Digital preservation describing digital materials that originated in the digital realm and have no print or analog counterpart In the language of digital imaging and electronic resources, preservation is no longer just the product of a program but an ongoing process. In this regard the way digital information is stored is important in ensuring their longevity. The long-term storage of digital information is assisted by the inclusion of Preservation Metadata. Preservation metadata is an essential component of most Digital preservation strategies
Digital preservation is defined as: long-term, error-free storage of digital information, with means for retrieval and interpretation, for the entire time span the information is required for. Long-term is defined as "long enough to be concerned with the impacts of changing technologies, including support for new media and data formats, or with a changing user community. Long Term may extend indefinitely”. "Retrieval" means obtaining needed digital files from the long-term, error-free digital storage, without possibility of corrupting the continued error-free storage of the digital files. "Interpretation" means that the retrieved digital files, files that, for example, are of texts, charts, images or sounds, are decoded and transformed into usable representations. This is often interpreted as "rendering", i. e. making it available for a human to access. However, in many cases it will mean able to be processed by computational means.
Why active preservation is necessary
Society's heritage has been presented on many different materials, including stone, vellum, bamboo, silk, paper and etc. Now a large quantity of information exists in digital forms, including emails, blogs, social networking websites, national elections websites, web photo albums, and sites which change their content over time. According to a report by the US Library of Congress, 44% of the sites available on the internet in 1998 had vanished one year later. The Library of Congress is the De facto National library of the United States and the research arm of the United States Congress
The unique characteristic of digital forms makes it easy to create content and keep it up-to-date, but at the same time brings many difficulties in the preservation of this content. Margaret Hedstrom points out that “digital preservation raises challenges of a fundamentally different nature which are added to the problems of preserving traditional format materials. Margaret Hedstrom is an Information science researcher and a pioneer of research into the area of longevity of digital materials including electronic records ”
The first challenge digital preservation faces is that the media on which digital contents stand are more vulnerable to deterioration and catastrophic loss. While acid paper are prone to deterioration in terms of brittleness and yellowness, the deterioration does not become apparent in at least six decades; and when the deterioration really happens, it happens over decades too. It is also highly possible to retrieve all information without loss after deterioration is spotted. The recording media for digital data deteriorate at a much more rapid pace, and once the deterioration starts, in most cases there is already data loss. This characteristic of digital forms leaves a very short time frame for preservation decisions and actions.
Another challenge, perhaps a more serious and important one, is the problem of long-term access. Digital technology is developing extremely fast, and one retrieval and playback technology can become obsolete in a matter of years. When faster, more capable and cheaper storage and processing devices are developed, the older version gets replaced almost immediately. When a software or decoding technology is abandoned, or a hardware device is no longer in production, records created under the environment of such technologies are at great risk of loss, simply because they are not tangible any more. This process is known as digital obsolescence. Digital obsolescence is a situation where a digital resource is no longer readable because the physical media the reader required to read the media the hardware or the software that
This challenge is exacerbated by the lack of established standards, protocols, and proven methods for preserving digital information. We used to save copies of data on tapes, but media standards for tapes have changed considerably over the last five to ten years, and there is no guarantee that tapes will be readable in the future. Hedstrom further explained that almost all digital library researches have been focused on “architectures and systems for information organization and retrieval, presentation and visualization, and administration of intellectual property rights” and that “digital preservation remains largely experimental and replete with the risks associated with untested methods”. While the rapid advance of technology threats access of digital contents in length, the lack of digitizing standards affects the issue in width.
In 2006, the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) developed a four-point strategy for the long-term preservation of digital objects that consisted of:
- Assessing the risks for loss of content posed by technology variables such as commonly used proprietary file formats and software applications.
- Evaluating the digital content objects to determine what type and degree of format conversion or other preservation actions should be applied.
- Determining the appropriate metadata needed for each object type and how it is associated with the objects.
- Providing access to the content.
