|IATA: NKW – ICAO: FJDG|
|Airport type||Naval Support Facility|
|Operator||United States Navy, Royal Navy, Royal Marines|
|Location||Diego Garcia, Chagos|
|In use||1971 - present|
|Elevation AMSL||9 ft / 3 m|
Diego Garcia is an atoll in the middle of the Indian Ocean, about 1,600 km (1,000 mi) south off India's and Sri Lanka's southern coasts. An IATA airport code, also known an IATA location identifier, IATA station code or simply a location identifier, is a three-letter code designating many The ICAO (ˌaɪˌkeɪˈoʊ Airport code or location indicator is a four-letter Alphanumeric Code designating each airport around The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service) The Royal Marines ( RM) are the marine corps and amphibious Infantry of the United Kingdom and along with the Royal Navy The Chagos Archipelago (formerly Oil Islands) is a group of seven Atolls comprising more than 60 individual tropical Islands roughly in the centre of The term above mean sea level ( AMSL) refers to the Elevation (on the ground or Altitude (in the Air) of any object relative to the A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. A runway ( RWY) is a strip of land on an Airport, on which Aircraft can take off and land. A runway ( RWY) is a strip of land on an Airport, on which Aircraft can take off and land. A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International Concrete is a construction material composed of Cement (commonly Portland cement) as well as other cementitious materials such as Fly ash and Slag An atoll (pronounced /ˈætʌl/ is an island of Coral that encircles a Lagoon partially or completely The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's Oceanic divisions covering about 20% of the water on the Earth 's surface India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island It is the largest atoll by land area in the Chagos Archipelago. The Chagos Archipelago (formerly Oil Islands) is a group of seven Atolls comprising more than 60 individual tropical Islands roughly in the centre of It is part of the British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT), a British overseas territory. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The British Overseas Territories are fourteen territories that are under the Sovereignty of the United Kingdom, but which do not form part of the United Kingdom
Since the enforced depopulation of Diego Garcia in the years leading up to 1973, it has been used as a military base by the United Kingdom and the United States. The Diego Garcia depopulation controversy pertains to the expulsion of the established inhabitants of the island of Diego Garcia, part of the British Indian Ocean Territory The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The United States of America —commonly referred to as the It has one of five ground antennas assisting in the operation of the Global Positioning System, the others being on Ascension Island, Hawaii, Kwajalein and in Colorado Springs. Basic concept of GPS operation A GPS receiver calculates its position by carefully timing the signals sent by the constellation of GPS Satellites high above the Earth Ascension Island is an island in the South Atlantic Ocean, around from the coast of Africa The State of Hawaii ( or həˈwaɪʔiː Hawaiian: Mokuāina o Hawaii) is a state in the United States located on an Archipelago in the Kwajalein Atoll ( Marshallese: Kuwajleen; kʷuwːɔ͡ɛt̪ʲl̪ʲɪn̪ʲ common English pronunciation ˈkwɑːʤəlɨ̞n often nicknamed Kwaj The City of Colorado Springs is a Home Rule Municipality that is the County seat and most populous city of El Paso County, Colorado,
It is covered in luxuriant tropical vegetation, with little sign of the copra and coconut plantations that once covered it. Copra is the dried meat or kernel of the Coconut. The name copra is derived from the Malayalam word kopra for dried coconut The Coconut Palm ( Cocos nucifera) is a member of the Family Arecaceae (palm family Fundamentally a plantation is usually a large Farm or estate, especially in a tropical or semitropical country on which Cotton, Tobacco It is 60 kilometres (37 mi) long, with a maximum elevation of 6. 7 metres (22 ft), and nearly encloses a lagoon about 19 kilometres (12 mi) long and up to 8 kilometres (5. A lagoon is a body of comparatively shallow salt or Brackish water separated from the deeper Sea by a shallow or exposed sandbank, coral 0 mi) wide. Depths in the lagoon extend to 30 metres (98 ft), and numerous coral heads form hazards to navigation. Shallow reefs surround the island on the ocean side. The channel and anchorage area are dredged, while the old turning basin can also be used. Dredging is an Excavation activity or operation usually carried out at least partly underwater in shallow seas or Fresh water areas with the purpose of
The atoll forms a nearly complete rim of land around a lagoon, enclosing 90 percent of its perimeter, with an opening only in the north. The perimeter is the distance around a given two-dimensional object The main island is the largest of about sixty islands which form the Chagos Archipelago. Besides the main islands, there are three small islets at the mouth of the lagoon in the north:
The total area of the atoll is 174 km² (66 mi²) according to , of which 30 km² (12 mi²) are land, 17 km² (6. Explanation The hectare is commonly used in most countries around the world especially in domains concerned with land planning and management such as Agriculture, 5 mi²) peripheral reef and 124 km² (48 mi²) are lagoon.
