Diesel or diesel fuel (IPA: /ˈdiːzəl/) in general is any fuel used in diesel engines. Fuel is any material that is burned or altered in order to obtain energy A diesel engine is an Internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle (named after Dr Production costs are 25-35% less than that of regular gasoline, due to the fact that diesel is less refined than normal gasoline. However, the price of diesel fuel at the pump is generally higher, since diesel fuel has high demand in the industrial world. The most common is a specific fractional distillate of petroleum fuel oil, but alternatives that are not derived from petroleum, such as biodiesel, biomass to liquid (BTL) or gas to liquid (GTL) diesel, are increasingly being developed and adopted. Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts or fractions such as in separating Chemical compounds by their Boiling point by heating Fuel oil is a fraction obtained from Petroleum Distillation, either as a distillate or a residue Biodiesel refers to a non-petroleum-based Diesel fuel consisting of short chain Alkyl ( Methyl or ethyl) Esters made by Biomass to liquid ( BTL) or BMTL is a (multi step process to produce liquid Biofuels from Biomass: The process uses the whole plant to improve the Gas to liquids or GTL is a refinery process to convert Natural gas or other gaseous Hydrocarbons into Longer-chain hydrocarbons To distinguish these types, petroleum-derived diesel is increasingly called petrodiesel. Ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) is a term used to describe a standard for defining diesel fuel with substantially lowered sulfur contents. Sulfur or sulphur (ˈsʌlfɚ see spelling below) is the Chemical element that has the Atomic number 16 As of 2007, almost every diesel fuel available in America and Europe are ULSD type.
The word "diesel" is derived from the German inventor Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel (March 18, 1858 – September 30, 1913) who in 1892 invented the diesel engine. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel (ˈʁuːdɔlf ˈkʁɪstjan ˈkaʁl ˈdiːzəl March 18, 1858 – last seen alive September 29, 1913) was a Events 37 - The Roman Senate annuls Tiberius ' will and proclaims Caligula emperor Year 1858 ( MDCCCLVIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Events 1399 - Henry IV is proclaimed King of England. 1744 - France and Spain defeat the Year 1913 ( MCMXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Year 1892 ( MDCCCXCII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year A diesel engine is an Internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle (named after Dr
Diesel engines are a type of internal combustion engine. A diesel engine is an Internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle (named after Dr A diesel engine is an Internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle (named after Dr The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the Combustion of Fuel and an Oxidizer (typically air occurs in a confined space called a Rudolf Diesel originally designed the diesel engine to use vegetable oils as a fuel in order to help support agrarian society and to enable independent craftsmen and artisans to compete with large industry. Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel (ˈʁuːdɔlf ˈkʁɪstjan ˈkaʁl ˈdiːzəl March 18, 1858 – last seen alive September 29, 1913) was a Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture
Petroleum diesel, or petrodiesel, is produced from petroleum and is a hydrocarbon mixture, obtained in the fractional distillation of crude oil between 200 °C and 350 °C at atmospheric pressure. Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit In Organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an Organic compound consisting entirely of Hydrogen and Carbon. Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts or fractions such as in separating Chemical compounds by their Boiling point by heating Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit
The density of petroleum diesel is about 850 grams per litre whereas petrol (gasoline) has a density of about 720 g/L, about 15% less. For other uses of the words gram or gramme see Gram (disambiguation. The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of Volume. When burnt, diesel typically releases about 138,700 British thermal units (146. 3 MJ) per US gallon, whereas gasoline releases 125,000 British thermal units (132 MJ) per US gallon, about 11% less.  Diesel is generally simpler to refine from petroleum than gasoline. The price of diesel traditionally rises during colder months as demand for heating oil rises, which is refined in much the same way. Heating oil, or oil heat, also known in the United States as No Due to its higher level of pollutants, diesel must undergo additional filtration which contributes to a sometimes higher cost. In many parts of the United States and throughout the UK, diesel may be higher priced than petrol.  Reasons for higher priced diesel include the shutdown of some refineries in the Gulf of Mexico, diversion of mass refining capacity to gasoline production, and a recent transfer to ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), which causes infrastructural complications. The Gulf of Mexico ( Spanish: Golfo de México) is the ninth largest Body of water in the world Ultra-low sulfur diesel ( ULSD) (also spelled “ sulphur ” is a term used to describe a standard for defining Diesel fuel with substantially lowered 
