Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (sometimes known as Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, 1466/1469 – July 12, 1536) was a Dutch humanist and theologian. Events 312 - Constantine the Great is said to have received his famous Vision of the Cross. Events 1191 - Saladin 's garrison surrenders ending the two-year Siege of Acre. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Renaissance Humanism was a European intellectual movement beginning in Florence in the last decades of the 14th century Theology is the study of a god or the gods from a religious perspective His scholarly name Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus comprises the following three elements: the Latin noun desiderium ("longing" or "desire"; the name being a genuine Late Latin name); the Greek adjective εράσμιος (erasmios) meaning "beloved", and, in the form Erasmus, also the name of a saint; and the Latinized adjectival form for the city of Rotterdam (Roterodamus = "of Rotterdam"). Saint Erasmus of Formiae is a Christian Saint and martyr who died ca Rotterdam (pronounced) is the 2nd-largest City by population in the Netherlands, located in the province of
Erasmus was a classical scholar who wrote in a "pure" Latin style and enjoyed the sobriquet "Prince of the Humanists. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. A sobriquet is a Nickname or a fancy name usually a familiar name given by others as distinct from a Pseudonym assumed as a disguise but a nickname which is familiar " He has been called "the crowning glory of the Christian humanists. " Renaissance humanists were especially learned and interested in the study of ancient languages. Using humanist techniques he prepared important new Latin and Greek editions of the New Testament which raised questions that would be influential in the Reformation. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time He also wrote The Praise of Folly, Handbook of a Christian Knight, On Civility in Children, Copia: Foundations of the Abundant Style, and many other works. The Praise of Folly ( Greek title Morias Enkomion (Μωρίας Εγκώμιον, Latin: Stultitiae Laus, sometimes translated as Enchiridion militis Christiani, or Handbook of a Christian Knight (or Soldier) was written by Desiderius Erasmus in 1503 and was published in England by Copia Foundations of the Abundant Style ( Latin: De Utraque Verborum ac Rerum Copia) is a Rhetorical guide written by Dutch humanist
Erasmus lived during a time when many learned people were critical of various Christian beliefs and practices. Some such critics ultimately rejected the authority of the pope and developed new theological systems. Erasmus numbered among those Reformers who consistently criticized certain contemporaneous Christian beliefs and practices. He also remained committed to a Catholic notion of free will, which many Protestant Reformers rejected in favor of the doctrine of predestination. Predestination (also linked with Foreknowledge) is a religious concept which involves the relationship between God and His creation This middle road disappointed, even angered, leading Protestants, such as Martin Luther, and more fervid papalists. Martin Luther (November 10 1483 February 18 1546 was a German Monk, theologian, university professor Father of Protestantism, and church reformer
Desiderius Erasmus, whose Dutch name was Gerrit Gerritszoon, was born in Rotterdam on October 27, in either 1466 or 1469. Events 312 - Constantine the Great is said to have received his famous Vision of the Cross. The exact year of his birth is unknown; according to historian Johan Huizinga, Erasmus was born in the night of the 27th or 28th and celebrated his birthday on October 28. Johan Huizinga (joːhɑn hœyzɪŋxaː ( December 7, 1872 - February 1, 1945) a Dutch Historian, was one of the founders Events 306 - Maxentius is proclaimed Roman Emperor. 312 - Battle of Milvian Bridge: Constantine It is possible he was christened "Erasmus" after the saint of that name. Saint Erasmus of Formiae is a Christian Saint and martyr who died ca  Although associated closely with Rotterdam, he lived there for only four years, never to return. Information on his family and early life comes mainly from vague references in his writings. He was almost certainly illegitimate. In Common law, legitimacy is the status of a Child that is born to parents who are legally married to one another or that is born shortly after the His father later became a priest named Roger Gerard. Little is known of his mother other than her name was Margaret and she was the daughter of a physician.  Despite being illegitimate, Erasmus was cared for by his parents until their early deaths from the plague in 1483 and was then given the best education available to a young man of his day, in a series of monastic or semi-monastic schools, most notably a school run by the Brethren of the Common Life where he gleaned the importance of a relationship with God but eschewed the harsh rules and methods of the monks. The Black Death, or the Black Plague, was one of the deadliest Pandemics in human history widely thought to have been caused by a bacterium named Yersinia The Brethren of the Common Life was a Roman Catholic religious community founded in the 14th century by Gerard Groote, formerly a successful and worldly
While at the Augustinian monastery Steyn near Gouda around 1487, Erasmus wrote passionate letters of friendship to a fellow monk, Servatius Rogerus, whom he called "half my soul", writing, "I have wooed you both unhappily and relentlessly"; this correspondence contrasts sharply with the generally detached and much more restrained attitude he showed in his later life. Stein ( is a small village in the Dutch province of South Holland. Gouda (population 71797 in 2004 is a city and municipality in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland.