Annual rainfall averages 260 cm (102 in), with the heaviest precipitation from October to February. Rain is Liquid precipitation. On Earth it is the condensation of atmospheric Water vapor into drops heavy enough to fall often making it to August, the driest month, averages 100 mm (4. 2 in). Temperatures are generally close to 30 °C (86 °F) by day, falling to the low 20s °C (70 °F) by night. Humidity is high throughout the year. The almost constant breezes keep conditions reasonably comfortable.
Diego Garcia is at risk from tropical cyclones. The surrounding topography is low and does not provide an extensive wind break. Topography ( topo-, "place" and graphia, "writing" is the study of Earth 's Surface features or those of Planets Since the 1960s the island has not been seriously affected by a severe tropical cyclone, even though it has often been threatened. The maximum sustained wind associated with a tropical cyclone in the period 1970-2000 was approximately 40 knots (75 km/h).
The island was somewhat affected by the tsunami caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. A tsunami ((tsuːˈnɑːmi is a series of waves created when The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was an undersea Earthquake that occurred at 005853 UTC on December 26 2004 with an Epicentre off the west coast of Service personnel on the western arm of the atoll island reported only a minor increase in wave activity. The island was protected to a large degree by its favourable ocean topography. About 80 km (50 mi) east of the atoll lies the 650 km (400-mile) long Chagos Trench, an underwater canyon plunging more than 4,900 m (16,000 ft). The depth of the trench and its grade to the atoll's slope and shelf shore makes it more difficult for substantial tsunami waves to build before passing the atoll from the east. In addition, near shore coral reefs and an algal platform may have dissipated much of the waves' impact. Coral reefs are Aragonite structures produced by living organisms found in marine waters with little to no nutrients in the water  A biological survey conducted in early 2005 indicated erosional effects of the tsunami wave on Diego Garcia and other islands of the Chagos Archipelago. One 200 to 300 m stretch of atoll shoreline was found to have been breached by the tsunami wave, representing approximately 10 percent of the eastern arm. A biological survey by the Chagos Conservation Trust reported that the resulting inundation additionally washed away shoreline shrubs and small to medium size coconut palms. 
On November 30, 1983 a magnitude 7 earthquake 55 km (34 mi) northwest of the island caused a small tsunami resulting in a 1. Events 1700 - Battle of Narva — A Swedish army of 8500 men under Charles XII defeats Year 1983 ( MCMLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar) TalkMoment magnitude scale#Real world examples please.--> The moment magnitude scale An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth 's crust that creates Seismic waves Earthquakes are recorded with a Seismometer 5 m (5 ft) rise in wave height in the lagoon, causing some damage to buildings, piers and the runway.
Portuguese explorers discovered Diego Garcia in the early sixteenth century. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. The island's name is believed to have come from either the ship's captain or the navigator on that early voyage of discovery.