Diesel-powered cars generally have a better fuel economy than equivalent gasoline engines and produce less greenhouse gas pollution. A diesel engine is an Internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle (named after Dr Fuel economy in automobiles is the amount of Fuel required to move the Automobile over a given Distance. Greenhouse gases are gaseous constituents of the atmosphere bothnatural and anthropogenic that absorb and emit radiation at specific wavelengths within the spectrum of thermal infrared Their greater economy is due to the higher energy per-litre content of diesel fuel and the intrinsic efficiency of the diesel engine. While petrodiesel's 15% higher density results in 15% higher greenhouse gas emissions per litre compared to gasoline, the 20–40% better fuel economy achieved by modern diesel-engined automobiles offsets the higher-per-liter emissions of greenhouse gases, and produces 10-20 percent less GHG emissions than comparable gasoline vehicles.  However, the EPA carbon footprint estimates do not include the carbon cost of vehicle manufacture, nor the carbon cost of filtering particulates, sulfates, and nitrates emissions. Biodiesel-powered diesel engines offer substantially improved emission reductions compared to petro-diesel or gasoline-powered engines, while retaining most of the fuel economy advantages over conventional gasoline-powered automobiles.
In the past, diesel fuel contained higher quantities of sulfur. Sulfur or sulphur (ˈsʌlfɚ see spelling below) is the Chemical element that has the Atomic number 16 European emission standards and preferential taxation have forced oil refineries to dramatically reduce the level of sulfur in diesel fuels. European emission standards define the acceptable limits for exhaust emissions of new vehicles sold in EU member states An oil refinery is an industrial Process plant where Crude oil is processed and refined into more useful Petroleum products, such as Gasoline In the United States, more stringent emission standards have been adopted with the transition to ULSD starting in 2006 and becoming mandatory on June 1, 2010 (see also diesel exhaust). Ultra-low sulfur diesel ( ULSD) (also spelled “ sulphur ” is a term used to describe a standard for defining Diesel fuel with substantially lowered Events 193 - Roman Emperor Didius Julianus is Assassinated 987 - Hugh Capet is elected For the film see 2010 The Year We Make Contact. For the book see 2010 Odyssey Two. Exhaust gas is Flue gas which occurs as a result of the Combustion of fuels such as Natural gas, Gasoline /petrol Diesel, Fuel U. S. diesel fuel typically also has a lower cetane number (a measure of ignition quality) than European diesel, resulting in worse cold weather performance and some increase in emissions. Cetane number or CN is a measurement of the Combustion quality of Diesel fuel during compression ignition  This is one reason why U. S. drivers of large trucks have increasingly turned to biodiesel fuels with their generally higher cetane ratings.
High levels of sulfur in diesel are harmful for the environment because they prevent the use of catalytic diesel particulate filters to control diesel particulate emissions, as well as more advanced technologies, such as nitrogen oxide (NOx) adsorbers (still under development), to reduce emissions. Diesel particulate matter (DPM sometimes also called diesel exhaust particles (DEP is the particulate component of Diesel exhaust from older diesel cars The term nitrogen oxide typically refers to any Binary compound of Oxygen and Nitrogen, or to a mixture of such compounds Nitric Adsorption is a process that occurs when a gas or liquid Solute accumulates on the surface of a solid or a liquid (adsorbent forming a film of molecules or atoms (the However, the process for lowering sulfur also reduces the lubricity of the fuel, meaning that additives must be put into the fuel to help lubricate engines. Lubrication is the process or technique employed to reduce wear of one or both surfaces in close proximity and moving relative to each another by interposing a substance called Biodiesel and biodiesel/petrodiesel blends, with their higher lubricity levels, are increasingly being utilized as an alternative. Biodiesel refers to a non-petroleum-based Diesel fuel consisting of short chain Alkyl ( Methyl or ethyl) Esters made by
The U. S. annual consumption of diesel fuel in 2006 was about 190 billion litres (42 billion imperial gallons or 50 billion US gallons). 
Petroleum-derived diesel is composed of about 75% saturated hydrocarbons (primarily paraffins including n, iso, and cycloparaffins), and 25% aromatic hydrocarbons (including naphthalenes and alkylbenzenes). Miscibility is a term commonly used in Chemistry that refers to the property of Liquids to mix in all proportions forming a Homogeneous Solution Alkanes, also known as Paraffins are Chemical compounds that consist only of the elements Carbon (C and Hydrogen (H (i In chemistry paraffin is the common name for the Alkane Hydrocarbons with the general formula C n H2 n +2 Cycloalkanes (also called naphthenes, especially if from Petroleum sources are types of Alkanes which have one or more rings of Carbon Atoms Naphthalene, also known as naphthalin, naphthaline, tar camphor, white tar, albocarbon, or antimite and not to be Benzene, or benzol, is an organic Chemical compound and a known Carcinogen with the molecular formula C 6 H 6  The average chemical formula for common diesel fuel is C12H23, ranging from approx. C10H20 to C15H28
There has been much discussion and misinformation about algae in diesel fuel. Algae ( sing. alga are a large and diverse group of simple typically Autotrophic organisms ranging from Unicellular to Multicellular forms Algae require sunlight to live and grow. As there is no sunlight in a closed fuel tank, no algae can survive there. However, some microbes can survive there, and can feed on the diesel fuel. A microorganism (also spelled micro organism or micro-organism and also called a microbe) is an Organism that is Microscopic (usually
These microbes form a colony that lives at the fuel/water interface. They grow quite rapidly in warmer temperatures. They can even grow in cold weather when fuel tank heaters are installed. Parts of the colony can break off and clog the fuel lines and fuel filters.
It is possible to either kill this growth with a biocide treatment, or eliminate the water, a necessary component of microbial life. A biocide is a Chemical substance capable of killing living organisms, usually in a selective way There are a number of biocides on the market, which must be handled very carefully. If a biocide is used, it must be added every time a tank is refilled until the problem is fully resolved.
Biocides attack the cell wall of microbes resulting in lysis, the death of a cell by bursting. Lysis ( Greek, lysis from lyein = to separate refers to the death of a cell by breaking of the cellular membrane often by viral or osmotic The dead cells then gather on the bottom of the fuel tanks and form a sludge, filter clogging will continue after biocide treatment until the sludge has abated.
Given the right conditions microbes will repopulate the tanks and re-treatment with biocides will then be necessary. With repetitive biocide treatments microbes can then form resistance to a particular brand. Trying another brand may resolve this.
Petrodiesel spilled on a road will stay there until washed away by sufficiently heavy rain, whereas gasoline will quickly evaporate. Diesel spills severely reduce tire grip and have been implicated in many accidents. They are especially dangerous for two-wheeled vehicles.