In 1492, poverty forced Erasmus into the monastery.  He was ordained to the Catholic priesthood and reluctantly took vows as an Augustinian canon at Steyn at about the age of 25, but he never seems to have actively worked as a priest, and monasticism was one of the chief objects of his attack in his lifelong assault upon Church excesses. In a general sense the term Holy Orders refers to those in the Christian religion who have been ordained in Apostolic Succession. Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given Religion. The Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo (died AD 430) are several Catholic Monastic orders and congregations A canon (from the Latin canonicus, itself derived from the Greek κανωνικος 'relating to a rule' is a priest who is a member of certain bodies of the Monasticism (from Greek μοναχός, monachos, derived from Greek monos, alone is the religious practice in which one Soon after his priestly ordination, he got his chance to leave the monastery when offered the post of secretary to the Bishop of Cambray, Henry of Bergen, on account of his great skill in Latin and his reputation as a man of letters. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. An intellectual (from the adjective meaning "involving thought and reason" is a person who tries to use his or her Intelligence and analytical thinking, So that he could accept this post, he was given a temporary dispensation from religious obligations on the grounds of poor health and love of humanistic studies. Pope Leo X later made the dispensation permanent. Pope Leo X, born Giovanni de' Medici (December 11 1475 – December 1 1521 was Pope from 1513 to his death
In 1495, with the bishop's consent and stipend, he went on to study at the University of Paris, in the Collège de Montaigu, a centre of reforming zeal, under the direction of the ascetic Jan Standonck, of whose rigours Erasmus complained. The historic University of Paris (Université de Paris first appeared in the second half of the 13th century The Collège de Montaigu was one of the constituent Colleges of the Faculty of Arts of the University of Paris. Ascetic redirects here You might also be looking for Acetic acid. Jan Standonck (1454&ndash1504 (or Jan or Jean Standonk) was a Dutch Priest and Reformer. The University was then the chief seat of scholastic learning, but already coming under the influence of humanism. The historic University of Paris (Université de Paris first appeared in the second half of the 13th century The chief centers of his activity were Paris, Leuven (Louvain), England, and Basel; yet he never belonged firmly in any one of these places. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Leuven ( French: Louvain, often used in English German: Löwen) is the capital of the province of Flemish Brabant in the England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland "Basilia" redirects here For the Fly Genus, see Basilia (fly. His time in England was fruitful in the making of lifelong friendships with the leaders of English thought in the stirring days of King Henry VIII: John Colet, Thomas More, John Fisher, Thomas Linacre and William Grocyn. Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of John Colet (January 1467 &ndash 10 September 1519) was an English churchman and Educational pioneer Sir Thomas More (7 February 1478 – 6 July 1535 from 1935 Saint Thomas More, was an English Lawyer, author and statesman who in his lifetime gained John Cardinal Fisher (c1469 &ndash 22 June, 1535) from 1935 Saint John Fisher, was an English Catholic bishop cardinal and Thomas Linacre (or Lynaker) (c 1460 &ndash 20 December 1524) was an English humanist and Physician, after whom Linacre William Grocyn (1446? - 1519 was an English scholar a friend of Erasmus. At the University of Cambridge, he was the Lady Margaret's Professor of Divinity and had the option of spending the rest of his life as an English professor. The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University) located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the The Lady Margaret's Professor of Divinity is the oldest professorship or "chair" in the University of Cambridge. The meaning of the word professor ( Latin: professor, person who professes to be an expert in some art or science teacher of highest rank) varies He stayed at Queens' College, Cambridge, and may have been an alumnus. Queens' College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge.
