A dictator is an authoritarian ruler (e. g. absolutist or autocratic) who assumes sole power over his or her state, though the term is normally not applied to those who acquire such position by regular constitutional means, such as a hereditary absolute monarch, except to denote personal abuse of power. An autocracy is a Form of government in which the Political power is held by a single self-appointed ruler Absolute monarchy is a monarchical Form of government where the king and queen have absolute power over everything A government that calls its head of state a dictator is called a dictatorship. Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a Monarchic or Republican Nation-state A dictatorship is usually defined as an autocratic Form of government in which the Government is ruled by a Dictator. The word originated as the title of a magistrate in ancient Rome appointed by the Senate to rule the republic in times of emergency (see Roman dictator and justitium). Dictator was a Political office of the Roman Republic. The dictator was above the three branches of government in the Constitution of the Roman Republic Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC The Roman Senate was a political institution in Ancient Rome. Dictator was a Political office of the Roman Republic. The dictator was above the three branches of government in the Constitution of the Roman Republic Justitium is a Concept of Roman law, equivalent to the declaration of the State of emergency. Like the term tyrant, originally a respectable Ancient Greek title, and to a lesser degree autocrat, it came to be used almost exclusively as a non-titular term for oppressive, even abusive rule, yet had rare modern titular uses. In modern usage a tyrant is a single ruler holding absolute power over a State or within an Organization.
In modern usage, the term "dictator" is generally used to describe a leader who holds and/or abuses an extraordinary amount of personal power, especially the power to make laws without effective restraint by a legislative assembly. Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society Legislative Assembly is the name given in some countries to either a Legislature, or to one of its chambers. Dictatorships are often characterized by some of the following traits: suspension of elections and of civil liberties; proclamation of a state of emergency; rule by decree; repression of political opponents without abiding by rule of law procedures; single-party state, cult of personality, etc. An election is a Decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold formal office thumb| |Broken Liberty Istanbul Archaeology Museum Civil liberties are freedoms that protect the Individual from the Government. A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that may suspend certain normal functions of government alert citizens to alter their normal behaviors or order government agencies Rule by decree is a style of governance allowing quick unchallenged creation of law by a single person or group and is used primarily by Dictators and Absolute monarchs Political repression is the Persecution of an individual or group for political reasons particularly for the purpose of restricting or preventing their ability to take part The rule of law, in its most basic form is the principle that no one is above the law A single-party state, one-party system or single-party system is a type of Party system Government in which a single Political party A cult of personality or personality cult arises when a country's leader uses Mass media to create a heroic public image through unquestioning flattery and praise
The term "dictator" is comparable to (but not synonymous with) the ancient concept of a tyrant, although initially "tyrant", like "dictator", did not carry negative connotations. A wide variety of leaders coming to power in a number of different kinds of regimes, such as military juntas, single-party states and civilian governments under personal rule, have been described as dictators. A military junta is a government ruled by a committee of military leaders A single-party state, one-party system or single-party system is a type of Party system Government in which a single Political party
A Roman dictator, in times of crisis, was elected by the Senate to be the sole chief instead of the regular two Consuls. Dictator was a Political office of the Roman Republic. The dictator was above the three branches of government in the Constitution of the Roman Republic Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC A senate is a Deliberative body, often the Upper house or chamber of a Legislature or Parliament. Consul (abbrev cos; Latin plural consules) was the highest elected office of the Roman Republic and an appointive office under the Empire Uniquely for the Roman Republic their office was not collegial, although they did have a deputy, the Master of the Horse. The Master of the Horse was (and in some cases is a historical position of varying importance in several European nations They were invested with sweeping authority over the citizens, but their term was usually limited to six months, or the duration of the crisis, and they lacked power over public finances. Lucius Cornelius Sulla and Julius Caesar, however, exceeded these limitations and governed without these constraints. Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix ( Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX (c The Romans abandoned the political office after Caesar's murder, although his political heir Augustus developed the Principate, constitutionally a lesser status of 'first citizen', into a de facto dictatorship using different constitutional powers, evolving into the Dominate with the trappings of a monarchy in all but name. Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was The Principate is the first period of the Roman Empire, extending from the beginning of the reign of Caesar Augustus to the Crisis of the Third Century, The Dominate was the ' despotic ' latter phase of government in the ancient Roman Empire between its establishment in 27 BC and the formal date of the collapse
The term "dictator" did not originally possess the odious connotations that it later acquired (compare the change of meaning of the ancient Greek concept of the tyrant, or that of the Roman military title of Imperator). The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca In modern usage a tyrant is a single ruler holding absolute power over a State or within an Organization. The Latin word Imperator was a title originally roughly equivalent to commander during the period of the Roman Republic.
Furthermore, a nominal dictator was at certain times appointed to perform certain religious formalities, requiring the highest representation of the state, illustrating the high, positively appreciated prestige of the office.
Modern dictators have usually come to power in times of emergency. Frequently dictators have seized power by coup d'état as Benito Mussolini did in Italy at the culmination of his March on Rome. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The March on Rome ( Marcia su Roma) was a Coup d'état by which Mussolini 's National Fascist Party ( Partito Nazionale Fascista But some dictators, most notably Adolf Hitler in Germany, achieved office as head of government by legal means. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. This article focuses on the cases where the Head of Government is a separate office from the Head of State However, once he was elected in office, Hitler gained additional extraordinary powers. An election is a Decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold formal office
Mainly Latin American, Asian, and African nations, especially developing nations, have known many dictatorships, usually by military leaders at the head of a junta, either claiming to constitute a revolution or to reestablish order and stability. A military dictatorship is a Form of government wherein the political power resides with the Military; it is similar but not identical to a Stratocracy, A revolution (from the Latin revolutio, "a turnaround" is a fundamental change in power or organizational structures that takes place in a relatively
In popular usage in western nations, "dictatorship" is often associated with brutality and oppression. As a result, it is often also used as a term of abuse for political opponents, for example, Henry Clay's dominance in Congress—first as Speaker of the House and later as a member of the Senate—led to his nickname, "the Dictator. Henry Clay Sr ( April 12, 1777 &ndash June 29, 1852) was a nineteenth-century American statesman and Orator who The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer&mdashor speaker &mdashof the United States House of Representatives. The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives " The term has also come to be associated with megalomania. Megalomania (from the Greek word μεγαλομανία is a historical term for behavior characterized by Delusional fantasies of Wealth, power Many dictators create a cult of personality and have come to favor increasingly grandiloquent titles and honours for themselves. A cult of personality or personality cult arises when a country's leader uses Mass media to create a heroic public image through unquestioning flattery and praise E. g. , Idi Amin Dada, who had been a British army lieutenant prior to Uganda's independence from Britain in October 1962, subsequently styled himself as "His Excellency President for Life Field Marshal Al Hadji Dr. Idi Amin Dada (mid 1920s &ndash 16 August 2003 commonly known as Idi Amin, was a Ugandan military dictator and the President of Uganda The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Lieutenant (abbreviated Lt or Lieut) is a Military, Naval, Paramilitary, Fire service, Emergency medical services The Republic of Uganda is a Landlocked country in East Africa. Year 1962 ( MCMLXII) was a Common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. President for Life is a Title assumed by some Dictators to remove their Term limit, in the hope that their Authority, legitimacy, and For other meanings see Field Marshal (disambiguation Field marshal is a military officer rank Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of All the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular". See below the section "Separate Commonwealth awards" Note that since The Distinguished Service Order ( DSO) is a Military decoration of the United Kingdom, and formerly of other Commonwealth countries awarded for The Military Cross ( MC) is the third level Military decoration awarded to officers and (since 1993 other ranks of the British Army and formerly also to The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. In "The Great Dictator" (1940), Charlie Chaplin satirized not only Hitler but the institution of dictatorship itself. The Great Dictator is a Comedy film directed by and starring Charlie Chaplin. Leaders and their regimes very rarely call themselves "dictator(ship)", and usually do not consider themselves to be oppressive, or simply do not admit it.
The association between the dictator and the military is a common one; many dictators take great pains to emphasize their connections with the military and often wear military uniforms. A military is an Organization authorized by its Nation to use force usually including use of Weapons in defending its Country (or by attacking In some cases, this is perfectly legitimate; Francisco Franco was a lieutenant general in the Spanish Army before he became Chief of State of Spain; Manuel Noriega was officially commander of the Panamanian Defense Forces. Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (born December 4, 1892 in Ferrol, died November 20, 1975 in Madrid Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a Monarchic or Republican Nation-state Manuel Antonio Noriega (born February 11, 1934) He was never officially the President of Panama, but held the post of "chief executive officer" Panama, officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá) is the southernmost country of Central America. In other cases, the association is mere pretense.
In Marxist ideology the dictatorship of the proletariat refers to an intermediate stage between capitalism and pure communism, where the proletariat and/or its representatives must exercise dictatorial power. Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. The " dictatorship of the proletariat " or workers' state is a term employed by Marxists that refers to what they see as a temporary state between the Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based The proletariat (from Latin la ''proles'' "offspring" is a term used to identify a lower Social class; a member of such a class is proletarian The term, at least in theory, does not refer to power vested in a single individual.
Paul Biya, the current President of the Republic of Cameroon was listed by historian David Wallechinsky, in his book Tyrants, the World's 20 Worst Living Dictators, along with three others in sub-Saharan Africa: Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo of Equatorial Guinea and King Mswati of Swaziland. The Republic of Cameroon is a unitary republic of central and western Africa. Paul Biya (born 13 February 1933) has been the President of Cameroon since November 6, 1982. David Wallechinsky (born 5 February 1948) has worked as a commentator for NBC Olympic coverage and is the author of many Olympic reference books See also Great Zimbabwe National Monument. For information about the March and June 2008 presidential elections see Zimbabwean presidential election Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo (born June 5, 1942) has been the President of Equatorial Guinea since 1979 The Republic of Equatorial Guinea ( República de Guinea Ecuatorial,) is a country in Central Africa. Mswati III (born Makhosetive on April 19, 1968) of Swaziland is the king of Swaziland and head of the Swazi Royal Family The Kingdom of Swaziland is a country located in Southern Africa centred at approximately 26o49'S 31o38'E  In 2007, Parade magazine ranked Biya the 19th worst dictator in the world. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. 
In the former doge-state Venice, while a republic *[[resisting annexation by either the kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia or the Austrian empire, a former Chief Executive (president, 23 March - 5 July 1848), Daniele Manin (b. The Beiyang government ( or Warlord government collectively refers to a series of military regimes that ruled from Beijing from 1912 to 1928 at Zhongnanhai Yuan Shikai ( Courtesy Weiting 慰亭 Pseudonym: Rong'an 容庵 ( September 16, 1859 &ndash June 6, Féng Guózhāng, ( courtesy: Huafu 華甫 or 華符 ( January 7, 1859 - December 12, 1919) a native of Hejian Gāo Língwèi (高凌霨 Wade-Giles Kao Ling-wei (1868-1939 was a Chinese politician during the late Qing dynasty and the Republic of China. Cao Kun ( Traditional Chinese: 曹錕 Simplified Chinese: 曹锟 Pinyin: Cáo Kūn Wade-Giles: Ts'ao K'un Courtesy name: Zhongshan Duàn Qíruì (段祺瑞 ( Wade-Giles Tuan Ch'i-jui (1864 &ndash November 2, 1936) was a Chinese Warlord and politician commander This article is about the country in southern Europe For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Albania topics. (ɛnˈvɛɾ ˈhɔdʒa 16 October 1908 11 April 1985 was the leader of the People's Republic of Albania from the end of World War II until his death in 1985 as the Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania Nicolae Ceauşescu (nikoˈlaje tʃauˈʃesku (January 26 1918 – December 25 1989 was the communist dictator of Romania from 1965 until December 1989 when a revolution Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The Most Serene Republic of Venice ((Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta or Repùblica de Venesia Serenissima Repubblica Kingdom of Sardinia, also known as Piedmont-Sardinia or Sardinia-Piedmont, was the name given to the possessions of the House of Savoy in 1720 when the Events 1174 - Jocelin, Abbot of Melrose, is elected Bishop of Glasgow. Events 1295 - Scotland and France form an alliance the beginnings of the Auld Alliance, against England. Year 1848 ( MDCCCXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap Daniele Manin ( May 13, 1804 - September 22, 1857) was an Venetian patriot and Statesman. 1804 - d. 1857), was styled Dictator 11-13 August 1848 before joining the 13 August 1848 - 7 March 1849 Triumvirate. Events 3114 BC - According to the Lounsbury correlation the start of the Maya calendar. Year 1848 ( MDCCCXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap Events 3114 BC - According to the Lounsbury correlation the start of the Maya calendar. Year 1848 ( MDCCCXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap Events 161 - Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius dies and is succeeded by co-Emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus Year 1849 ( MDCCCXLIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
General Simón Bolívar, the 17 February 1824 - 28 January 1827 Head of state, was acting Dictator until 10 February 1825 when his title changed to Libertador ('Liberator'), and on 9 December 1826 again to President-for-Life. Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar Palacios y Blanco,Venezuelan or commonly known as Simón Bolívar ( July 24, 1783 &ndash Events 1500 - Battle of Hemmingstedt. 1600 - Philosopher Giordano Bruno is burned alive at Campo de' Fiori Year 1824 ( MDCCCXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Events 1077 - Walk to Canossa: The Excommunication of Henry IV Holy Roman Emperor is lifted Year 1827 ( MDCCCXXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Events 1355 - The St Scholastica's Day riot breaks out in Oxford, England, leaving 63 scholars and perhaps 30 locals dead Year 1825 ( MDCCCXXV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Events 536 - Byzantine General Belisarius enters Rome while the Ostrogothic garrison peacefully leaves the city For the game see 1826 (board game. Year 1826 ( MDCCCXXVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display
Emilio Aguinaldo, the last President of the Supreme Government Council 23 March 1897 - 16 December 1897 and chairman of the Revolutionary Government from 23 June to 1 November 1897, was dictator from 12 June 1898 - 23 January. Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte (November The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP For the municipality see Gen Emilio Aguinaldo Cavite General Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy ( March 22, 1869 &ndash February 6 Events 1174 - Jocelin, Abbot of Melrose, is elected Bishop of Glasgow. Year 1897 ( MDCCCXCVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Events 755 - An Lushan revolts against Chancellor Yang Guozhong at Fanyang, initiating the An Shi Rebellion Year 1897 ( MDCCCXCVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Events 1180 - First Battle of Uji, starting the Genpei War in Japan 1305 - The Flemish Events 996 - Emperor Otto III issues a deed to Gottschalk Bishop of Freising which is the oldest known document using the name Ostarrîchi Year 1897 ( MDCCCXCVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Events 1381 - Peasants' Revolt: in England, rebels arrive at Blackheath. Year 1898 ( MDCCCXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 393 - Roman Emperor Theodosius I proclaims his nine year old son Honorius co-emperor
The benevolent dictator is a more modern version of the classical “enlightened despot”, being an absolute ruler who exercises his or her political power for the benefit of the people rather than exclusively for his or her own benefit. Despotism is a Form of government by a single authority either an individual or tightly knit group, which rules with absolute political power Like many political classifications, this term suffers from its inherent subjectivity. Such leaders as Napoleon Bonaparte, Anwar Sadat, Kenneth Kaunda, Józef Piłsudski, Miklós Horthy, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, and Omar Torrijos have been characterized by their supporters as benevolent dictators. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. Kenneth David Kaunda, commonly known as KK (born April 28, 1924) served as the first President of Zambia, from 1964 to 1991 Miklós Horthy de Nagybánya ( Vitéz nagybányai Horthy Miklós vitez nɒɟbaɲɒi horti mikloʃ German Nikolaus von Horthy und Nagybánya Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 &ndash 10 November 1938 was an army officer revolutionary Statesman Omar Efraín Torrijos Herrera ( February 13, 1929 – August 1, 1981) was the Commander of the Panamanian National Guard
In Spanish, the word dictablanda is sometimes used for a dictatorship conserving some of the liberties and mechanisms of democracy. Dictablanda is a word used by political scientists to describe a Dictatorship in which Civil liberties are mostly preserved rather than destroyed (The pun is that, in Spanish, dictadura is “dictatorship”, dura is “hard” and blanda is “soft”). Some examples includes Yugoslavia under Tito or Spain under Francisco Franco. See also Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (born December 4, 1892 in Ferrol, died November 20, 1975 in Madrid This contrasts with democradura (literally “hard democracy”), characterized by full formal democracy alongside limitations on constitutional freedoms and human rights abuses, frequently within the context of a civil conflict or the existence of an insurgency. An illiberal democracy is a governing system in which although fairly free elections take place citizens are cut off from real power due to the lack of Civil liberties. Governments in Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela have at various times been considered régimes by different critics and opposition groups, not necessarily with an academic or political consensus about the application of the term emerging. The Republic of Bolivia (República de Bolivia) named after Simón Bolívar, is a Landlocked country in central South America. Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Ecuador topics. El Salvador ( República de El Salvador,) is a country in Central America. Guatemala (República de Guatemala) is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west the Pacific Ocean to the southwest Haiti ( English: ˈheɪ·tiː or haɪ·ˈjiː·tiː French Haïti a·i·ti Haitian Creole: The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. Venezuela (ˌvɛnəˈzweɪlə) officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish República Bolivariana de Venezuela) is a country on the
In social choice theory, the notion of a dictator is formally defined as a person that can achieve any feasible social outcome he/she wishes. Social choice theory studies voting rules that govern and describe how individual preferences are aggregated to form a collective preference The formal definition yields an interesting distinction between two different types of dictators.
Note that these definitions disregard some alleged dictators, e. g. Benito Mussolini, who are not interested in the actual achieving of social goals, as much as in propaganda and controlling public opinion. Propaganda is a concerted set of messages aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviors of large numbers of people Monarchs and military dictators are also excluded from these definitions, because their rule relies on the consent of other political powers (the barons or the army). Baron is a specific Title of nobility. The word baron comes from Old French baron, itself from Old High German and Latin (liber An army (from Latin Armata "act of arming" via Old French armée) in the broadest sense is the land-based Armed forces