The islands remained uninhabited until the 18th century when the French established copra plantations using slave labour. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Copra is the dried meat or kernel of the Coconut. The name copra is derived from the Malayalam word kopra for dried coconut As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another Diego Garcia became a possession of the United Kingdom after the Napoleonic wars, and from 1814 to 1965 it was a dependency of Mauritius. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815 involved Napoleon's French Empire and a shifting set of European allies and opposing coalitions Mauritius (pronounced məˈrɪʃəs L’île Maurice /il mɔ'ʁis/ Mauritian Creole: Maurice) officially the Republic of Mauritius, République
In 1914, the island was visited by the German cruiser SMS Emden. Early service The Emden was launched on 26 May 1908 and commissioned into the Kaiserliche Marine, Germany's Imperial Navy on
In 1965, the Chagos Islands, which include Diego Garcia, were detached from Mauritius to form part of the British Indian Ocean Territories (BIOT). The Chagos Archipelago (formerly Oil Islands) is a group of seven Atolls comprising more than 60 individual tropical Islands roughly in the centre of In 1966 the crown bought the islands and plantations, which had been under private ownership and which had not been profitable with the introduction of new oils and lubricants. In 1971, the plantations were closed because of the agreement between the United Kingdom and the United States to make Diego Garcia available to the U. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the S. as a military base. Etymology The word bases is first recorded in English language from c No payment was made as part of this arrangement, although it has been claimed that the United Kingdom received a US$14 million discount on the acquisition of Polaris missiles from the United States. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been The Polaris missile was a submarine-launched two-stage solid-fuel nuclear-armed ballistic missile ( SLBM) built during the Cold War by Lockheed for  The agreement forbids any other economic activity on the island.
Until 1971 Diego Garcia had a native population of 2,000 Chagossians or Ilois, descendants of Indian workers and African slaves who had been brought to the island in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to work on the coconut and copra plantations. Chagossians (also known as Ilois and Chagos Islanders) are a group of Creole -speaking people They lived in three settlements: East Point, the main settlement on the eastern rim of the atoll; Minni Minni, 4. 5 km (2. 75 mi) north of East Point; and Pointe Marianne, on the western rim. The islanders were forcibly depopulated to the Seychelles and then to Mauritius amid controversial and much criticised attitudes by the UK government. The Diego Garcia depopulation controversy pertains to the expulsion of the established inhabitants of the island of Diego Garcia, part of the British Indian Ocean Territory Seychelles (seɪˈʃɛl or /seɪˈʃɛlz/ in English and seʃɛl in French) officially the Republic of Seychelles (République des Seychelles Creole Since their expulsion the Chagossians have continually asserted their right to return to Diego Garcia. In April 2006, 102 Chagossians were allowed to visit Diego Garcia for a week, to tend to graves and visit their birthplaces.  For a good general history of the Islands and what happened to the Ilois, refer to The Minority Rights Group Report No 54 - 'Diego Garcia: a contrast to the Falklands.
Diego Garcia is home to a military base jointly operated by the United States and the United Kingdom. Etymology The word bases is first recorded in English language from c It is a naval refuelling and support station and the home of Maritime Prepositioning Ship Squadron Two, the naval unit responsible for the readiness of the ships in Military Sealift Command Prepositioning Program in the Indian Ocean, a vital strategic asset to the United States. Mission The United States Military Sealift Command has the responsibility for providing Sealift and ocean transportation for all US military services as well as for other  It has an air base that primarily supported land-based U.S. Navy P-3 Orion maritime patrol aircraft during the Cold War. An airbase, sometimes referred to as an Air Force Station, a military Airport or airfield, provides basing and support of Military WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the Since 11 September 2001, in addition to P-3 aircraft, it has also supported some of the largest military aircraft. Events 9 - The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest ends 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. U.S. Air Force B-52s, B-1Bs and B-2s, as well as various aerial refueling tanker aircraft have been deployed to Diego Garcia to execute missions. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Aerial refueling, also called air refueling, in-flight refueling ( IFR) air-to-air refueling ( AAR) or tanking, is During the 1991 Gulf War, Diego Garcia was home to the 4300th Bomb Wing (Provisional), made up of B-52G bombers from the former Loring AFB, Maine and other B-52G bases. Loring Air Force Base is a former United States Air Force base that was under the operational control of the Strategic Air Command (SAC for most of its existence It was also used in support of military missions in Afghanistan during Operation Enduring Freedom, and to Iraq again during the 2003 invasion. Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF is the official name used by the U The 2003 invasion of Iraq, from March 20 to May 1 2003 was spearheaded by the United States, backed by British forces and smaller contingents from Australia High-tech portable shelters to support the B-2 bomber were built on the island before the 2003 invasion of Iraq. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The B-52s, B-1s and B-2s deployed to Diego Garcia in anticipation of the second Iraq War carried out the initial aerial bombardment on Baghdad on March 22, 2003. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The Iraq War, also known as the Second Gulf War, the Occupation of Iraq, or the War in Iraq, is an ongoing Military campaign The aerial bombing of cities began in 1911 developed through World War I, grew to a vast scale in World War II, and continues to the present day Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous Events 238 - Gordian I and his son Gordian II are proclaimed Roman emperor. Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Some of these bombers dropped GPS guided bombs and laser guided 1,905 kg (4,200 lb. A bomber is a Military aircraft designed to attack ground and sea targets primarily by dropping Bombs on them Overview The JDAM is not a weapon rather it is a "bolt-on" upgrade for unguided gravity bombs installed during build up of the munition by Naval Ordnancemen or Air Force A laser-guided bomb (LGB is a Precision-guided munition (PGM that uses semi-active Laser homing to strike a designated target with greater accuracy than a free-fall ) bunker busters in "decapitation strikes" intended to kill Saddam Hussein and other Baath Party officials. A bunker buster is a Bomb designed to penetrate hardened targets or targets buried deep underground In the theory of Nuclear warfare, a decapitation strike is a First strike attack that aims to remove the command and control mechanisms of the opponent Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti ( Arabic: ar صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي --> April 28 1937 &ndash December 30 The Arab Socialist Ba'th Party (also spelled Baath or Ba'ath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي was founded in Damascus  Although they now primarily deploy to Al Udeid Air Base in Qatar, Diego Garcia still remains a regular deployment site for U. S. Navy P-3C Orion maritime patrol aircraft. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Maritime patrol is the task of monitoring areas of water Generally conducted by Military and law enforcement agencies, maritime patrol is usually aimed at identifying
The base is part of the U.S. Space Surveillance Network, with a three-telescope GEODSS station, and is a NASA Space Shuttle emergency landing site. Space Surveillance is a critical part of United States Strategic Command 's (USSTRATCOM mission and involves detecting tracking cataloging and identifying man-made Space Surveillance is a critical part of United States Strategic Command 's (USSTRATCOM mission and involves detecting tracking cataloging and identifying man-made The National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA, ˈnæsə is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nation's public space program NASA 's Space Shuttle, officially called the Space Transportation System ( STS) is the Spacecraft currently used by the United States 
Neither the U. S. nor the UK recognises Diego Garcia as being subject to the African Nuclear Weapons Free Zone Treaty, though the rest of the Chagos Archipelago is included, suggesting they wish to maintain the freedom to base nuclear weapons there. The African Nuclear Weapon Free Zone Treaty, also known as the Treaty of Pelindaba, establishes a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Africa. The Chagos Archipelago (formerly Oil Islands) is a group of seven Atolls comprising more than 60 individual tropical Islands roughly in the centre of A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from Nuclear reactions either fission or a combination of fission and fusion.
The agreement between the UK and U. S. for the U. S. to use the island as a military base was made in 1966. It runs until 2036, but either government can opt out of the agreement in 2016.
Construction and maintenance of the base's communications equipment, fuel facilities and military hardware are done strictly by military contractors, and inventories of that weaponry are classified. No service-member family dependents are allowed. In 2001, the U. S. Department of Defense said that there were more buildings on Diego Garcia (654) than military personnel. The United States Department of Defense ( DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government 
In 2000 the British High Court upheld the claims of the islanders that the Ordinance which had been enacted to ensure their removal (although it was never in fact invoked for that purpose) was unlawful. The then Foreign Secretary, Robin Cook, did not appeal. In 2002, the UK Parliament enacted legislation which gave all Chagossians the right to obtain British citizenship. granted the islanders the right to return to the Archipelago and granted them UK citizenship. In 2002, the islanders and their descendants, now numbering 4,500, returned to court requesting compensation, after two years of delays by the British Foreign Office. The Foreign and Commonwealth Office, commonly called the Foreign Office or the FCO, is the British government department responsible for promoting The Chagossians began proceedings to seek additional compensation payments from the British Government (they had been granted £650,000 compensation on removal in the 1970s, and a further £4 million in the early 1980s). The High Court and Court of Appeal upheld the Government's position that the compensation already paid was fair and lawful, and struck down the Chagossians claims for additional payments. Subsequently, on June 10, 2004, the British government enacted two Orders-in-Council re-establishing immigration controls on the islands and effectively banning the islanders from returning home, reversing the 2000 court decision. Events 1190 - Third Crusade: Frederick I Barbarossa drowns in the Sally River while leading an army to Jerusalem "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " An Order-in-Council is a type of legislation in Commonwealth Realms.  Some of the Chagossians are making return plans to turn Diego Garcia into a sugarcane and fishing enterprise as soon as the defence agreement expires, and there have been discussions about the development of a commercial tourism industry on the islands, which may raise environmental concerns. A few dozen other Chagossians are still fighting to be housed in the UK, although they have the same rights as all British citizens. 