In 1499, while in England, Erasmus was particularly impressed by the Bible teaching of John Colet who pursued a style more akin to the church fathers than the scholastics. John Colet (January 1467 &ndash 10 September 1519) was an English churchman and Educational pioneer The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, or Fathers of the Church are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Christian Church Scholasticism was the dominant form of theology and philosophy in the Latin West in the Middle Ages, particularly in the 12th 13th and 14th centuries This prompted him, upon his return from England, to master the Greek language, which would enable him to study theology on a more profound level and to prepare a new edition of Jerome's Bible translation. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Theology is the study of a god or the gods from a religious perspective Jerome (c 347 – September 30, 420) ( Latin: Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος The Vulgate is an early Fifth Century version of the Bible in Latin, and largely the result of the labours of Jerome, who was commissioned by On one occasion he wrote Colet:
"I cannot tell you, dear Colet, how I hurry on, with all sails set, to holy literature. How I dislike everything that keeps me back, or retards me. "
Despite a chronic shortage of money, he succeeded in learning Greek by an intensive, day-and-night study of three years, continuously begging his friends to send him books and money for teachers in his letters. 
Erasmus preferred to live the life of an independent scholar and made a conscious effort to avoid any actions or formal ties that might inhibit his freedom of intellect and literary expression. Throughout his life, he was offered many positions of honor and profit throughout the academic world but declined them all, preferring the uncertain but sufficient rewards of independent literary activity. From 1506 to 1509, he was in Italy and spent part of the time at the publishing house of Aldus Manutius in Venice, but, apart from this, he had a less active association with Italian scholars than might have been expected. Aldine Press was the Printing office started by Aldus Manutius in 1494 in Venice, from which were issued the celebrated Aldine editions of the Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the
His residence at Leuven exposed Erasmus to much criticism from those hostile to the principles of literary and religious reform to which he was devoting his life. Leuven ( French: Louvain, often used in English German: Löwen) is the capital of the province of Flemish Brabant in the Feeling that this lack of sympathy was actually persecution, he sought refuge in Basel, where under the shelter of Swiss hospitality he could express himself freely and where he was surrounded by devoted friends. "Basilia" redirects here For the Fly Genus, see Basilia (fly. Here he was associated for many years with the great publisher Froben, and to him came the multitude of his admirers from all quarters of Europe. Johann Froben, in Latin: Johannes Frobenius ( Hammelburg, Franconia, circa 1460 — Basel, 27 October 1527) was a
Erasmus's literary productivity began comparatively late in his life. Only when he had mastered Latin did he begin to express himself on major contemporary themes in literature and religion. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Literature is the Art of written works Literally translated the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos His revolt against forms of Christian monasticism and scholasticism did not result from doubts about the truth of traditional doctrine nor from any hostility to the organization of the Church itself. Those living the monastic life are known by the generic terms Monks (men and Nuns (women Scholasticism was the dominant form of theology and philosophy in the Latin West in the Middle Ages, particularly in the 12th 13th and 14th centuries Doctrine (Latin doctrina) is a codification of beliefs or "a body of teachings quot or "instructions" taught principles or positions as the Rather, he felt called upon to use his learning in a purification of the doctrine by returning to the historic documents and original languages of scripture. As a scholar, he tried to free the methods of scholarship from the rigidity and formalism of medieval traditions, but he was not satisfied with this. He saw himself as a preacher of righteousness by an appeal to reason. It was this lifelong conviction that guided Erasmus as he regenerated Europe through sound criticism applied frankly and without fear of the magisterium. Magisterium is a "teaching authority especially of the Roman Catholic Church" This conviction gives unity and consistency to a life which might otherwise seem full of contradictions. Erasmus held himself aloof from all entangling obligations, yet he was, in a singularly true sense, the center of the literary movement of his time. He corresponded with more than five hundred men of the highest importance in the world of politics and of thought, and his advice on all kinds of subjects was eagerly sought, if not always followed.