There are several additional strategies that individuals and organizations may use to actively combat the loss of digital information.
Refreshing is the transfer of data between two types of the same storage medium so there are no bitrate changes or alteration of data . In Telecommunications and Computing, bitrate (sometimes written bit rate, data rate or as a Variable R or f b For example, transferring census data from a gold preservation CD to a new one. A census is the procedure of acquiring information about every member of a given population A Compact Disc (also known as a CD) is an Optical disc used to store digital data, originally developed for storing digital audio This strategy may need to be combined with migration when the software or hardware required to read the data is no longer available or is unable to understand the format of the data. Typical PC hardware A typical Personal computer consists of a case or chassis in a tower shape (desktop and the following parts Motherboard Refreshing will likely always be necessary due to the deterioration of physical media.
Migration is the transferring of data to newer system environments (Garrett et al. , 1996). This may include conversion of resources from one format to another (e. g. , conversion of Microsoft Word to PDF or OpenDocument), from one operating system to another (e. Microsoft Word is Microsoft 's flagship word processing software. The OpenDocument format (ODF is a File format for electronic office documents such as Spreadsheets Charts presentations and g. , Solaris to Linux) or from one programming language to another (e. Solaris is a Unix -based Operating system introduced by Sun Microsystems in 1992 as the successor to SunOS. Linux (commonly pronounced ˈlɪnəks A programming language is an Artificial language that can be used to write programs which control the behavior of a machine particularly a Computer. g. , C to Java) so the resource remains fully accessible and functional. tags please moot on the talk page first! --> In Computing, C is a general-purpose cross-platform block structured Resources that are migrated run the risk of losing some type of functionality since newer formats may be incapable of capturing all the functionality of the original format, or the converter itself may be unable to interpret all the nuances of the original format. The latter is often a concern with proprietary data formats.
The National Archives Electronic Records Archives and Lockheed Martin are jointly developing a migration system that will preserve any type of document, created on any application or platform, and delivered to the archives on any type of digital media (Reagan, 2006). The United States National Archives and Records Administration ( NARA) is an independent agency of the United States federal government charged Lockheed Martin ( is a large multinational Aerospace manufacturer and advanced technology Company formed in 1995 by the merger of In the system, files are translated into flexible formats, such as XML; they will therefore be accessible by technologies in the future (Reagan, 2006). Lockheed Martin argues that it would be impossible to develop an emulation system for the National Archives ERA because the volume of records and cost would be prohibitive (Reagan, 2006).
Creating duplicate copies of data on one or more systems is called replication. Data that exists as a single copy in only one location is highly vulnerable to software or hardware failure, intentional or accidental alteration, and environmental catastrophes like fire, flooding, etc. Digital data is more likely to survive if it is replicated in several locations. Replicated data may introduce difficulties in refreshing, migration, versioning, and access control since the data is located in multiple places. Access control is the ability to permit or deny the use of a particular resource by a particular entity
Emulation is the replicating of functionality of an obsolete system (Rothenberg, 1998). For example, emulating an Atari 2600 on a Windows system or emulating WordPerfect 1.0 on a Macintosh. The Atari 2600 is a Video game console released in October 1977 Microsoft Windows is a series of Software Operating systems and Graphical user interfaces produced by Microsoft. WordPerfect is a proprietary Word processing application At the height of its popularity in the late 1980s and early 1990s it was the De facto Macintosh, commonly nicknamed Mac is a Brand name which covers several lines of Personal computers designed developed and marketed by Apple Inc Emulators may be built for applications, operating systems, or hardware platforms. An emulator duplicates (provides an emulation of the functions of one System using a different system so that the second system behaves like (and appears to Emulation has been a popular strategy for retaining the functionality of old video game systems. The feasibility of emulation as a catch-all solution has been debated in the academic community (Granger, 2000).