On May 11, 2006, the High Court ruled that the 2004 Orders-in-Council were unlawful, and that the Chagossians were entitled to return to the Chagos Archipelago. Events 330 - Byzantium is renamed ''Nova Roma'' during a dedication ceremony but is more popularly referred to as Constantinople Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.  This judgment was upheld by the Court of Appeal on May 23, 2007. Events 1430 - Siege of Compiègne: Joan of Arc is captured by the Burgundians while leading an army to relieve Compiègne Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.  The British Government have appealed this decision to the House of Lords, and the hearing will be in late June 2008 and early July 2008.
Human rights groups claim that the military base is used by the U. S. government for the controversial extraordinary rendition of prisoners. This claim was supported by the Council of Europe in June 2007. The Council of Europe (Conseil de l'Europe is the oldest International organisation working towards European integration, being founded in 1949  The British Foreign Secretary Jack Straw stated in Parliament that U. The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, commonly referred to as the Foreign Secretary, is a member of the United Kingdom Government heading the John Whitaker Straw (born 3 August 1946 most commonly known as Jack Straw, is a senior British Labour Party Politician. The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories S. authorities have repeatedly assured him that no detainees have passed in transit through Diego Garcia or have disembarked there.  In October 2007 the all-party Foreign Affairs Committee of the British Parliament announced that it would launch an investigation of the claims, which it is reported were twice confirmed by General Barry McCaffrey. Barry Richard McCaffrey (b November 17 1942, Ft Huachuca AZ) is a retired United States Army General. 
On October 19, 2007 The Guardian reported: "The all-party foreign affairs committee is to examine long-standing suspicions that the agency has operated one of its so-called 'black site' prisons on Diego Garcia. Events 202 BCE - The Battle of Zama results in the defeat of Carthage and Hannibal. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The Guardian (until 1959 The Manchester Guardian) is a British Newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. . . " The Guardian quoted British Member of Parliament Andrew Tyrie, "Time and time again the UK government has relied on US assurances on this issue, refusing to examine the truth of these allegations for themselves. A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a Parliament. It is high time our government took its head out of the sand and looked into these allegations. "
On February 21, 2008, British Foreign Secretary David Miliband admitted that two US extraordinary rendition flights refueled on Diego Garcia in 2002. Events 362 - Athanasius returns to Alexandria. 1245 - Thomas, the first known Bishop of Finland 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common David Wright Miliband  Further, it has been implied that these actions constituted a direct breach of the treaty between the US and the UK concerning Diego Garcia. 
Manfred Novak, the United Nations' special rapporteur on torture, says that credible evidence exists supporting allegations about the use of Diego Garcia as a prison black site for alleged terrorists. Manfred Nowak (b Bad Aussee, 26 June 1950) is an Austrian Human rights lawyer
Clara Gutteridge, an investigator with human rights group Reprieve, states that US-operated ships moored outside the territorial waters of Diego Garcia were used to incarcerate and torture detainees. Reprieve is the name of a number of not-for-profit organizations around the world which work against the Death penalty, with a particular focus on legal support for those facing 
On 12 March 2008, The Guardian reported that two British protesters had been arrested for "entering the waters [of Diego Garcia] illegally". Events 538 - Witiges, king of the Ostrogoths ends his siege of Rome and retreats to Ravenna, leaving 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common The Guardian (until 1959 The Manchester Guardian) is a British Newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. 