Wood, hemp, straw, corn, garbage, food scraps, and sewage-sludge may be dried and gasified to synthesis gas. Wood is hard fibrous lignified structural tissue produced as secondary Xylem in the stems of Woody plants notably trees but also shrubs This article is about the cultivation and uses of industrial hemp not its psychoactive cousin Cannabis (drug. Straw is an agricultural By-product, the dry stalk of a Cereal plant after the Grain or Seed has been removed Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica WASTE is a Peer-to-peer and Friend-to-friend protocol and software application developed by Justin Frankel at Nullsoft in 2003 that features Syngas (from syn thesis gas) is the name given to a gas mixture that contains varying amounts of Carbon monoxide and Hydrogen. After purification the Fischer-Tropsch process is used to produce synthetic diesel. The Fischer-Tropsch process (or Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis is a catalyzed chemical reaction in which synthesis gas ( Syngas) a mixture of Carbon monoxide  This means that synthetic diesel oil may be one route to biomass based diesel oil. Such processes are often called Biomass-To-Liquids or BTL. Biomass to liquid ( BTL) or BMTL is a (multi step process to produce liquid Biofuels from Biomass: The process uses the whole plant to improve the
Synthetic diesel may also be produced out of natural gas in the Gas-to-liquid (GTL) process or out of coal in the Coal-to-liquid (CTL) process. Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane, Gas to liquids or GTL is a refinery process to convert Natural gas or other gaseous Hydrocarbons into Longer-chain hydrocarbons Such synthetic diesel has 30% less particulate emissions than conventional diesel (US- California). 
Biodiesel can be obtained from vegetable oil (vegidiesel/vegifuel), or animal fats (bio-lipids), using transesterification. Biodiesel refers to a non-petroleum-based Diesel fuel consisting of short chain Alkyl ( Methyl or ethyl) Esters made by Biodiesel refers to a non-petroleum-based Diesel fuel consisting of short chain Alkyl ( Methyl or ethyl) Esters made by Lipids are broadly defined as any fat- Soluble ( lipophilic) naturally-occurring Molecule, such as fats oils waxes cholesterol sterols fat-soluble In Organic chemistry, transesterification is the process of exchanging the Alcohol group of an Ester compound with another Alcohol. Biodiesel is a non-fossil fuel alternative to petrodiesel. Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source Fuels that is Hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the Earth’s crust. It can also be mixed with petrodiesel in any amount in modern engines, though when first using it, the solvent properties of the fuel tend to dissolve accumulated deposits and can clog fuel filters. A solvent is a liquid or gas that dissolves a solid liquid or gaseous Solute, resulting in a Solution. Biodiesel has a higher gel point than petrodiesel, but is comparable to diesel. The Gel point in Polymer chemistry is the point at which an infinite Polymer network first appears This can be overcome by using a biodiesel/petrodiesel blend, or by installing a fuel heater, but this is only necessary during the colder months. A diesel-biodiesel mix results in lower emissions than either can achieve alone, except for NOx emissions. A small fraction of biodiesel can be used as an additive in low-sulfur formulations of diesel to increase the lubricity lost when the sulfur is removed. In the event of fuel spills, biodiesel is easily washed away with ordinary water and is nontoxic compared to other fuels.
Biodiesel can be produced using kits. Certain kits allow for processing of used vegetable oil that can be run through any conventional diesel motor with modifications. The modification needed is the replacement of fuel lines from the intake and motor and all affected rubber fittings in injection and feeding pumps a. s. o. This is because biodiesel is an effective solvent and will replace softeners within unsuitable rubber with itself over time. A solvent is a liquid or gas that dissolves a solid liquid or gaseous Solute, resulting in a Solution. Synthetic gaskets for fittings and hoses prevent this.
Chemically, most biodiesel consists of alkyl (usually methyl) esters instead of the alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons of petroleum derived diesel. An alkyl is a Univalent radical consisting of Carbon and Hydrogen atoms arranged in a chain In Chemistry, a methyl group is a Hydrophobic Alkyl Functional group named after Methane (4 Esters are a class of Chemical compounds and Functional groups Esters consist of an inorganic or organic Acid in which at least However, biodiesel has combustion properties very similar to petrodiesel, including combustion energy and cetane ratings. Cetane number or CN is a measurement of the Combustion quality of Diesel fuel during compression ignition Paraffin biodiesel also exists. In chemistry paraffin is the common name for the Alkane Hydrocarbons with the general formula C n H2 n +2 Due to the purity of the source, it has a higher quality than petrodiesel.
The use of biodiesel blended diesel fuels in fractions up to 99% result in substantial emission reductions. Sulfur oxide and sulfate emissions, major components of acid rain, are essentially eliminated with pure biodiesel and substantially reduced using biodiesel blends with minor quantities of ULSD petrodiesel. Acid rain is Rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually Acidic It has harmful effects on plants aquatic animals and infastructure Use of biodiesel also results in substantial reductions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter compared to either gasoline or petrodiesel. C02, or carbon monoxide emissions using biodiesel are substantially reduced, on the order of 50% compared to most petrodiesel fuels. The exhaust emissions of particulate matter from biodiesel have been found to be 30 percent lower than overall particulate matter emissions from petrodiesel. The exhaust emissions of total hydrocarbons (a contributing factor in the localized formation of smog and ozone) are up to 93 percent lower for biodiesel than diesel fuel. Biodiesel emissions of nitrogen oxides can sometimes increase slightly. However, biodiesel's complete lack of sulfur and sulfate emissions allows the use of NOx control technologies, such as AdBlue, that cannot be used with conventional diesel, allowing the management and control of nitrous oxide emissions. AdBlue is the registered trademark for AUS32 (Aqueous Urea Solution 32
Biodiesel also may reduce health risks associated with petroleum diesel. Biodiesel emissions showed decreased levels of PAH and nitrited PAH compounds which have been identified as potential cancer causing compounds. In recent testing, PAH compounds were reduced by 75 to 85 percent, with the exception of benzo(a)anthracene, which was reduced by roughly 50 percent. Targeted nPAH compounds were also reduced dramatically with biodiesel fuel, with 2-nitrofluorene and 1-nitropyrene reduced by 90 percent, and the rest of the nPAH compounds reduced to only trace levels. 
The first diesel powered flight of a fixed wing aircraft took place on the evening of September 18, 1928, at the Packard Motor Company proving grounds, Utica, Michigan with Captain Lionel M. Events 96 - Nerva is proclaimed Roman Emperor after Domitian is assassinated Year 1928 ( MCMXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Woolson and Walter Lees at the controls (the first "official" test flight was taken the next morning). The engine was designed for Packard by Woolson and the aircraft was a Stinson SM1B, X7654. The Stinson Aircraft Company was an Aircraft Manufacturing company in the United States between the 1920s and the 1950s Later that year Charles Lindbergh flew the same aircraft. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout In 1929 it was flown 621 miles (999 km) non-stop from Detroit to Langley, Virginia (near Washington, D.C.). This article describes the unincorporated community of Langley in McLean Virginia Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D This aircraft is presently owned by Greg Herrick and resides in the Golden Wings Flying Museum near Minneapolis, Minnesota. In 1931, Walter Lees and Fredrick Brossy set the nonstop flight record flying a Bellanca powered by a Packard diesel for 84h 32 m. AviaBellanca Aircraft Corporation is an American Aircraft design and manufacturing company The Hindenburg was powered by four 16 cylinder diesel engines, each with approximately 1,200 horsepower (890 kW) available in bursts, and 850 horsepower (630 kW) available for cruising. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Modern diesel engines for propellor-driven aircraft are manufactured by Thielert Aircraft Engines and SMA. These engines are able to run on Jet A fuel, which is similar in composition to automotive diesel and cheaper and more plentiful than the 100 octane low-lead gasoline (avgas) used by the majority of the piston-engine aircraft fleet. Jet fuel is a type of Aviation fuel designed for use in Aircraft powered by gas-turbine engines. Octane is a straight-chain Alkane with the Chemical formula CH3(CH26CH3 Avgas is a high-octane Aviation fuel used for Aircraft and Racing cars Avgas is a Portmanteau for aviation gasoline
The most-produced aviation diesel engine in history so far has been the Junkers Jumo 205, which, along with its similar developments from the Junkers Motorenwerke, had approximately 1000 examples of the unique opposed piston, two-stroke design powerplant built in the 1930s leading into World War II in Germany. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout
The very first diesel-engine automobile trip (inside USA) was completed on January 6, 1930. Events 1066 - Harold Godwinson is crowned King of England. 1205 - Philip of Swabia becomes King Year 1930 ( MCMXXX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The trip was from Indianapolis to New York City, a distance of nearly 800 miles (1300 km). The City of New York This feat helped to prove the usefulness of the compression ignition engine. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition, or HCCI, is a form of internal combustion in which well-mixed Fuel and Oxidizer (typically air are
In 1931, Dave Evans drove his Cummins Diesel Special to a nonstop finish in the Indianapolis 500, the first time a car had completed the race without a pit stop. Cummins Inc ( is a corporation of complementary business units that design manufacture distribute and service diesel and Natural gas Engines and related The Indianapolis 500-Mile Race, often shortened to Indianapolis 500 or Indy 500, and historically known simply as "The 500" is an American In motorsports a pit stop is where a racing Vehicle stops in the pits during a race for refuelling new Tires repairs mechanical adjustments That car and a later Cummins Diesel Special are on display at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Hall of Fame Museum. The Indianapolis Motor Speedway, located in Speedway Indiana (an Enclave of Indianapolis) in the United States, is the home of the 
In the late 1970s, Mercedes-Benz at Nardò drove a C111-III with a 5 cylinder diesel engine to several new records, including driving an average of 314 km/h (195 mph) for 12 hours and hitting a top speed of 325 km/h (201 mph). This article is about the Decade 1970-1979 For the Year 1970 see 1970.
With turbocharged diesel cars getting stronger in the 1990s, they were entered in touring car racing, and BMW even won the 24 Hours Nürburgring in 1998 with a 320d. The 1990s collectively refers to the years between and including 1990 and 1999 Touring car racing is a general term for a number of distinct Auto racing competitions in heavily-modified street cars ( BMW) (Bavarian Motor Works is an independent German automobile manufacturer founded in 1916 The 24 Hours Nürburgring is a GT and touring car Endurance racing event on the Nürburgring, inspired by the famous 24 Hours of Le Mans and The E36 Automobile platform was the basis for the 1990-2000 BMW 3 Series Entry-level luxury car / Compact executive car. After winning the 12 Hours of Sebring in 2006 with their diesel-powered R10 TDI LMP, Audi won the 24 Hours of Le Mans, too. The Audi R10 TDI, usually abbreviated to R10, is a racing car from the German car manufacturer Audi. A Le Mans Prototype (commonly abbreviated as LMP) is a type of custom-built Race car intended for Sports car racing and Endurance racing, most AUDI AG, ( Xetra: NSU commonly known as Audi (aˈʊdi is a German Automobile manufacturer which produces Audi branded cars with headquarters The 24 Hours of Le Mans ( 24 Heures du Mans) is a sports car endurance race held annually since near the town of Le Mans, Sarthe, This is the first time a diesel-fueled vehicle has won at Le Mans against cars powered with regular fuel or other alternative fuel like methanol or bio-ethanol. Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a Chemical compound Ethanol fuel is Ethanol (ethyl alcohol the same type of Alcohol found in Alcoholic beverages. Competitors like Porsche predicted this victory for Audi as current FIA and ACO regulations are seen as pro-diesel. The Automobile Club de l'Ouest (Automobile Club of the West - referring to the western region of France sometimes abbreviated to ACO, is the largest Automotive group French automaker Peugeot entered the diesel powered Peugeot 908 LMP in the 2007 24 Hours of Le Mans in response to the success of the Audi R10 TDI. For the article about the bicycle manufacturer see Cycles Peugeot. The Peugeot 908 HDi FAP is a Sports prototype racing car built by the French automobile manufacturer Peugeot to compete in the 24 Hours of Le Mans A Le Mans Prototype (commonly abbreviated as LMP) is a type of custom-built Race car intended for Sports car racing and Endurance racing, most The 24 Hours of Le Mans ( 24 Heures du Mans) is a sports car endurance race held annually since near the town of Le Mans, Sarthe, The Audi R10 TDI, usually abbreviated to R10, is a racing car from the German car manufacturer Audi.