Raymond A. Lorie has suggested a Universal Virtual Computer (UVC) could be used to run any software in the future on a yet unknown platform (Lorie, 2001). A Universal Virtual Computer (UVC is much like a Virtual machine (VM in computing by means that it creates a layer between the underlying Computer platform The UVC strategy uses a combination of emulation and migration. The UVC strategy has not yet been widely adopted by the digital preservation community.
Jeff Rothenberg, a major proponent of Emulation for digital preservation in libraries, working in partnership with Koninklijke Bibliotheek and National Archief of the Netherlands, has recently helped launch Dioscuri, a modular emulator that succeeds in running MS-DOS, WordPerfect 5. 1, DOS games, and more (Hoeven, 2007).
Metadata is data on a digital file that includes information on creation, access rights, restrictions, preservation history, and rights management . Metadata ( meta data, or sometimes metainformation) is "data about data" of any sort in any media Metadata attached to digital files may be affected by file format obsolescence. ASCII is considered to be the most durable format for metadata  because it is widespread, backwards compatible when used with Unicode, and utilizes human-readable characters, not numeric codes. American Standard Code for Information Interchange ( ASCII) It retains information, but not the structure information is presented in. For higher functionality, SGML or XML should be used. The Standard Generalized Markup Language ( ISO 88791986 SGML) is an ISO Standard Metalanguage in which one can define Markup languages Don't change "Extensible" Both markup languages are stored in ASCII format, but contain tags that denote structure and format.
Trustworthy digital objects
Digital objects that can speak to their own authenticity are called trustworthy digital objects (TDOs). TDOs were proposed by Henry M. Gladney to enable digital objects to maintain a record of their change history so future users can know with certainty that the contents of the object are authentic (Gladney, 2004). Other preservation strategies like replication and migration are necessary for the long-term preservation of TDOs.
Digital sustainability encompasses a range of issues and concerns that contribute to the longevity of digital information. Unlike traditional, temporary strategies and more permanent solutions, digital sustainability implies a more active and continuous process. Digital sustainability concentrates less on the solution and technology and more on building an infrastructure and approach that is flexible with an emphasis on interoperability, continued maintenance and continuous development. Digital sustainability incorporates activities in the present that will facilitate access and availability in the future.
Digital preservation standards
To standardize digital preservation practice and provide a set of recommendations for preservation program implementation, the Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS) was developed. An Open Archival Information System (or OAIS) is an Archive, consisting of an organization of people and systems that has accepted the responsibility to preserve The reference model (ISO 14721:2003) includes the following responsibilities that an OAIS archive must abide by:
- Negotiate for and accept appropriate information from information Producers.
- Obtain sufficient control of the information provided to the level needed to ensure Long-Term Preservation.
- Determine, either by itself or in conjunction with other parties, which communities should become the Designated Community and, therefore, should be able to understand the information provided.
- Ensure that the information to be preserved is Independently Understandable to the Designated Community. In other words, the community should be able to understand the information without needing the assistance of the experts who produced the information.
- Follow documented policies and procedures which ensure that the information is preserved against all reasonable contingencies, and which enable the information to be disseminated as authenticated copies of the original, or as traceable to the original.
- Make the preserved information available to the Designated Community .
OAIS is concerned with all technical aspects of a digital object’s life cycle: ingest into and storage in a preservation infrastructure, data management, accessibility, and distribution. The model also addresses metadata issues and recommends that five types of metadata be attached to a digital object: reference (identification) information, provenance (including preservation history), context, fixity (authenticity indicators), and representation (formatting, file structure, and what “imparts meaning to an object’s bitstream” . Prior to Gladney's proposal of TDOs was the Research Library Group's (RLG) development of “attributes and responsibilities” that denote the practices of a “Trusted Digital Repository” (TDR) The seven attributes of a TDR are: “compliance with the Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS), Administrative responsibility, Organizational viability, Financial sustainability, Technological and procedural suitability, System security, Procedural accountability. " Among RLG’s attributes and responsibilities were recommendations calling for the collaborative development of digital repository certifications, models for cooperative networks, and sharing of research and information on digital preservation with regards to intellectual property rights. .