During the Cold War era, the United States was keen on establishing a military base in the Indian Ocean. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the Because of Diego Garcia's proximity to India, a potential ally of the Soviet Union, the United States saw the island as a strategically important one. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 U. S. military activities in Diego Garcia have caused friction between India and U. S. in the past.  Various political parties in India repeatedly demanded that the U. S. dismantle the military base as they saw U. S. naval presence in Diego Garcia as a potential threat to India's dominance of the Indian Ocean. 
After the end of the Cold War, relations between India and U. S. improved dramatically. Diego Garcia was the site of several naval exercises between the U.S. and Indian Navy held between 2001 and 2004. The Indian Navy is the naval branch of the armed forces of India.
Diego Garcia is also located relatively close to the Middle East, and experienced rapid military build-ups during the beginnings of the Iranian revolution and the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait.
Diego Garcia has several current missions. U. S. Air Force bombers and AWACS surveillance planes operate from the 3,650 m (12,000 ft) runway, and the USAF Space Command has built a satellite tracking station and communications facility.
The atoll shelters the 14 ships of Marine Prepositioning Squadron Two. These ships carry the equipment and supplies to support a major armed force with light tanks, armored personnel carriers, munitions, fuel, spare parts and even a mobile field hospital. This equipment showed its necessity during the Persian Gulf War, when the Squadron quickly delivered its equipment to Saudi Arabia. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi There, soldiers flown on air transports from U. S. and European bases quickly unloaded and deployed the pre-positioned material.
There are five cargo vessels that each carry Marine Corps supplies sufficient to support a Marine Air-Ground Task Force for 30 days. The Marine Air-Ground Task Force ( MAGTF) is a term used by the United States Marine Corps to describe the principal organization for all missions across the range
The four combat force ships provide rapid-response delivery of U.S. Army equipment to ground troops. The United States Army is a military organization whose primary mission is to "provide necessary forces and capabilities. Three are Lighter aboard ships (LASH) which carry barges called Lighters that contain Army ammunition to be ferried ashore. The lighter aboard ship ( LASH) system refers to the practice of loading barges ( lighters) aboard a larger vessel for transport For other uses see Lighter (disambiguation. A lighter is a type of flat-bottomed Barge used to transfer goods to and from moored
Five logistics vessels service the rapid delivery requirements of the U.S. Air Force, U.S. Navy and Defense Logistics Agency. The Defense Logistics Agency ( DLA) is an agency in the United States Department of Defense, with about 22000 civilian and Military personnel throughout There are two Air Force container ships for munitions, missiles and spare parts; a 500-bed hospital ship, and three floating storage and offloading units assigned to Military Sealift Command supporting the Defense Logistics Agency, including an offshore petroleum discharge system (OPDS) tanker ship. Container ships are Cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size containers in a technique called Containerization. A hospital ship is a Ship designated for primary function as a medical treatment facility or Hospital; most are operated by the Military Mission The United States Military Sealift Command has the responsibility for providing Sealift and ocean transportation for all US military services as well as for other The Defense Logistics Agency ( DLA) is an agency in the United States Department of Defense, with about 22000 civilian and Military personnel throughout
Diego Garcia is one of the five control bases for the Global Positioning System, operated by the US military. SS Neckar Neckar was launched on 8 December 1900 at Geestemünde, Germany, by J Basic concept of GPS operation A GPS receiver calculates its position by carefully timing the signals sent by the constellation of GPS Satellites high above the Earth The US Air Force also has monitoring stations in Hawaii, Kwajalein, Ascension Island, and Colorado Springs, Colorado. The State of Hawaii ( or həˈwaɪʔiː Hawaiian: Mokuāina o Hawaii) is a state in the United States located on an Archipelago in the Kwajalein Atoll ( Marshallese: Kuwajleen; kʷuwːɔ͡ɛt̪ʲl̪ʲɪn̪ʲ common English pronunciation ˈkwɑːʤəlɨ̞n often nicknamed Kwaj Ascension Island is an island in the South Atlantic Ocean, around from the coast of Africa The City of Colorado Springs is a Home Rule Municipality that is the County seat and most populous city of El Paso County, Colorado, The State of Colorado ( or chiefly by nonresidents) is a state located in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States of America. The stations synchronise and update the atomic clocks on the 24 orbiting satellites that emit the signals used by GPS receivers.