In an effort to further demonstrate the potential of diesel power, California-based Gale Banks Engineering designed, built and raced a Cummins-powered pickup at the Bonneville Salt Flats in October 2002. The Bonneville Salt Flats are a 159 square mile (412 km² Salt flat in northwestern Utah. The truck set a top speed of 355 km/h (222 mph) and became the world’s fastest pickup, and almost equally notable, the truck drove to the race towing its own support trailer.
On 23 August 2006, the British-based earthmoving machine manufacturer JCB raced the specially designed JCB Dieselmax car at 563. Events 79 - Mount Vesuvius begins stirring on the feast day of Vulcan the Roman god of fire Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. JCB, or J C Bamford (Excavators Ltd as it is more properly known is a family business named after its founder J The JCB Dieselmax is a diesel-engined ' Streamliner ' car designed for the purpose of breaking the Land speed record for a diesel-engined vehicle 4 km/h (350. 1 mph). The driver was Andy Green. Wing Commander Andy D Green OBE BA RAF (born 1962 is a British Royal Air Force pilot and World Land Speed Record holder The car was powered by two modified JCB 444 diesel engines.
Poor quality, (high sulfur) diesel fuel has been used as a palladium extraction agent for the liquid-liquid extraction of this metal from nitric acid mixtures. Sulfur or sulphur (ˈsʌlfɚ see spelling below) is the Chemical element that has the Atomic number 16 Palladium (pronounced \pəˈleɪdiəm\ is a rare and lustrous silvery-white metal that was discovered in 1803 by William Hyde Wollaston, who named it palladium after the Liquid-liquid extraction, also known as solvent extraction and partitioning, is a method to separate compounds based on their relative solubilities in two Nitric acid ( H[[nitrate NO3]] also known as Aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is a highly corrosive and This has been proposed as a means of separating the fission product palladium from PUREX raffinate which comes from used nuclear fuel. Fission products are the atomic fragments left after a large nucleus fissions. In Solvent extraction, a raffinate is a Liquid stream that remains after the extraction with the immiscible liquid to remove solutes from the Nuclear fuel is any material that can be consumed to derive Nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical Fuel that is burned to derive energy In this solvent extraction system the hydrocarbons of the diesel act as the diluent while the dialkyl sulfides act as the extractant. In Organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an Organic compound consisting entirely of Hydrogen and Carbon. A Diluent (also referred to as a dilutant or thinner) is a diluting agent An alkyl is a Univalent radical consisting of Carbon and Hydrogen atoms arranged in a chain The term sulfide ( sulphide in British English) refers to several types of Chemical compounds containing Sulfur in its lowest Oxidation This extraction operates by a solvation mechanism. Solvation, commonly called dissolution, is the process of attraction and association of Molecules of a Solvent with molecules or Ions of a So far neither a pilot plant or full scale plant has been constructed to recover palladium, rhodium or ruthenium from nuclear wastes created by the use of nuclear fuel. A pilot plant is a small chemical processing system which is operated to generate information about the behavior of the system for use in Design of larger facilities Rh redirects here For other uses see Rh (disambiguation Rhodium (ˈroʊdiəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Ruthenium (ruːˈθiːniəm is a Chemical element that has the symbol Ru and Atomic number 44 Radioactive wastes are Waste types containing radioactive Chemical elements that do not have a practical purpose Nuclear fuel is any material that can be consumed to derive Nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical Fuel that is burned to derive energy 
Diesel combustion exhaust is an important source of atmospheric soot and fine particles, which is a fraction of air pollution implicated in human heart and lung damage. Soot (ˈsʊt is a general term that refers to the black impure carbon particles resulting from the incomplete combustion of a hydrocarbon Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas Diesel exhaust also contains nanoparticles which have been found to damage the cardiovascular system in a mouse model. In Nanotechnology, a particle is defined as a small object that behaves as a whole unit in terms of its transport and properties  The study of nanotoxicology is still in its infancy, and the extent of health and societal effects caused by diesel combustion is unknown. Nanotoxicology is the study of the Toxicity of nanomaterials. Biodiesel and biodiesel blends result in greatly decreased pollution levels.