Digital sound preservation standards
In January 2004, the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) hosted a roundtable meeting of audio experts discussing best practices, which culminated in a report delivered March 2006. This report investigated procedures for reformatting sound from analog to digital, summarizing discussions and recommendations for best practices for digital preservation. Participants made a series of 15 recommendations for improving the practice of analog audio transfer for archiving:
- Develop core competencies in audio preservation engineering. Participants noted with concern that the number of experts qualified to transfer older recordings is shrinking and emphasized the need to find a way to ensure that the technical knowledge of these experts can be passed on.
- Develop arrangements among smaller institutions that allow for cooperative buying of esoteric materials and supplies.
- Pursue a research agenda for magnetic-tape problems that focuses on a less destructive solution for hydrolysis than baking, relubrication of acetate tapes, and curing of cupping.
- Develop guidelines for the use of automated transfer of analog audio to digital preservation copies.
- Develop a web-based clearinghouse for sharing information on how archives can develop digital preservation transfer programs.
- Carry out further research into nondestructive playback of broken audio discs.
- Develop a flowchart for identifying the composition of various types of audio discs and tapes.
- Develop a reference chart of problematic media issues.
- Collate relevant audio engineering standards from organizations.
- Research safe and effective methods for cleaning analog tapes and discs.
- Develop a list of music experts who could be consulted for advice on transfer of specific types of musical content (e. g. , determining the proper key so that correct playback speed can be established).
- Research the life expectancy of various audio formats.
- Establish regional digital audio repositories.
- Cooperate to develop a common vocabulary within the field of audio preservation.
- Investigate the transfer of technology from such fields as chemistry and materials science to various problems in audio preservation. 
Examples of digital preservation initiatives
- National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program. The Library of Congress's National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program (NDIIPP) is dedicated to ensuring that the digital information that conveys our history and heritage is available and accessible for generations to come. As a pioneer in the field of digital information, the Library has continued to provide digitized access to its vast collections, especially through sites such as American Memory, America's Library, and Exhibits.
- Portico. Portico, originally launched by JSTOR in 2002, is an electronic archiving service which provides "a permanent archive of electronic scholarly journals". JSTOR (short for Journal Storage) is a United States -based online system for archiving Academic journals founded in 1995
- FDsys. FDsys is system being developed by the United States Government Printing Office to authenticate, preserve, and provide access to government information from all three branches of the Federal government.
- Elsevier Science digital archive. In 2002, the Koninklijke Bibliotheek became the official digital archive for 7 terabytes of Elsevier Science journals. Elsevier, the world's largest Publisher of Medical and Scientific literature, forms part of the Reed Elsevier group
- LOCKSS. The LOCKSS Program ("Lots Of Copies Keep Stuff Safe"), under the auspices of Stanford University, develops and supports open-source software for digital preservation based on a distributed network of preservation appliances running a sophisticated voting protocol. The LOCKSS (Lots of Copies Keep Stuff Safe project under the auspices of Stanford University, develops and supports an Open source system allowing libraries to collect Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly known as Stanford University or simply Stanford, is a private Research university located in Originally designed to preserve scholarly journals, the LOCKSS technology is now being used to preserve electronic theses and dissertations, government documents, books, blogs, websites, image collections, etc. The LOCKSS Program also runs its own preservation network (, ).
- MetaArchive Project. Six universities (Emory University, the Georgia Institute of Technology, the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Florida State University, Auburn University and the University of Louisville) and the Library of Congress are developing "a cooperative for the preservation of at-risk digital content [about] the culture and history of the American South" in a private LOCKSS network. Emory University is a Private university located in the metropolitan area of the city of Atlanta and in western unincorporated DeKalb County, The Georgia Institute of Technology, commonly known as Georgia Tech, or Tech, is a public, Coeducational Research university in Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, better known as Virginia Tech, is a public land grant polytechnic University in Florida State University (commonly referred to as Florida State or FSU) is a public Research University located in Tallahassee Auburn University ( AU or Auburn) is a State university located in Auburn, Alabama, U The University of Louisville (also known as U of L) is a public University in Louisville, Kentucky, United States. The Library of Congress is the De facto National library of the United States and the research arm of the United States Congress
- ASERL ETDs. Eight universities of the Association of Southeastern Research Libraries (Florida State University, the Georgia Institute of Technology, North Carolina State University, the University of Kentucky, the University of Miami, the University of Tennessee, Vanderbilt University and the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University) are preserving each other's collections of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) in a private LOCKSS network. The Southeastern Library Network (SOLINET is a not-for-profit membership cooperative of libraries and other information organizations Florida State University (commonly referred to as Florida State or FSU) is a public Research University located in Tallahassee The Georgia Institute of Technology, commonly known as Georgia Tech, or Tech, is a public, Coeducational Research university in North Carolina State University at Raleigh is a public, Coeducational extensive Research University located in Raleigh North Carolina The University of Kentucky, also known as UK, is a public, Co-educational, University, and is also the state's land-grant university located The University of Miami (also known as Miami of Florida, UM, or just The U) is a private non-sectarian University founded in 1925 The University of Tennessee (also known as UT) sometimes called the University of Tennessee Knoxville ( UT Knoxville, or UTK) is the flagship Vanderbilt University is a private, Nonsectarian, Coeducational Research University in Nashville, Tennessee, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, better known as Virginia Tech, is a public land grant polytechnic University in
- GPO LOCKSS Pilot. The Government Printing Office conducted a pilot program to "manage, disseminate, and preserve access to Web-based Federal Government e-journals that are within the scope of the FDLP and IES" (Federal Depository Library Program and International Exchange Service), using LOCKSS technology. The Government Printing Office (GPO is an agency of the legislative branch of the United States federal government. A federal depository library is a Library in the United States that holds documents printed by the Government Printing Office. Pilot participants included 18 universities, the German National Library, the United States National Agricultural Library and the Government Printing Office (). The German National Library ( Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, abbreviated DNB) was established in 1990 during the German reunification by merging the Deutsche The Government Printing Office (GPO is an agency of the legislative branch of the United States federal government.
- Alaska State Publications Program. To continue complying with its obligations under Alaska state statutes to "make state publications freely available to Alaskans by distributing them to local depository libraries", the Alaska State Library is expanding its depository program to preserve Alaska State publications that are Web-only () by making them accessible to LOCKSS collection (). The Alaska State Library and Historical Collections is located in Juneau, Alaska, with an office in Anchorage featuring the Talking Book Center
- CLOCKSS. The CLOCKSS ("Controlled LOCKSS") is "a not-for-profit community partnership among publishers and libraries that is developing a distributed, validated, comprehensive archive that preserves and ensures continuing access to electronic scholarly content" using a private LOCKSS network. It mobilizes the resources of twelve large publishers (American Chemical Society, American Medical Association, American Physiological Society, Blackwell Publishing, Elsevier, Institute of Physics, Nature Publishing Group, Oxford University Press, SAGE Publications, Springer Science+Business Media, Taylor and Francis and John Wiley & Sons) and seven institutions (Indiana University, the New York Public Library, the OCLC, Rice University, Stanford University, the University of Virginia and the University of Edinburgh). The American Chemical Society ( ACS) is a Learned society ( Professional association) based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry The American Medical Association (AMA founded