The island is one of 33 emergency landing sites worldwide for the United States Space Shuttle. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the NASA 's Space Shuttle, officially called the Space Transportation System ( STS) is the Spacecraft currently used by the United States  None of these facilities have been used for a Shuttle landing.
Since 2004 the MV Baffin Strait, often referred to as the "DGAR shuttle," has been chartered to deliver 250 containers each month from Singapore to Diego Garcia. Ownership The ship is owned and operated by TransAtlantic Lines LLC, an American shipping company based in Greenwich Connecticut. Singapore  The ship carries everything from fresh food to building supplies to aircraft parts, delivering more than 200,000 tons of cargo to the island each year. " On the return trip to Singapore she carries recyclable metals. 
In 2004 TransAtlantic Lines outbid Sealift Incorporated for the transport contract between Singapore and Diego Garcia. Sealift Incorporated is a American shipping company based in Oyster Bay New York. Singapore  The route had previously been serviced by Sealift Inc. 's MV Sagamore, manned by members of American Maritime Officers and Seafarers' International Union. American Maritime Officers (AMO is a national Labor union affiliated with the Seafarers International Union of North America Template talkInfobox Union for usage -->Siu awardjpg|thumb|right|This watch bob references the Seafarers Log SIU's official organ  TransAtlantic Lines reportedly won the contract by approximately 10 percent, representing a price difference of about US$2. 7 million. 
The Baffin Strait's current charter runs from January 10, 2005 to September 30, 2008 at a daily rate of US$12,550 under contract number N00033-05-C-5500. Events 49 BC - Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon, signaling the start of civil war. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1399 - Henry IV is proclaimed King of England. 1744 - France and Spain defeat the 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common 
The island is a haven for several types of crab; hermit crabs overrun the jungle at night. Crabs are decapod Crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" (βραχύ / brachy The extremely large 4 kg coconut crab, or "robber crab" is found here. The coconut crab ( Birgus latro) is the largest land-living Arthropod in the world There is a large number of red crabs everywhere in the island though it is not known to which species they belong. In Biology, a species is one of the basic units of Biological classification and a Taxonomic rank. They can be seen everywhere (tents, showers, laundry rooms, runway, etc. ) The island hosts birds from many different regions, including Indian Barred Ground Dove (Geopelia striata), Turtle Dove (Streptopelia picturata), Indian Mynah (Acridotheres tristis), Madagascar Fody (Foudia madagascariensis), and imported chickens (Gallus gallus). The Zebra Dove Geopelia striata, also known as Barred Ground Dove, is a bird of the Dove family Columbidae native to South-east Asia. The Zebra Dove Geopelia striata, also known as Barred Ground Dove, is a bird of the Dove family Columbidae native to South-east Asia. The Turtle Dove ( Streptopelia turtur) is a member of the bird family Columbidae, which includes the Doves and Pigeons. UserPolbot. -->The Madagascar Turtle-dove ( Nesoenas picturata) is a species of Bird in the Columbidae The Common Myna ( Acridotheres tristis) is a member of the Starling family The Common Myna ( Acridotheres tristis) is a member of the Starling family The Madagascar Fody Foudia madagascariensis, sometimes known as the Red Cardinal Fody or Common Fody is a small bird native to Madagascar The Madagascar Fody Foudia madagascariensis, sometimes known as the Red Cardinal Fody or Common Fody is a small bird native to Madagascar The chicken ( Gallus gallus, sometimes G gallus domesticus) is a domesticated Fowl which is traditionally believed to have descended from 
All the flora and fauna are protected, and it is even unlawful to be in possession of a dead coconut crab. Hefty fines are levied against violators.
Diego Garcia was designated a Ramsar Site on July 4, 2001 (354 km2). The Ramsar Convention is an international Treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of Wetlands i Events 836 - Pactum Sicardi, peace between the Principality of Benevento and the Duchy of Naples Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar.