In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range but powerful attackers (originally torpedo boats, later submarines and aircraft). Characteristics Winston S Churchill sets the final physical pattern for all subsequent Flight IIA ships by mounting the Mk Characteristics The Arleigh Burke class are among the largest and most powerful destroyers ever built both larger and more heavily armed than many previous cruisers A warship is a Ship that is built and primarily intended for Combat. A fleet, or naval fleet is a large formation of Warships, and the largest formation in any Navy. A torpedo boat is a relatively small and fast naval Ship designed to carry Torpedoes into battle A submarine is a Watercraft that can operate independently below water as distinct from a Submersible that has only limited underwater capability
Before World War II destroyers were light vessels without the endurance for unattended ocean operations; typically a number of destroyers and a single destroyer tender operated together. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Destroyer tender is a Ship designed to provide maintenance support to a flotilla of Destroyers or other small Warships The use of this class has faded During and after the war, larger and more powerful destroyers capable of independent operation were built, particularly as cruisers ceased to be used in the 1950s and 60s. A cruiser is a large type of Warship, which had its prime period from the late 19th century to the end of the Cold War.
At the dawn of the 21st century, destroyers are the heaviest surface combatant ships in general use, with only four nations (the United States, Russia, France and Peru) operating cruisers and none operating battleships. Surface combatants denotes a subset of naval fighting Ships generally speaking they are ships built to fight other ships submarines or aircraft and can carry out The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. A battleship is a large heavily armored Warship with a main battery consisting of the largest Calibre of Guns Battleships were  Modern destroyers, also known as guided missile destroyers, are equivalent in tonnage but drastically superior in firepower to cruisers of the World War II era, capable of carrying nuclear missiles that are able to destroy cities. A guided missile destroyer is a Destroyer designed to launch Guided missiles Many are also equipped to carry out anti-submarine, anti-air Nuclear weapons delivery is the technology and systems used to place a Nuclear weapon at the position of Detonation, on or near its intended target
The emergence of the destroyer, and development up until WWII, was related to the torpedo. The modern torpedo (historically called an automotive automobile locomotive or fish torpedo is a self-propelled explosive Projectile weapon launched above or below The invention of the self-propelled torpedo in the 1860s gave the potential for a nation to destroy a superior enemy battle fleet using only steam launches from which torpedoes could be dropped. Fast boats to carry torpedoes were built and called torpedo boats, and these had developed by the 1880s into little ships of 50-100 tons, fast enough to evade enemy picket boats.
One response to the torpedo boat threat was the building of faster and more heavily gunned picket boats called catchers. At first the threat to a battle fleet was considered only to exist when at anchor, but as faster and longer range torpedoes were developed the threat was extended to cruising at sea. As catchers were then needed to escort the battle fleet at sea they needed the same seaworthiness and endurance, and as they necessarily became larger they were now officially termed torpedo boat destroyers, soon contracted to destroyer in English. (The anti-torpedo boat origin of this type of ship is retained in its name in other languages, including French (contre-torpilleur), Italian (cacciatorpediniere), Spanish (cazatorpedero), Polish (kontrtorpedowiec), Czech (torpédoborec), and so on. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. Polish ( język polski, polszczyzna) is the Official language of Poland. Czech (ˈʧɛk čeština ˈʧɛʃcɪna in Czech is a West Slavic language with about 12 million native speakers it is the majority language in the
Once destroyers became more than just catchers guarding an anchorage it was realised that they were also ideal to perform the role of torpedo boats themselves, so they were fitted with torpedo tubes as well as guns. At that time, and even into WWI, the only function of destroyers was to protect their own battle fleet from enemy torpedo attacks, and to make such attacks on the battleships of the enemy. The task of escorting merchant convoys was still in the future.
An important development came in 1884 with Swift, a large torpedo boat with six 47 mm quick-firing guns and three torpedo tubes. While still not fast enough to engage torpedo boats reliably, she at least had the armament to deal with them.
The Japanese Kotaka ("Falcon") of 1885, was "the forerunner of torpedo boat destroyers that appeared a decade later" (Kaigun, David C. For Combined Fleet, please see that article For Carrier Striking Task Force, please see that article See also Evans). Designed upon Japanese specifications and ordered from the London Yarrow shipyards in 1885, she was transported in parts to Japan, where she was assembled and launched in 1887. Yarrow (Shipbuilders Limited (YSL often styled as simply Yarrows, was a major shipyard now part of BVT Surface Fleet, a joint venture between BAE Systems She was armed with four 1-pounder (37 mm) quick-firing guns and six torpedo tubes, reached 19 knots (35 km/h), and at 203 tons, was the largest torpedo boat yet designed. The modern torpedo (historically called an automotive automobile locomotive or fish torpedo is a self-propelled explosive Projectile weapon launched above or below In her trials in 1889, Kotaka demonstrated that she could go beyond a role of coastal defense, and was capable of following larger ships on the high seas. The Yarrow shipyards, builder of the parts for the Kotaka, "considered Japan to have effectively invented the destroyer" (Howe).
Almost immediately after the order of Kotaka was placed, Fernando Villaamil, second officer of the Ministry of the Navy of Spain where he was put in charge of developing the concept of a new ship designed to combat torpedo boats, placed an order for a large torpedo gunboat in November 1885, with the British builder James and George Thompson, of Clydebank, not far from where the Yarrow shipyards would move from London twenty years later. Fernando Villaamil ( November 23, 1845 – July 3, 1898) was a Spanish naval officer remembered for his internationally recognized Clydebank is a town in West Dunbartonshire, in the Central Lowlands of Scotland The ship, named Destructor (literally Destroyer), was laid down at the end of the year, launched in 1886, and commissioned in 1887. Her displacement was 380 tons, and she was armed with one 90 mm Hontoria cannon, four 57 mm Nordenfeldt cannon, two 37 mm Hotchkiss guns and 3 Schwartzkopff torpedo tubes. Her complement was 60 men. In terms of gunnery, speed (22. 5 knots in trials) and dimensions, the specific design to chase torpedo boats and her high seas capabilities, Destructor is widely considered the first destroyer ever built. 
Shortly afterwards Britain began experiments with the Rattlesnake class 'torpedo boat catcher', a class of 17 large torpedo boats - the first precursors of destroyers to be built as a class, rather than as single ships. On tests, Rattlesnake proved to be marginally faster than torpedo boats, but not fast enough to be decisive.
The first ships to bear the formal designation "Torpedo boat destroyer" (TBD) were the Havock class of two ships of the Royal Navy, developed in 1892 under the newly appointed Third Sea Lord Rear Admiral "Jackie" Fisher, and launched by Yarrows in London in 1893. The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service) The Third Sea Lord and Controller of the Navy was formerly the Naval Lord and member of the Board of Admiralty responsible for Procurement and Matériel Rear admiral is a Naval Commissioned officer rank above that of a Commodore and Captain, and below that of a Vice Admiral. Admiral of the Fleet John Arbuthnot "Jackie" Fisher 1st Baron Fisher of Kilverstone, GCB, OM, GCVO ( 25 January 1841 Havock had a 240 tons displacement, a speed of 27 knots (50 km/h), and was armed with a single 12-pounder (76 mm) gun, three 6-pounders (57 mm), and three 46 cm torpedo tubes. She also had the range and speed to effectively travel with a battle fleet.
The French navy, an extensive user of torpedo boats, built its first destroyer in 1899, with the Durandal-class 'torpilleur d'escadre'.
The United States commissioned its first destroyer, USS Bainbridge, Destroyer No. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the 1, in 1902 and by 1906 there were 16 destroyers in service with the Navy.
Destroyer design evolved around the turn of the 20th century in several key ways. The first was the introduction of the steam turbine. A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts Thermal energy from pressurized Steam, and converts it into useful mechanical work The spectacular unauthorised demonstration of the turbine powered Turbinia at the 1897 Spithead Navy Review, which, significantly, was of torpedo boat size, prompted the Royal Navy to order a prototype turbine powered destroyer, HMS Viper of 1899. Development Charles Algernon Parsons invented the steam turbine in 1884 and having foreseen its potential to power ships he set up the Marine Steam Turbine Company The Viper class was a group of two Torpedo Boat Destroyers (TBD built for the British Royal Navy in 1899 This was the first turbine warship of any kind and achieved a remarkable 36 knots (67 km/h) on sea trials. By 1910 the turbine had been widely adopted by all navies for their faster ships.
The second development was the replacement of the boat-style turtleback foredeck by a raised forecastle, which provided better sea-keeping as well as more space below deck. Forecastle, also spelled fo'c's'le (ˈfoʊksəl originally meant the upper deck of a Sailing ship, forward of the Foremast.
The British experimented with oil propulsion for the Tribal class of 1905 but switched temporarily back to coal for the later Beagle class in 1909. Design The preceding River or E class destroyers of 1903 had made on the provided by triple expansion steam engines and coal-fired Boilers Other navies also adopted oil, for instance the USN with the Paulding class of 1909. List of Paulding class destroyers In spite of all this variety, destroyers adopted a largely similar pattern. The hull was long and thin, with a relatively shallow draft. The bow was either raised in a forecastle or covered under a turtleback; underneath this were the crew spaces, extending 1/4 to 1/3 the way along the hull. Aft of the crew spaces was as much engine space as the technology of the time would allow: several boilers and engines or turbines. Above deck, one or more quick-firing guns was mounted in the bows, in front of the bridge; several more were mounted amidships and astern. Two torpedo tube mountings (later on, multiple mountings) were generally found amidships.
Between 1890 and 1914 destroyers became markedly larger: initially 300 tons was a good size, but by the start of the First World War 1000 tons was not unusual. However, construction remained focused on putting the biggest possible engines into a small hull, resulting in a somewhat flimsy construction. Often hulls were built of steel only 1/8in thick.
By 1910 the steam-driven displacement (i. e. not hydroplaning) torpedo boat had become redundant as a separate type. Germany nevertheless continued to build such torpedo boats until the end of WW1, although these were effectively small coastal destroyers. In fact Germany never distinguished between the two types, giving them pennant numbers in the same series and never giving names to destroyers. Ultimately the term torpedo boat came to be attached to a quite different vessel - the very fast hydroplaning motor driven MTB. Motor Torpedo Boat (MTB was the name given to fast Torpedo boats by the Royal Navy, the Royal Norwegian Navy, the Royal Canadian Navy and
Early destroyers were extremely cramped places to live. In the Havock-class no crew member could ever get undisturbed rest, with officers sleeping on cushioned chairs around the wardroom instead of beds. Spray and condensation made life miserable. The first British class to have separate cabins for officers, or a heating stove for the captain, was the River class of 1902. Ships Thirty-four ships were ordered - ten ships under the 1901-02 Programme eight ships under the 1902-03 Programme (with one extra purchased when Palmers built it on speculation
The destroyer's initial purpose was to protect against torpedo boats, but navies soon appreciated the flexibility of the fast, multi-purpose vessel that resulted. Vice-Admiral Sir Baldwin Walker laid down for the Royal Navy:
The destroyer's first major use came in the devastating Japanese attack on the Russian fleet in Port Arthur at the opening of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904. The Battle of Port Arthur (Japanese 旅順港閉塞作戦 Ryojunkō Heisoku Sakusen, February 8-9 1904 was the starting battle of the Russo-Japanese War The Russo-Japanese War (日露戦争 Romaji: Nichi-Ro Sensō Русско-японская война Russko-Yaponskaya Voyna;, 10 February 1904 – 5 September Three destroyer divisions attacked the Russian fleet in port, firing a total of 18 torpedoes, and severely damaging two Russian battleships.
While capital ship engagements were scarce in World War I, destroyer units were almost continually engaged in raiding and patrol actions. Background With World War I now in its 2nd year and tensions between the United States of America and Germany increasing the U The first shot of the war at sea was fired on 5 August 1914 by a destroyer of the 3rd Flotilla, Lance, in an engagement with the German auxiliary minelayer Königin Luise. Events 642 - Battle of Maserfield - Penda of Mercia defeats and kills Oswald of Bernicia. Year 1914 ( MCMXIV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year HMS Lance was a ''Laforey''-class Destroyer of the British Royal Navy. Minelaying is the act of deploying explosive mines Historically this has been carried out by ships submarines and aircraft The first British naval casualty was Amphion, the light cruiser leading the 3rd Flotilla, which ran into a mine laid by Königin Luise. Career On commissioning Amphion was assigned as leader of the 3rd Destroyer Flotilla with the Harwich Force, defending the eastern approaches to
Destroyers were involved in the skirmishes that prompted the Battle of Heligoland Bight, and filled a range of roles in the Battle of Gallipoli, acting as troops transports and fire support vessels, as well as their fleet-screening role. The First Battle of Heligoland Bight was the first Naval battle of the First World War, fought on 28 August 1914 after the British planned to attack Over 80 British destroyers and 60 German torpedo-boats took part in the Battle of Jutland, which involved pitched small-boat actions between the main fleets, and several foolhardy attacks by unsupported destroyers on capital ships. fix various bugs per WikipediaHow to fix bunched-up edit links --> Jutland also concluded with a messy night action between the German High Seas Fleet and part of the British destroyer screen.
The threat evolved by World War I with the development of the submarine, or U-boat. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All A submarine is a Watercraft that can operate independently below water as distinct from a Submersible that has only limited underwater capability U-boat is the anglicized version of the German word, itself an abbreviation of Unterseeboot ( undersea boat) and refers The submarine had the potential to hide from gunfire and close underwater to fire torpedoes. Early-war destroyers had the speed and armament to intercept submarines before they submerged, either by gunfire or by ramming. Destroyers also had a shallow enough draft that torpedoes would find it difficult to hit them.
The desire to attack submarines underwater led to rapid destroyer evolution during the war, which were quickly equipped with strengthened bows for ramming, depth charges and hydrophones for identifying submarine targets. Depth Charge is a character in the Beast Wars: Transformers universe A hydrophone (Greek "hydro" = "water" and "phone" = "sound" is a Microphone designed to be used underwater for recording or listening The first submarine casualty to a destroyer was the German U 19, rammed by Badger on 29 October 1914. Pennant Numbers Career Pre-War Badger served with the 1st Destroyer Flotilla from 1911 and with her flotilla Events 437 - Valentinian III, Western Roman Emperor, marries Licinia Eudoxia, daughter of his cousin Theodosius II Year 1914 ( MCMXIV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year While U 19 was only damaged, the next month Garry successfully sank U 18. The first depth-charge sinking was on 4 December 1916, when U 19 was sunk by Llewellyn. "December 4th" redirects here For the song by Jay-Z, see December 4th (song. Year 1916 ( MCMXVI) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year
The submarine threat meant that many destroyers spent their time on anti-submarine patrol; once Germany adopted unrestricted submarine warfare in January 1917, destroyers were called on to escort merchant convoys. Unrestricted submarine warfare is a type of Naval warfare in which Submarines sink merchant ships without warning as opposed to attacks per prize regulations A convoy is a group of Vehicles (of any type but usually motor vehicles or ships traveling together for mutual support US Navy destroyers were among the first American units to be dispatched upon the American entry to the war, and a squadron of Japanese destroyers even joined Allied patrols in the Mediterranean. Patrol duty was far from safe; of the 67 British destroyers lost in the war, collisions accounted for 18, while 12 were wrecked.
At the end of the war the state-of-the-art was represented by the British W class. History The V and W class were the ultimate evolution of British destroyer design in World War I embodying the improvements of their predecessors as well as new technological advances
The trend during World War I had been towards larger destroyers with heavier armaments. A number of opportunities to fire at capital ships had been missed during the War, because destroyers had expended all their torpedoes in an initial salvo. The British 'V' & 'W' classes of the late war had sought to address this by mounting six torpedo tubes in two triple mounts, instead of the four or two on earlier models. History The V and W class were the ultimate evolution of British destroyer design in World War I embodying the improvements of their predecessors as well as new technological advances The 'V'and 'W's set the standard of destroyer building well into the 1920s.
The next major innovation came with the Japanese Fubuki class or 'special type', designed in 1923 and delivered in 1928. Description Initially designed as a 2000 tonner with a 5-inch (127 mm battery two twin 24-inch torpedo tubes (just introduced in) and capable of 40 knots (74 km/h they were The design was initially noted for its powerful armament of six five-inch (127 mm) guns, together with three triple torpedo mounts. The second batch of the class gave the guns high-angle turrets for anti-aircraft warfare, and the 24-inch (60 cm) oxygen fueled 'Long Lance' Type 93 torpedo. The Type 93 was a 610 mm (24 inch diameter Torpedo of the Imperial Japanese Navy. The later Ariake class of 1931 further improved the torpedo armament by storing its reload torpedoes close at hand in the superstructure, meaning reloading could be accomplished in 15 minutes.
Most other nations replied with similar larger ships. The US Porter class adopted twin five-inch (127 mm) guns, and the subsequent Mahan class and Gridley class (the latter of 1934) increased the number of torpedo tubes to 12 and 16 respectively. List of Porter class destroyers List of Mahan class destroyers List of Gridley class destroyers See also
In the Mediterranean, the Italian navy's building of very fast light cruisers of the Condottieri class prompted the French to produce exceptional destroyer designs. The Condottieri class was a sequence of five different Light cruiser classes of the Regia Marina, although these classes show a clear line of evolution The French had long been keen on large destroyers, with their Chacal class of 1922 displacing over 2000 tons and carrying 130 mm guns; a further three similar classes were produced around 1930. Ships The class saw service in the Second World War. The Le Fantasque class of 1935 took performance to an exceptional level. The class carried five 5. 5-inch (140 mm) guns and nine torpedo tubes, but their speed was truly exceptional - reaching 45 knots (83 km/h), which remains the record speed for a steamship and for any destroyer. The Italians' own destroyers were almost as swift, most Italian designs of the 1930s being rated for 38 knots (70 km/h), and carrying four or six 120 mm guns as well as torpedoes.
Germany started to build destroyers again during the 1930s as part of Hitler's rearmament programme. The Germans were also fond of large destroyers, but while the initial Type 1934 displaced over 3,000 tons their armament was no better than many smaller classes. At the outbreak of the Second World War, the German Navy, the Kriegsmarine, had 21 Destroyers ( Ger: Zerstörer) The later Type 1936 did, however, adopt heavy 150 mm guns. German destroyers also used innovative high-pressure steam machinery: while this should have helped their efficiency, it more often resulted in mechanical problems.