in 1847 and incorporated 1897 is the largest association of Physicians and Medical students in the United States Blackwell Publishing Ltd was a Learned society publishing company based in Oxford, England. Elsevier, the world's largest Publisher of Medical and Scientific literature, forms part of the Reed Elsevier group The Institute of Physics (IOP is the UK and Ireland 's main professional body for Physicists It was founded as the Physical Society Nature Publishing Group (NPG is an international Publishing company that publishes Scientific journals It is a division SAGE is an independent for-profit academic Publisher of books more than 500 Journals, and databases in the humanities social sciences and scientific Springer Science+Business Media or Springer (ˈʃpʁɪŋɐ is a worldwide Publishing company based in Germany, which publishes textbooks academic Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in the United Kingdom which publishes books and academic journals John Wiley & Sons Inc, also referred to as Wiley, is a global Publishing company that markets its products to professionals and consumers students and instructors Indiana University is the flagship campus of the Indiana University system. The New York Public Library ( NYPL) is one of the leading public libraries of the world and is one of America's most significant Research libraries. The OCLC Online Computer Library Center is according to its website a "nonprofit membership computer library service and research organization dedicated to the public purpose William Marsh Rice University (commonly called Rice University and opened in 1912 as The William Marsh Rice Institute for the Advancement of Letters Science and Art Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly known as Stanford University or simply Stanford, is a private Research university located in The University of Virginia (also called UVa, UVA, Mr Jefferson's University, or The University) is a highly selective public research The University of Edinburgh (Oilthigh Dhùn Èideann founded in 1582 is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland, UK.
- New media art preservation. New media art preservation, a form of Art conservation, is the study and practice of techniques for sustaining artworks created using digital biological performative and other Arts organizations (including the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, the Berkeley Art Museum, the Daniel Langlois Foundation for Art, Science and Technology, the New Museum of Contemporary Art's's Rhizome. This article refers to the Guggenheim's landmark New York museum The Berkeley Art Museum and Pacific Film Archive (BAM/PFA is associated with the University of California Berkeley in Berkeley California. The Daniel Langlois Foundation is a non-profit philanthropic organization endowed by Daniel Langlois and chartered in 1997 with the mission to support artistic and scientific The New Museum of Contemporary Art, founded in 1977 by Marcia Tucker, is the only Museum in New York City exclusively devoted to presenting contemporary org  and the Franklin Furnace Archive, amongst others) have been collaborating on various initiatives in the research of New media art preservation. New media art preservation, a form of Art conservation, is the study and practice of techniques for sustaining artworks created using digital biological performative and other Such initiatives include the Variable Media Network  and the Arching the Avant Garde project .
- NDHA. The National Digital Heritage Archive (NDHA) Programme is a partnership between the National Library of New Zealand, Ex Libris Group and Sun Microsystems to develop 'Preservation' a digital archive and preservation management system. The National Library of New Zealand ( Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa in Maori) is New Zealand 's Legal deposit library and a public service Established in 2004, the NDHA Programme is due to be completed in late 2009.
- The Rose Goldsen Archive of New Media Art. The Archive was founded in 2002 by Timothy Murray and was named after the pioneering critic of the commercialization of mass media, the late Professor Rose Goldsen of Cornell University. The Archive hosts international art work produced on CD-Rom, DVD-Rom, video, digital interfaces, and the internet. Its collection of supporting materials includes unpublished manuscripts and designs, catalogues, monographs, and resource guides to new media art. The curatorial vision emphasizes digital interfaces and artistic experimentation by international, independent artists. Designed as an experimental center of research and creativity, the Goldsen Archive includes materials by individual artists and collaborates on conceptual experimentation and archival strategies with international curatorial and fellowship projects.
- . DSpace is an open source software that is available to anyone who has the World Wide Web. DSpace essentially takes data in multiple formats (text, video, audio, or data), distributes it over the web, indexes the data (for easy retrieval), and preserves the data over time. Posting data on DSpace is fairly simple, but it does require those who are posting it to have the copyright to the material or to have permission to post non-copyrighted data. The information entered into DSpace (title, author, publication information, and keywords) is called "Metadata. " DSpace's main use for cataloging this "Metadata" is to preserve it over time.
- The British Library is responsible for several programmes in the area of digital preservation. The British Library ( BL) is the National library of the United Kingdom. The National Archives of the United Kingdom have also pioneered various initiatives in the field of digital preservation. The National Archives (TNA is a British Governmental organisation created in April 2003 to maintain a National archive for " England, Wales The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located
- PADI is a comprehensive archive of information on the topic of digital preservation from the National Library of Australia. The National Library of Australia is the country's largest reference library responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national
Large-Scale digital preservation initiatives (LSDIs)
Many research libraries and archives have begun or are about to begin Large-Scale digital preservation initiatives (LSDI’s). The main players in LSDIs are cultural institutions, commercial companies such as Google and Microsoft, and non-profit groups including the Open Content Alliance (OCA) and the Million Book Project (MBP). The Open Content Alliance (OCA is a consortium of non-profit and for-profit groups dedicated to building a free archive of digital text and multimedia The Million Book Project (or the Universal Library) led by Carnegie Mellon University School of Computer Science and University Libraries aims to digitize a The primary motivation of these groups is to expand access to scholarly resources.
LSDIs: Library Perspective
Approximately 30 cultural entities, including the 12-member Committee on Institutional Cooperation (CIC), have signed digitization agreements with either Google or Microsoft. The Committee on Institutional Cooperation (CIC, also known as the "Academic Big Ten" was established in 1958 and is a consortium of twelve primarily Midwestern Several of these cultural entities are participating in the Open Content Alliance (OCA) and the Million Book Project (MBP). The Open Content Alliance (OCA is a consortium of non-profit and for-profit groups dedicated to building a free archive of digital text and multimedia The Million Book Project (or the Universal Library) led by Carnegie Mellon University School of Computer Science and University Libraries aims to digitize a Some libraries are involved in only one initiative and others have diversified their digitization strategies through participation in multiple initiatives. The three main reasons for library participation in LSDIs are: Access, Preservation and Research and Development. It is hoped that digital preservation will ensure that library materials remain accessible for future generations. Libraries have a perpetual responsibility for their materials and a commitment to archive their digital materials. Libraries plan to use digitized copies as backups for works in case they go out of print, deteriorate, or are lost and damaged.
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External links Digital Asset Management consists of tasks and decisions surrounding ingesting annotating cataloguing storage and retrieval of Digital assets such as Digital photographs Data Format Management ( DFM) is the application of a systematic approach to the selection and use of the data formats used to encode information for storage on a computer Digital curation is the Curation, Preservation, maintenance and collection and Archiving of Digital assets Digital obsolescence is a situation where a digital resource is no longer readable because the physical media the reader required to read the media the hardware or the software that A digital object identifier ( DOI) is a permanent identifier given to an Electronic document. Digital reformatting is the process of converting analogue materials into a digital format as a surrogate of the original Enterprise content management ( ECM) is a set of technologies used to capture store preserve and deliver content and documents and content related to organizational A file format is a particular way to encode information for storage in a Computer file. Information Lifecycle Management refers to a wide-ranging set of strategies for administering Storage Systems on Computing devices The Library of Congress National Digital Library Program (NDLP is assembling a digital Library of reproductions of Primary source materials to support the study of Metadata ( meta data, or sometimes metainformation) is "data about data" of any sort in any media The National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program is a national strategic program being led by the Library of Congress to preserve digital content New media art preservation, a form of Art conservation, is the study and practice of techniques for sustaining artworks created using digital biological performative and other Preservation metadata is an essential component of most Digital preservation strategies The Section 108 Study Group is a select committee of copyright experts convened by the Library of Congress, and charged with updating for the digital world the United States Trustworthy Repositories Audit & Certification (TRAC is a checklist that developed from work done by the OCLC / RLG Programs and National Archives and Records A Universal Virtual Computer (UVC is much like a Virtual machine (VM in computing by means that it creates a layer between the underlying Computer platform A web crawler (also known as a web spider, web robot, or—especially in the FOAF community— web scutter) is a program or automated
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