The first New Testament printed in Greek was part of the Polyglot Bible. A polyglot (also spelled polyglott) is a book that contains side-by-side versions of the same text in several different languages This portion was printed in 1514, but publication was delayed until 1522 by waiting for the Old Testament portion, and the sanction of Pope Leo X. Pope Leo X, born Giovanni de' Medici (December 11 1475 – December 1 1521 was Pope from 1513 to his death  While in England in 1515, Erasmus became aware of the Polyglot project and began a search for available manuscripts of the Greek New Testament with the goal of meeting the demand for a printed edition before the Polyglot Bible could be finished. Erasmus's rushed effort was published by Froben of Basel in 1516 and thence became the first published Greek New Testament, the Novum Instrumentum omne, diligenter ab Erasmo Rot. "Basilia" redirects here For the Fly Genus, see Basilia (fly. Recognitum et Emendatum. This critical edition included a Latin translation and annotations, and would be called the Textus Receptus. Textual criticism (or lower criticism) is a branch of Literary criticism that is concerned with the identification and removal of Transcription errors in Textus Receptus ( Latin: "received text" is the name subsequently given to the succession of printed Greek texts of the New Testament which constituted Erasmus used several Greek manuscript sources because he did not have access to a single complete manuscript.
In the 2nd (1519) edition the more familiar term Testamentum was used instead of Instrumentum. This edition was used by Martin Luther in making his German translation. Martin Luther (November 10 1483 February 18 1546 was a German Monk, theologian, university professor Father of Protestantism, and church reformer Together, the first and second editions sold 3,300 copies. The 1st- and 2nd-edition texts did not include the passage (1 John 5:7–8) that has become known as the Comma Johanneum. The Comma Johanneum is a comma (a short clause contained in most translations of the First Epistle of John published from 1522 until the latter part of the nineteenth Erasmus had been unable to find those verses in any Greek manuscript, but one was supplied to him during production of the 3rd edition. That manuscript is now thought to be a 1520 creation from the Latin Vulgate, which likely got the verses from a fifth-century marginal gloss in a Latin copy of I John. The Vulgate is an early Fifth Century version of the Bible in Latin, and largely the result of the labours of Jerome, who was commissioned by The Roman Catholic Church decreed that the Comma Johanneum was open to dispute (June 2, 1927), and it is rarely included in modern scholarly translations. Events 455 - The Vandals enter Rome, and plunder the city for two weeks Year 1927 ( MCMXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
The 3rd edition of 1522 was probably used by Tyndale for the first English New Testament (Worms, 1526) and was the basis for the 1550 Robert Stephanus edition used by the translators of the Geneva Bible and King James Version of the English Bible. Tyndale redirects here For the English family see Tyndall. For other uses see Tyndale (disambiguation. The Geneva Bible was a Protestant translation of the Bible into English. Erasmus published a definitive 4th edition in 1527 containing parallel columns of Greek, Latin Vulgate and Erasmus's Latin texts. He used the now available Polyglot Bible to improve this version. In 1535 Erasmus published the 5th (and final) edition which dropped the Latin Vulgate column but was otherwise similar to the 4th edition. Subsequent versions of Erasmus's Greek New Testament became known as the Textus Receptus. Textus Receptus ( Latin: "received text" is the name subsequently given to the succession of printed Greek texts of the New Testament which constituted
Erasmus dedicated his work to Pope Leo X as a patron of learning and regarded this work as his chief service to the cause of Christianity. Pope Leo X, born Giovanni de' Medici (December 11 1475 – December 1 1521 was Pope from 1513 to his death Immediately afterward, he began the publication of his Paraphrases of the New Testament, a popular presentation of the contents of the several books. The Paraphrases of Erasmus were paraphrases of the Gospels by Desiderius Erasmus. These, like all of his writings, were published in Latin but were quickly translated into other languages, with his encouragement.
Martin Luther's movement began in the year following the publication of the New Testament and tested Erasmus's character. Martin Luther (November 10 1483 February 18 1546 was a German Monk, theologian, university professor Father of Protestantism, and church reformer The issue between European society and the Roman Church had become so clear that few could escape the summons to join the debate. Erasmus, at the height of his literary fame, was inevitably called upon to take sides, but partisanship was foreign to his nature and his habits. In all his criticism of clerical follies and abuses, he had always protested that he was not attacking church institutions themselves and had no enmity toward churchmen. The world had laughed at his satire, but few had interfered with his activities. Satire is often strictly defined as a literary genre or form; although in practice it is also found in the graphic and Performing arts In satire human He believed that his work so far had commended itself to the best minds and also to the dominant powers in the religious world.
Erasmus was sympathetic with the main points in the Lutheran criticism of the Church, describing him as "a mighty trumpet of gospel truth" and admitting that, "It is clear that many of the reforms for which Luther calls are urgently needed. ” He had great respect for Martin Luther, and Luther always spoke with admiration of Erasmus's superior learning. Martin Luther (November 10 1483 February 18 1546 was a German Monk, theologian, university professor Father of Protestantism, and church reformer Luther hoped for his cooperation in a work which seemed only the natural outcome of his own. In their early correspondence, Luther expressed boundless admiration for all Erasmus had done in the cause of a sound and reasonable Christianity and urged him to join the Lutheran party. Erasmus declined to commit himself, arguing that to do so would endanger his position as a leader in the movement for pure scholarship which he regarded as his purpose in life. Only as an independent scholar could he hope to influence the reform of religion. When Erasmus hesitated to support him, the straightforward Luther felt that Erasmus was avoiding the responsibility due either to cowardice or a lack of purpose. Coward redirects here For other meanings including as a surname see Coward (disambiguation. Erasmus, however, dreaded any change in doctrine and believed that there was room within existing formulas for the kind of reform he valued most. Doctrine (Latin doctrina) is a codification of beliefs or "a body of teachings quot or "instructions" taught principles or positions as the Though he remained firmly neutral, likely because of it, both sides accused him of siding with the other. It was not for lack of fidelity with either side but a desire for fidelity with them both:
"I detest dissension because it goes both against the teachings of Christ and against a secret inclination of nature. I doubt that either side in the dispute can be suppressed without grave loss. "
Twice in the course of the great discussion, he allowed himself to enter the field of doctrinal controversy, a field foreign to both his nature and his previous practice. One of the topics he dealt with was the freedom of the will, a crucial point. The question of free will In his De libero arbitrio diatribe sive collatio (1524), he lampoons the Lutheran view on free will. De libero arbitrio diatribe sive collatio is the Latin title of a work written by Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam in 1524 He lays down both sides of the argument impartially. The "Diatribe" did not encourage any definite action; this was its merit to the Erasmians and its fault in the eyes of the Lutherans. In response, Luther wrote his De servo arbitrio (On the Bondage of the Will) (1525), which attacks the "Diatribe" and Erasmus himself, going so far as to claim that Erasmus was not a Christian. On the Bondage of the Will ( De Servo Arbitrio, literally "Concerning Bound Choice" by Martin Luther, was published in December 1525
As the popular response to Luther gathered momentum, the social disorders, which Erasmus dreaded and Luther disassociated himself from, began to appear, including the Peasants' War, the Anabaptist disturbances in Germany and in the Low Countries, iconoclasm and the radicalization of peasants across Europe. For other conflicts referred to as peasant wars or revolts see Peasant revolt (disambiguation. Anabaptists ( Greek ανα (again twice + βαπτιζω (baptize thus "re-baptizers" are Christians of the Radical Reformation Iconoclasm, Greek for "image-breaking" is the deliberate destruction within a culture of the culture's own religious Icons and other symbols or monuments Political radicalism or simply radicalism is adherence to radical views and principles in Politics. If these were the outcomes of reform, he was thankful that he had kept out of it. Yet he was ever more bitterly accused of having started the whole "tragedy" (as the Roman Catholics dubbed Protestantism).
When the city of Basel was definitely and officially "reformed" in 1529, Erasmus gave up his residence there and settled in the imperial town of Freiburg im Breisgau. "Basilia" redirects here For the Fly Genus, see Basilia (fly.
A test of the Reformation was the doctrine of the sacraments, and the crux of this question was the observance of the Eucharist. A sacrament, as defined in Hexam's Concise Dictionary of Religion is "a Rite in which God is uniquely active The Eucharist, also called Holy Communion or Lord's Supper and other names is a Christian Sacrament by which in a common interpretation those In 1530, Erasmus published a new edition of the orthodox treatise of Algerus against the heretic Berengar of Tours in the eleventh century. Alger of Liège (1055-1131 known also as Alger of Cluny and Algerus Magister a learned French Priest who lived in the first half of the 12th century Berengar of Tours (c 999&ndash January 6, 1088) was a French 11th century Christian theologian a scholar whose leadership of the cathedral He added a dedication, affirming his belief in the reality of the Body of Christ after consecration in the Eucharist. The anti-sacramentarians, headed by Œcolampadius of Basel, were, as Erasmus says, quoting him as holding views similar to their own in order to try to claim him for their schismatic movement. Johannes Œcolampadius or Œkolampad ( 1482 - November 24 1531) was a German religious reformer whose real name was Hussgen "Basilia" redirects here For the Fly Genus, see Basilia (fly.
Erasmus died in 1536 in Basel and was buried there in the cathedral. "Basilia" redirects here For the Fly Genus, see Basilia (fly. The Basel Münster ( Basler Münster) is one of the main landmarks and tourist attractions of the Swiss city of Basel. His last words, as recorded by his friend Beatus Rhenanus, were "lieve God", Dutch for Dear God. Dutch ( is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people 22 million of which are from the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname
Erasmus wrote both on ecclesiastic subjects and those of general human interest. He seems to have regarded the latter as trifling, a leisure activity. By the 1530’s, the writings of Erasmus accounted for 10 to 20 percent of all book sales. 
He is credited with coining the adage, "In the land of the blind, the one-eyed man is king. " He formed a collection of adages, commonly called Adagia. Adagia ( adagium is the singular form and adagia is the plural is an annotated collection of Greek and Latin Adages compiled Erasmus is also generally accredited as the origin of the English phrase "Pandora's box", arising through an error in his translation of Pandora by Hesiod in which he confused "pithos", storage jar, with "pyxis", box. In Greek mythology, Pandora (from Greek:, "giver of all all-endowed" was the first woman Hesiod ( Greek: Hesiodos) was an early Greek Poet and Rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BCE
His more serious writings begin early with the Enchiridion militis Christiani, the "Handbook of the Christian Soldier" (1503) (translated into English a few years later by the young William Tyndale). Tyndale redirects here For the English family see Tyndall. For other uses see Tyndale (disambiguation. In this short work, Erasmus outlines the views of the normal Christian life, which he was to spend the rest of his days in elaborating. The chief evil of the day, he says, is formalism, going through the motions of tradition without understanding their basis in the teachings of Christ. Forms can teach the soul how to worship God, or they may hide or quench the spirit. In his examination of the dangers of formalism, Erasmus discusses monasticism, saint worship, war, the spirit of class and the foibles of "society. Monasticism (from Greek μοναχός, monachos, derived from Greek monos, alone is the religious practice in which one "
The Enchiridion is more like a sermon than a satire. Satire is often strictly defined as a literary genre or form; although in practice it is also found in the graphic and Performing arts In satire human With it Erasmus challenged common assumptions, painting the clergy as educators who should share the treasury of their knowledge with the laity. He emphasized personal spiritual disciplines rather than institutional sacraments, and called for a reformation which he characterized as a collective return to the Fathers and Scripture. Most importantly, he extolled the reading of scripture as vital because its power to transform and motivate toward love. Much like the Brethren of the Common Life, he wrote that the New Testament is the law of Christ we are called to obey and Christ is the example we are called to imitate. The Brethren of the Common Life was a Roman Catholic religious community founded in the 14th century by Gerard Groote, formerly a successful and worldly
Erasmus's best-known work was The Praise of Folly (published under the double title Moriae encomium (Greek, Latinised) and Laus stultitiae (Latin)), a satirical attack on the traditions of the Catholic Church and popular superstitions, written in 1509, published in 1511 and dedicated to his friend, Sir Thomas More. The Praise of Folly ( Greek title Morias Enkomion (Μωρίας Εγκώμιον, Latin: Stultitiae Laus, sometimes translated as Sir Thomas More (7 February 1478 – 6 July 1535 from 1935 Saint Thomas More, was an English Lawyer, author and statesman who in his lifetime gained
The Institutio principis Christiani (Basel, 1516) (Education of a Christian Prince) was written as advice to the young king Charles of Spain, later Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. The Education of a Christian Prince is a Renaissance "how-to" book for princes advising them on how to be a "good Christian " Prince Charles V (24 February 1500 &ndash 21 September 1558 was Erasmus applies the general principles of honor and sincerity to the special functions of the Prince, whom he represents throughout as the servant of the people. The Education of a Christian Prince was published in 1516, 16 years before Niccolò Machiavelli’s The Prince. Il Principe ( The Prince) is a political Treatise by the Florentine public servant and political theorist A comparison between the two is worth noting. Machiavelli stated that, to maintain control by political force, it is safer for a prince to be feared than loved. Erasmus, on the other hand, preferred for the prince to be loved and suggested that the prince needed a well-rounded education in order to govern justly and benevolently and avoid becoming a source of oppression.
As a result of his reformatory activities, Erasmus found himself at odds with both the great parties. His last years were embittered by controversies with men toward whom he was sympathetic. Notable among these was Ulrich von Hutten, a brilliant but erratic genius, who had thrown himself into the Lutheran cause and had declared that Erasmus, if he had a spark of honesty, would do the same. Ulrich von Hutten ( April 21 1488 - August 29 1523) was an outspoken German critic of the Roman Catholic Church and adherent In his reply, Spongia adversus aspergines Hutteni (1523), Erasmus displays his skill in semantics. Semantics is the study of meaning in communication The word derives from Greek σημαντικός ( semantikos) "significant" from He accuses Hutten of having misinterpreted his utterances about reform and reiterates his determination never to break with the Church.
The most important work of this last period is the Ecclesiastes or "Gospel Preacher" (Basel, 1536), in which he comments on the function of preaching. Ecclesiastes On the Art of Preaching ( Latin: Ecclesiastes sive de ratione concionandi) One of the last major works that Desiderius Erasmus
Erasmus’s Sileni Alcibiadis is one of his most direct assessments of the need for Church reform. It was seen first in John Froben’s revised edition of the Adagia published in Basel in 1515. "Basilia" redirects here For the Fly Genus, see Basilia (fly. Then, it was published separately by Froben in 1517. This essay compares to John Colet’s Convocation Sermon, though the styles differ. John Colet (January 1467 &ndash 10 September 1519) was an English churchman and Educational pioneer The term Sileni can be understood as something on the inside is more and different than what one sees on the outside. For instance, something ugly on the outside can be beautiful on the inside. In support of this, Erasmus states: “Anyone who looks closely at the inward nature and essence will find that nobody is further from true wisdom than those people with their grand titles, learned bonnets, splendid sashes and bejeweled rings, who profess to be wisdom’s peak”. Erasmus lists several Sileni and then questions whether Christ is the most noticeable Silenus of them all. The Apostles were Sileni since they were ridiculed by others. The Twelve Apostles (Greek apostolos, "someone sent out" e He believes that the things which are the least ostentatious can be the most significant. For instance, one cannot see the most special aspects of humans. The Scriptures also have Sileni. Erasmus believes that the Church constitutes all of the Christian people. People call priests, bishops, and popes the Church, but they only serve the Church. He criticizes those that spend the Church’s riches at the people’s expense. Riches should not be held above everything else. The true point of the Church is to help people lead Christian lives. Priests are supposed to be pure, though when they stray away, no one condemns them. He criticizes the riches of the popes, believing that it would be better for the Gospel to be most important. Furthermore, the Word of God should be most important for people.