Once German and Japanese armament became clear, the British and American navies consciously focused on smaller, more numerous units. The British built a series of destroyers the A Class to I Class which were about 1400 tons standard displacement, had four 4. Design The A class were an Admiralty standard design based on the 1926 prototypes ''Amazon'' and ''Ambuscade''. Design The Is were a repeat of the preceding H class, except that they had ten torpedo tubes (2 banks of five instead of eight 7-inch (119 mm) guns and eight torpedo tubes; the American Benson class of 1938 similar in size, but carried five 5-inch (127 mm) guns and ten torpedo tubes. Ships of the class Source United States Benson-Livermore Class Destroyers Destroyerhistory The British realising the need for heavier gun armament built the Tribal class of 1936 (sometimes called "Afridi" after one of two lead ships). Design history From 1926 all Royal Navy destroyers had descended from a common lineage based upon the prototypes ''Amazon'' and ''Ambuscade''. These ships displaced 1850 tons and were armed with eight 4. 7-inch (119 mm) guns in four twin turrets and four torpedo tubes. These were followed by the J Class and L class destroyers with six 4. Design history The design was intended as a smaller follow on from the preceding Tribal class and incorporated one radical new idea that was a departure from all 7-inch (119 mm) guns in twin turrets and 8 torpedo tubes
Anti-submarine sensors included sonar (or ASDIC), although training in their use was indifferent. Sonar (which started as an Acronym for sound navigation and ranging) is a technique that uses Sound propagation (usually underwater to navigate Anti-sub weapons changed little, and ahead-throwing weapons, a need recognized in WWI, had made no progress.
During the 1920s and 1930s destroyers were often deployed to areas of diplomatic tension or humanitarian disaster. British and American destroyers were common on the Chinese coast, even supplying landing parties to protect colonial interests.
By World War II the threat had evolved once again. World War II Post shakedown training completed in time to participate in the Marianas campaign, McGowan arrived at Roi, Kwajalein Description The Fletcher class (named for Admiral Frank F Fletcher) was the largest class of Destroyer ordered and was also one of the most successful At the start of World War II, the Royal Navy operated a range of Destroyer classes At the outbreak of the Second World War, the German Navy, the Kriegsmarine, had 21 Destroyers ( Ger: Zerstörer) World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Submarines were more effective, and aircraft had become important weapons of naval warfare; once again the fleet destroyers were ill-equipped for combatting these new targets. They were fitted with new anti-aircraft guns, radar, and forward-launched ASW weapons, in addition to their existing light guns, depth charges, and torpedoes. Anti-aircraft warfare, or air defense, is any method of engaging hostile military Aircraft in defence of ground objectives, ground or naval forces Radar is a system that uses electromagnetic waves to identify the range altitude direction or speed of both moving and fixed objects such as Aircraft, ships For the area denial weapon see Czech hedgehog. The Hedgehog was an Anti-submarine weapon developed by the Royal Navy By this time the destroyers had become large, multi-purpose vessels, expensive targets in their own right rather than expendable vessels for the protection of others; moreover, they were one of the most sunk kinds of ships even though they were mass produced. This led to the introduction of smaller and cheaper specialized anti-submarine warships called corvettes and frigates by the Royal Navy and destroyer escorts by the USN. A corvette is a small maneuverable lightly armed Warship, originally smaller than a Frigate and larger than a coastal patrol craft, although many For the bird see Frigatebird. A frigate /ˈfrɪgɪt/ is a warship The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service) A Destroyer Escort (DE is the classification for a small relatively slow Warship (when compared to first-rate Naval fleet vessels designed to be used to escort These ships had the size and displacement of the original torpedo boat destroyers the contemporary destroyer had evolved from.