Diesel fuel is very similar to heating oil which is used in central heating. Heating oil, or oil heat, also known in the United States as No For the Grand Central Records albums see Central Heating (Grand Central album and Central Heating 2. In Europe, the United States, and Canada, taxes on diesel fuel are higher than on heating oil due to the fuel tax, and in those areas, heating oil is marked with fuel dyes and trace chemicals to prevent and detect tax fraud. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page A fuel tax (also known as a petrol tax, gasoline tax, gas tax or fuel duty) is a Sales tax imposed on the sale of Fuel. Fuel dyes are Dyes added to Fuels as in some countries it is required by law to dye a low-tax fuel to deter its use in applications intended for higher-taxed ones Tax avoidance is the legal utilization of the Tax regime to one's own advantage in order to reduce the amount of tax that is payable by means that are within the law Similarly, "untaxed" diesel (sometimes called "off road diesel") is available in the United States, which is available for use primarily in agricultural applications such as fuel for tractors, recreational and utility vehicles or other non-commercial vehicles that do not use public roads. A non-commercial enterprise is work that values other considerations above and beyond that of making a profit A public road or Highway is a Road that is open to common use by the general population Additionally, this fuel may have sulphur levels that exceed the limits for road use using the newer 2007 standards. This untaxed diesel is dyed red for identification purposes, and should a person be found to be using this untaxed diesel fuel for a typically taxed purpose (such as "over-the-road", or driving use), the user can be fined US$10,000. In the United Kingdom, Belgium and the Netherlands it is known as red diesel (or gas oil), and is also used in agricultural vehicles, home heating tanks, refrigeration units on vans/trucks which contain perishable items (e. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Red diesel is a rebated fuel used for heating Electrical generators and Agricultural vehicles that rarely use Public highways In comparison to regular "white" Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture g. food, medicine) and for marine craft. Diesel fuel, or Marked Gas Oil is dyed green in the Republic of Ireland. Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. The term DERV ("diesel engined road vehicle") is used in the UK as a synonym for unmarked road diesel fuel. In India, taxes on diesel fuel are lower than on gasoline as the majority of the transportation that transports grains and other essential commodities across the country runs on diesel. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country
In Germany, diesel fuel is taxed lower than gasoline but the annual vehicle tax is higher for diesel vehicles than for gasoline vehicles. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. This gives an advantage to vehicles that travel longer distances (which is the case for trucks and utility vehicles) because the annual vehicle tax depends only on engine displacement, not on distance driven. Engine displacement is defined as the total Volume of air/fuel mixture an Engine can draw in during one complete engine cycle it is normally stated in Cubic The point at which a diesel vehicle becomes less expensive than a comparable gasoline vehicle is around 20,000 km per year (12,500 miles per year) for an average car.
Taxes on biodiesel in the United States vary from state to state and in some states (Texas, for example) have no tax on biodiesel and a reduced tax on biodiesel blends equivalent to the amount of biodiesel in the blend, so B20 fuel is taxed 20% less than pure petrodiesel. Biodiesel refers to a non-petroleum-based Diesel fuel consisting of short chain Alkyl ( Methyl or ethyl) Esters made by  Other states, such as North Carolina, tax biodiesel (in any blended configuration) the same as petrodiesel, although they have introduced new incentives to producers and users of all biofuels.