His books' extraordinary popularity has been shown in the number of editions and translations that have appeared since the sixteenth century, and in the undiminished interest excited by his elusive but fascinating personality. Rotterdam (pronounced) is the 2nd-largest City by population in the Netherlands, located in the province of Ten columns of the catalogue of the British Library are taken up with the bare enumeration of the works and their subsequent reprints. The greatest names of the classical and patristic world are among those translated, edited or annotated by Erasmus, including Saint Ambrose, Aristotle, Saint Augustine, Saint Basil, Saint John Chrysostom, Cicero and Saint Jerome. Saint Ambrose (c 338 &ndash 4 April 397) was a bishop of Milan who became one of the most influential ecclesiastical figures of the fourth century Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Basil of Caesarea, also called Saint Basil the Great (c 330 – January 1, 379) (Άγιος Βασίλειος ο Μέγας Latin This article refers to the Christian saint For other uses of the name see Chrysostomos. Marcus Tullius Cicero ( Classical Latin ˈkikeroː usually ˈsɪsərəʊ in English January 3, 106 BC &ndash December 7, 43 BC was a Roman Jerome (c 347 – September 30, 420) ( Latin: Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος
Today in his home town of Rotterdam, the University and Gymnasium Erasmianum have been named in his honor. Erasmus University Rotterdam is a university in the Netherlands, located in Rotterdam. The Gymnasium Erasmianum is a school in Rotterdam (also known under its Dutch name "Erasmiaans Gymnasium" However, Rotterdam has ignored the life of one of its famous citizens for a long time. Research in 2003 showed that most Rotterdammers believe Erasmus was the designer of the "Erasmusbridge" in Rotterdam. This shocking information led to the founding of the Erasmushuis (Erasmushouse), a house dedicated to celebrate the legacy of Erasmus. Nowadays in Rotterdam, three famous moments in the life of Erasmus are celebrated annually. On April 1, the city celebrates the release of his best-known book The Praise of Folly. On October 28, the birthday of Erasmus is celebrated. And, in the summer, the so-called Night of Erasmus celebrates the lasting influence of his work.
However, Erasmus's reputation and the interpretations of his work have varied greatly over time. Following his death, there was a long period of time when the citizens of the land all mourned his death. Moderate Catholics felt that he had been a leading figure in attempts to reform the Church, while Protestants recognized his initial support for Luther's ideas and the groundwork he laid for the future Reformation. By the 1560s, however, there was a marked change in reception.
The Catholic Counter-Reformation movement often condemned Erasmus as having "laid the egg that hatched the Reformation. The Counter-Reformation (also Catholic Reformation denotes the period of Catholic revival from the pontificate of Pope Pius IV in 1560 to the close of the " Their critique of him was based principally on his not being strong enough in his criticism of Luther, not seeing the dangers of a vernacular Bible and dabbling in dangerous scriptural criticism that weakened the Church's arguments against Arianism and other doctrines. Arianism is the theological teaching of Arius (c AD 250-336 who was ruled a heretic by the Christian church at the Council of Nicea. All of his works were placed on the Index of Prohibited Books by Paul IV, and some of his works continued to be banned or viewed with caution in the later Index of Pius IV. The Index Librorum Prohibitorum ("List of Prohibited Books" was a list of publications prohibited by the Roman Catholic Church. Pope Paul IV ( June 28, 1476 &ndash August 18, 1559) né Giovanni Pietro Carafa, was Pope from May 23 Pope Pius IV ( March 31, 1499 &ndash December 9, 1565) born Giovanni Angelo Medici, was Pope from 1559 to 1565
Protestant views of Erasmus fluctuate largely depending on region and period, with continuous support in his native Netherlands and in cities of the Upper Rhine area. However, following his death and in the late sixteenth century, Reformation supporters see Erasmus's critiques of Luther and lifelong support for the universal Catholic Church as damning. His reception was particularly cold by the Reformed Protestant groups.
By the coming of the Age of Enlightenment, however, Erasmus increasingly returned to become a more widely respected cultural symbol and was hailed as an important figure by increasingly broad groups. The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century In a letter to a friend, Erasmus once had written: "That you are patriotic will be praised by many and easily forgiven by everyone; but in my opinion it is wiser to treat men and things as though we held this world the common fatherland of all. "
Several schools, faculties and universities in The Netherlands and Flanders are named after him, as is Erasmus Hall in Brooklyn, New York, USA. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Flanders (Vlaanderen Flandre Flandern is a geographical region located in parts of present day Belgium, France, and the Netherlands. Erasmus Hall Campus High School is a three-year Public high school in the New York City borough of Brooklyn, operated as part of the New Brooklyn (named after the Dutch town Breukelen) is one of the five boroughs of New York City.
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Erasmus; Erasmus, Desiderius Roterodamus; Gerritszoon, Gerrit|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Dutch philosopher and theologian|
|DATE OF BIRTH||October 27, 1466 or 1469|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Rotterdam, The Netherlands|
|DATE OF DEATH||July 12, 1536|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Basel, Switzerland|