Some conventional destroyers were completed in the late 1940s and 1950's which built on wartime experience. These vessels were significantly larger than wartime ships and had fully automatic main guns, unit Machinery, radar, sonar, and antisubmarine weapons such as the Squid mortar. The Squid was a World War II Ship -mounted anti- Submarine Weapon. Examples include the British Daring class, US Forrest Sherman-class, and the Soviet Kotlin-class destroyers. Design The Daring s were the largest destroyers then built at that time for the RN at 390 ft (119 m compared to the Battles at 379 ft (116 m their predecessor as-well Description The hedgehogs and guns were removed from all ships during the 1960s and 1970s Design This design was a smaller version of the Neustrashimy class destroyer which was seen as being too large and expensive for economic series production as well
Some World War II-vintage ships were modernised for anti-submarine warfare, and to extend their service lives, to avoid having to build (expensive) brand-new ships. Examples include the US FRAM I programme and the British Type 15 frigates converted from fleet destroyers. For the electronic memory technology see Ferroelectric RAM. For other uses see Fram (disambiguation. Raison D'être By 1945 the wartime "utility" vessels were obsolescent as destroyers due to their relatively small size and makeshift armament
The advent of surface-to-air missiles (SAM) and surface-to-surface missiles (SSM), such as the Exocet, in the early 1960s changed naval warfare. A surface to air missile ( SAM) or ground-to-air missile ( GTAM) is a Missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy Aircraft A surface-to-surface missile (also ground-to-ground missile, SSM or GTGM) is a guided projectile launched from a hand-held vehicle mounted trailer mounted The Exocet is a French -built Anti-ship missile whose various versions can be launched from surface vessels submarines and airplanes Guided missile destroyers (DDG in the US Navy) were developed to carry these weapons and protect the fleet from air, submarine and surface threats. A guided missile destroyer is a Destroyer designed to launch Guided missiles Many are also equipped to carry out anti-submarine, anti-air Examples include the Soviet Kashin-class, the British County class, and the American Charles F. Adams-class. Design The design specification was approved in 1957 the first ship was laid down in 1959 and commissioned in 1962 Ships of the class Eight of the vessels were built in two batches between 1962 and 1970 the later four vessels carrying Mark 2 SeaSlug and updated electronics requiring rearranged Members of the Charles F Adams class Lütjens class See also Lütjens class destroyer The ''Lütjens'' class
In the US Navy, destroyers operate in support of carrier battle groups, surface action groups, amphibious groups and replenishment groups. Service Algonquin serves on MARPAC missions protecting Canada's sovereignty in the Pacific Ocean and enforcing Canadian laws in its territorial sea and Original design The ships were originally intended for long-range anti-submarine warfare A carrier battle group (CVBG consists of an Aircraft carrier (CV and its escorts The destroyers currently in use by the US Navy are the Arleigh Burke-class. Characteristics The Arleigh Burke class are among the largest and most powerful destroyers ever built both larger and more heavily armed than many previous cruisers Destroyers (with a DD hull classification symbol) primarily perform anti-submarine warfare duty while guided missile destroyers (DDGs) are multi-mission (anti-submarine, anti-aircraft, and anti-surface warfare) surface combatants. The United States Navy uses hull classification symbols (sometimes called hull codes) to identify the types of its ships Guided Missile is a London based Independent record label set up by Paul Kearney in 1994. An anti-submarine weapon is any one of a range of devices that are intended to act against a submarine and its crew to destroy (sink the vessel or to destroy or reduce its capability Anti-aircraft warfare, or air defense, is any method of engaging hostile military Aircraft in defence of ground objectives, ground or naval forces The relatively-recent addition of cruise missile launchers has greatly expanded the role of the destroyer in strike and land-attack warfare. A cruise missile is a guided Missile that carries an explosive payload and uses a lifting wing and a propulsion system usually a Jet engine, to allow As the expense of heavier surface combatants has generally removed them from the fleet, destroyer tonnage has grown (a modern Arleigh Burke-class destroyer has the same tonnage as a World War II light cruiser). Characteristics The Arleigh Burke class are among the largest and most powerful destroyers ever built both larger and more heavily armed than many previous cruisers World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including A light cruiser is a Warship. The term is a shortening of the phrase "light Armoured cruiser " describing a small ship that carried armour in the same way Arleigh Burke is billed by her builders as ton-for-ton the most powerful warship in history.
The Royal Navy currently operates 8 ships of the Type 42 class. History The class was designed in the late 1960s to provide fleet area air-defence The destroyers (as well as frigates) are, as always, the workhorses of the fleet, the former optimised for air defence and the latter for surface and subsurface warfare. They are equally at home in large task groups or on independent operations which may include sanctions enforcement, humanitarian relief or anti-drug patrols. British destroyers (of recent times) have an average displacement of around 5000 tonnes, and are armed with a mixture of guns and missiles including 114 mm (4. 5 inch) Mk 8 guns, Sea Dart Missiles, 20 mm Close range guns, Vulcan Phalanx close in weapons system (CIWS), and anti submarine torpedo tubes. These ships are due to be replaced by the new Type 45 or Daring Class destroyers which will displace roughly 7,200 tonnes and are predicted to be the most advanced surface warships in the world when they enter service at the end of the decade. Background The UK had sought to procure the ships in collaboration with 7 other NATO nations under the NFR-90 project which later collapsed
The Canadian Navy currently operates the Iroquois-class destroyers, a class of four helicopter-carrying, anti-aircraft, guided missile destroyers. "MARCOM" redirects here For the historical (1936–1950 U Original design The ships were originally intended for long-range anti-submarine warfare History Since 400 AD Chinese children have played with bamboo flying toys. Guided Missile is a London based Independent record label set up by Paul Kearney in 1994. Launched in the 1970s, the Iroquois were the first Canadian all gas turbine powered military ships, using two turbines for cruise power, and another two fast-starting "boost" turbines for speeds of up to 29 knots (54 km/h) (such an arrangement is known as COGOG). A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a rotary Engine that extracts energy from a flow of Combustion gas Combined gas or gas (COGOG is a propulsion system for Ships using Gas turbine engines Previously the Soviet Navy had used all-gas turbine propulsion on their Kashin class destroyers of the 1960s but the Iroquois were the first to be built to this scheme either on Canada or in the US. The design of the Iroquois was a major inspiration for the US's later Spruance class ships. Class The class was designed for anti-submarine warfare (ASW with point defense Anti-aircraft warfare (AAW missiles upgrades provided anti-ship and land attack They were originally fitted out for anti-submarine warfare, but the entire class underwent major retrofits as a part of the Tribal Class Update and Modernization Program, or TRUMP, in the 1990s. Anti-submarine warfare (ASW or in older form A/S is a branch of Naval warfare that uses surface Warships Aircraft, space craft or other Submarines These refits had the effect of re-purposing the ships for air-defence, and the ships are now referred to as area air-defence destroyers.
The Russian Navy and the People's Liberation Army Navy of the People's Republic of China operate the Sovremenny class, a class of large multi-purpose missile destroyers. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES History The first Sovremenny class Destroyer was commissioned in 1980 They are powered by pressure-fired boilers, making them capable of speeds in excess of 30 knots (56 km/h). Their armament consists of 8 SS-N-22 Sunburn anti-ship missiles, launchers for SA-N-7 Gadfly anti-air missiles and two AK-130 twin-barreled 130 mm automatic naval guns which can fire laser-guided shells. SS-N-22 Sunburn is the NATO reporting name for two unrelated Soviet Anti-ship missiles Although the missiles were very different distinguishing is difficult because While they also carry 533 mm torpedo tubes and RBU-6000 rocket launchers for use against submarines, their primary mission is to attack surface ships. The RBU-6000 Smerch-2 is a 213 mm caliber Soviet anti-submarine Rocket launcher. Their anti-aircraft missiles have a surface attack mode, and both the 130 mm guns and the torpedoes are useful against ships at close range.
The Indian Navy operates the Delhi class destroyers. The Indian Navy is the naval branch of the armed forces of India. Ships These ships are armed with Kh-35 missiles, which have a range of 130 km, in the anti-ship role. The Zvezda Kh-35 Uran ( NATO reporting name SS-N-25 'Switchblade') is Russian Subsonic Anti-ship missile. These missiles will be replaced by the Brahmos cruise missiles. Shtil (AKA SA-N-7 Gadfly) system is installed to counter airborne threats. The Barak point-defense missile system has been installed in INS Delhi and will soon be installed in the other two ships of its class. Barak (the Hebrew word for Lightning) is an Israeli Surface-to-air missile designed to be used as a point-defense missile on warships defending against These destroyers also carry the RBU-6000 rockets in the anti-submarine role and are provided with five 533 mm torpedo launch tubes that can launch the SET-65E, Type 53-65 torpedoes. The RBU-6000 Smerch-2 is a 213 mm caliber Soviet anti-submarine Rocket launcher. Another strength of these destroyers lies is the capability to carry two Sea King helicopters. The Delhi class will be augmented by the new Kolkata class destroyers, the first of which was launched in March 2006. Ships Description Ships
The Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy has recently commissioned a number of new modern destroyers in addition to the four Sovremenny-class. Three new classes were launched since 2003, known as the Luyang, Luyang II and Luzhou class. Programme Due to the weak air defence found on most Chinese warships the People's Liberation Navy ordered the construction of a new type of vessel capable of providing sufficient Programme Following the launch of two Type 52B multirole missile destroyers in 2002 Shanghai-based Jiangnan Shipyard started to build two Type 052C destroyers based on Program The construction of the Luzhou class destroyer at of the China’s northern Dalian Shipyard was discovered in 2004 with the help of Internet The latter two are armed with long range air defense missiles, the indigenous HQ-9 and the Russian S-300 respectively. It has been speculated that once the PLAN has been satisfied with one of the two designs (either the 052C or 051C), it would be selected for series production as the next generation of advanced air defense destroyers for China.
The last US Navy Spruance-class destroyer in service, USS Cushing, was decommissioned on September 21, 2005. Class The class was designed for anti-submarine warfare (ASW with point defense Anti-aircraft warfare (AAW missiles upgrades provided anti-ship and land attack History Cushing was laid down 27 December 1976 by Ingalls Shipbuilding Pascagoula MS launched 17 June 1978 and commissioned Events 1217 - The Estonian tribal leader Lembitu of Lehola was killed in a battle against Teutonic Knights. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Zumwalt class are planned to replace them; on November 1, 2001, the US Navy announced the issuance of a revised Request for Proposal (RFP) for the Future Surface Combatant Program. Controversy Lawmakers and others have questioned whether the Zumwalt class costs too much and whether it provides the capabilities the U Events 996 - Emperor Otto III issues a deed to Gottschalk Bishop of Freising which is the oldest known document using the name Ostarrîchi Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. Formerly known as DD 21, the program will now be called DD(X) to more accurately reflect the program purpose, which is to produce a family of advanced technology surface combatants, not a single ship class. Controversy Lawmakers and others have questioned whether the Zumwalt class costs too much and whether it provides the capabilities the U DD(X), also called Zumwalt class, is much larger than traditional destroyers, being nearly three thousand tons heavier than a Ticonderoga-class cruiser. Vertical Launching System See also Vertical Launching System In addition to the added Radar capability the Ticonderoga class built after the A cruiser is a large type of Warship, which had its prime period from the late 19th century to the end of the Cold War. It will potentially employ advanced weaponry and an all-electric Integrated Power System. With the retirement of the Spruance class, the Navy began commissioning an advanced variant of the Arleigh Burke class with expanded ASW capabilities, the Arleigh Burke Flight IIA, beginning with USS Oscar Austin. Flight IIA Ships Oscar Austin is the first ship of the Flight IIA subclass of the Arleigh Burke class As of 2006, 22 of these vessels are in service, with at least seven more under construction.
The current Royal Navy Type 42 destroyers are to be replaced by the new Type 45 Daring-class from 2007 onwards. Background The UK had sought to procure the ships in collaboration with 7 other NATO nations under the NFR-90 project which later collapsed A class of 8 ships is envisaged, with an entire programme budget of £6 billion although at present only 6 have been ordered. Displacing around 7,200 tons, they will be equipped with the UK variant of the Principal Anti-Air Missile System (PAAMS) and BAE Systems SAMPSON radar. The Principal Anti Air Missile System (PAAMS is a joint French / Italian / British program for a naval anti-aircraft weapon BAE Systems plc (BAE is a British defence and aerospace company headquartered in Farnborough, England, that has global interests particularly The SAMPSON is a multi-function AESA Radar produced by BAE Systems Integrated System Technologies. Design and construction of the first ships is split between BAE Systems and Vosper Thornycroft under the overall project management of BAE. VT Group plc is a British defence and services company formerly known as Vosper Thornycroft. The ships are assembled at Scotstoun, by BAE Systems Naval Ships. Scotstoun is a historic district of Glasgow, Scotland, west of Glasgow City Centre BAE Systems Surface Fleet Solutions was a wholly owned subsidiary of BAE Systems, based in Glasgow responsible for the company's surface shipbuilding operations HMS Daring, the first of her class, was christened by Sophie, Countess of Wessex, and launched on the Clyde on 1 February 2006. Events 1327 - Teenaged Edward III is crowned King of England, but the country is ruled by his mother Queen Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
The $5. 2 billion CADRE (Command & Control and Air-Defence Capability Replacement) project is meant to replace Canada’s Iroquois class destroyers whose primary role shifted to area air-defence after TRUMP refits in the 1990s. Original design The ships were originally intended for long-range anti-submarine warfare Although the area air-defence capability had not previously existed, the Canadian Navy now regards “wide area air defence” as part of Canada’s core naval capabilities. When the project began, Canadian Navy destroyers were expected to need replacing by 2005, they are now expected to serve until 2010. There was some work on a replacement design, known to Navy-watchers as the Province class destroyers, but this was confined largely to studies of a much-improved multi-function three dimensional phased array radar system being developed in conjunction with the Dutch and German navies, known as Active Phased Array Radar (APAR). This article is about general theory and electromagnetic phased array Radar is a system that uses electromagnetic waves to identify the range altitude direction or speed of both moving and fixed objects such as Aircraft, ships History APAR (Active Phased Array Radar is a shipborne multi-function Radar (more specifically an Active Electronically Scanned Array) developed Current speculation is that the ships themselves would be similar to a "stretched" Halifax-class frigate. Description Weapons Systems The primary weapon deployed by Halifax -class vessels is the CH-124 Sea King helicopter which acts in concert with shipboard