Desegregation is the process of ending racial segregation, most commonly used in reference to the United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Desegregation was long a focus of the American Civil Rights Movement, both before and after the United States Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education, particularly desegregation of the school systems and the military (See African-Americans in the United States military before desegregation). The American Civil Rights Movement (1955–1968 refers to the reform movements in the United States aimed at abolishing racial discrimination against African The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. Brown v Board of Education of Topeka, 347 US 483 (1954 was a Landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court, which overturned earlier The Military history of African Americans spans from the arrival of the first black slaves during the colonial history of the United Racial integration of society was a closely related goal. Racial integration, or simply integration includes Desegregation (the process of ending systematic Racial segregation)
Reactions to the practice of slavery and what should be the proper response to it were varied, also, among its opponents. Some of those who called for abolition were equally adamant that upon being freed, Blacks should be transported to Africa. Abolitionism was a political movement of the 18th and 19th century which sought to make Slavery illegal particularly in the United States and British West Indies These abolitionists supported the American Colonization Society, which helped established the independent nation of Liberia. The American Colonization Society (in full The Society for the Colonization of Free People of Color of America was an organization that helped in founding Liberia, a Colony Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the west coast of Africa, bordered by Sierra Leone, Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire Other, more radical abolitionists called not only for an end to slavery but for immediate racial integration. Their agitation lead to occasional successes, such as the overturning in 1843 of the Massachusetts anti-miscegenation law, a state law banning the marriage of whites and non-whites, but these were exceptions. Anti-miscegenation laws, also known as miscegenation laws, were laws that banned Interracial marriage and sometimes interracial sex between whites and members of other State law in the United States, is the Law of each separate U After chattel slavery was ended in the U. As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another S. after the American Civil War, neither the damage it had done, nor racial mindsets, easily or quickly disappeared or changed. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South
After the Civil War, during Reconstruction, a series all of constitutional amendments were passed which ended slavery, granted citizenship to African Americans, and prohibited race or former slavery's being a barrier to voting:
Together these amendments enabled freedmen to participate as citizens in the political process during Reconstruction. On both a per capita and absolute basis, more blacks were elected to political office (including local offices) from 1865 to 1880 than at any other time in American history. After the disbanding of the Freedmens Bureau and other Reconstruction institutions after southern states were readmitted to the union, in 1877, white Democrats regained power in southern states and passed laws making voter registration more complicated. The Bureau of Refugees Freedmen and Abandoned Lands (usually referred to as the Freedmen's Bureau) was a U Although the laws applied to all, the result was that blacks and poor whites were effectively disfranchised. White Democrats then passed Jim Crow laws that established segregation as a principle in all public facilities and aspects of life in the South, for instance, the infamous separate water fountains for whites and blacks.
For years, the Supreme Court upheld state laws related to voter registration and elections, as states had the authority to regulate these conditions. Gradually in individual cases starting in 1915, the Supreme Court ruled against provisions of states' legislation or constitutions, for instance, ruling that the grandfather clause (1915) and white primary (1944) were unconstitutional. A grandfather clause is a term used in US English for an exception that allows an old rule to continue to apply to some existing situations when a new rule will apply to all future situations White primaries were Primary elections in the Southern States of the United States of America in which any non-White voter was prohibited from participating Because of the difficulty of litigation and continuing states' attempts to restrict voting by African Americans and other minorities, Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965 to protect and enforce all citizen access to voter registration and elections, a century after the end of the Civil War. Background See also [[Disfranchisement after the Civil War]] The 13th Amendment, ratified in 1865 after the Civil War, abolished and prohibited
In 1896, the U. S. Supreme Court ruled in Plessy v. Ferguson that the Fourteenth Amendment did not require facilities to be racially integrated as long as they were equal (the situation was for schools). The separate but equal doctrine prevailed for over a half-century until in 1954 the Supreme Court reversed the earlier ruling in Brown v. Board of Education, in which the court found that racially separate facilities were inherently unequal. Separate But Equal is a 1991 American Television movie depicting the landmark Supreme Court Desegregation case Brown v Board of Education of Topeka, 347 US 483 (1954 was a Landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court, which overturned earlier
In 1909 the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)was founded to secure civil justice, and to foster racial integration and fair treatment toward citizens of color. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, usually abbreviated as NAACP, is one of the oldest and most influential Civil rights organizations The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, usually abbreviated as NAACP, is one of the oldest and most influential Civil rights organizations Black intellectual W. E. B. DuBois was one of the founders, as was journalist Ida Tarbell. William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (duːˈbɔɪz ( February 23, 1868 August 27, 1963) was an American Civil rights activist The NAACP led litigation of cases to get challenges to the Supreme Court, such as Guinn v. United States in 1915, leading to striking down of grandfather clauses. Guinn v United States, 238 US 347 (1915 was an important United States Supreme Court decision that dealt with provisions of state constitutions that A grandfather clause is a term used in US English for an exception that allows an old rule to continue to apply to some existing situations when a new rule will apply to all future situations In addition, the NAACP led an array of public education efforts, continued lobbying of Congress, and encouragement of writing and dramas by African Americans.
Important groups working on social justice and civil rights later were the Urban League, Congress of Racial Equality, and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. The National Urban League ( NUL) formerly known as the National League of black men and women, is a Civil rights organization based in New York City The Southern Christian Leadership Conference ( SCLC) is an American Civil rights organization Members of many Jewish groups joined in the struggle, especially among secular groups and Reform and Conservative congregations. For other uses see Reform (disambiguation Reform means beneficial change or sometimes more specifically reversion to a pure original Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favour Tradition, where tradition refers to various religious cultural or nationally defined Some trade unions supported civil rights, although most unions had historically vigorously opposed entry by black workers, as white workers viewed black labor as competition. A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming
Starting with King Phillip's war in the 17th century, African-Americans fought and died alongside whites in an integrated environment in the North American colonies. They continued to fight in every American war integrated with whites up until the War of 1812. They would not fight in integrated units again until the Korean War. 
During the Civil War, Blacks enlisted in large numbers in the Union Army. The Union Army was the army that fought for the Union during the American Civil War. They were mostly enslaved African Americans who escaped in the South, although there were many northern black Unionists as well. More than 180,000 African Americans served with the Union Army and Navy during the Civil War, in segregated units known as the US Colored Troops, under the command of white officers.  They were recorded and are part of the National Park Service's Civil War Soldiers & Sailors System (CWSS) (see External link below. The National Park Service ( NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation )
While a handful of Blacks were commissioned as officers in World War I, white officers remained the rule in that conflict. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The NAACP lobbied the government to commission more black officers. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, usually abbreviated as NAACP, is one of the oldest and most influential Civil rights organizations During WWII, most officers were white.
In 1948, President Harry S Truman's Executive Order 9981 ordered the integration of the armed forces shortly after World War II, a major advance in civil rights. Executive Order 9981 is an executive order issued on July 26, 1948 by U Using the Executive Order (E. O. ) meant that Truman could bypass Congress. Representatives of the Solid South, all white Democrats, would likely have stonewalled related legislation. Solid South refers to the electoral support of the Southern United States for Democratic Party candidates for nearly a century from 1877 the end of the Reconstruction
For instance, in May 1948, Richard B. Russell, Democratic Senator from Georgia, attached an amendment to the Selective Services bill then being debated in Congress. The Russell amendment would have granted draftees and new inductees an opportunity to choose whether or not they wanted to serve in segregated military units. Russell's amendment was defeated in committee. Truman signed Executive Order 9981 on July 26, 1948. Events 657 - Battle of Siffin. 811 - Battle of Pliska; Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus Year 1948 ( MCMXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. In June 1950 when the Selective Services Law came up for renewal, Russell tried again to attach his segregation amendment, and again Congress defeated it.
At the end of June 1950, the Korean War broke out. The Korean War refers to a period of military conflict between North Korean and South Korean regimes with major hostilities lasting from June 25 1950 until the The U. S. Army had accomplished little desegregation in peacetime and sent the segregated Eighth Army to defend South Korea. Most African-American soldiers served in segregated support units in the rear. The remainder served in segregated combat units, most notably the 24th Infantry Regiment. The first months of the Korean War were some of the most disastrous in U. S. military history. The North Korean People's Army nearly drove the American-led United Nations forces off the Korean peninsula. Faced with staggering losses in white units, commanders on the ground began accepting black replacements, thus integrating their units. The practice occurred all over the Korean battle lines and proved that integrated combat units could perform under fire. The Army high command took notice. On July 26, 1951, the US Army formally announced its plans to desegregate, exactly three years after Truman issued Executive Order 9981.
Soon Army officials required Morning Reports (the daily report of strength accounting and unit activity required of every unit in the Army on active duty) of units in Korea to include the line "NEM XX OTHER EM XX TOTAL EM XX", where XX was the number of Negro and Other races, in the section on enlisted strength. The Form 20s for enlisted personnel recorded race. For example, the percentage of Black Enlisted Personnel in the 4th Signal Battalion was maintained at about 14 % from September 1951 to November 1952, mostly by clerks' selectively assigning replacements by race. Morning Report clerks of this battalion assumed that all units in Korea were doing the same. The Morning Reports were classified "RESTRICTED" in those years. (Citations needed from Korean War Records in Kansas)
African-American naval service stretches back to the beginnings of the nation. Thousands of black men fought on the side of rebellious colonists in the American Revolutionary War, many in the new Continental Navy. Their names, accomplishments or total numbers are unknown because of poor record keeping.
African Americans also participated in the Union Navy during the American Civil War. Many were enslaved African Americans who escaped to Union lines. About 18,000 African Americans were sailors with Union forces.  They were recorded and are part of the National Park Service's War Soldiers & Sailors System (CWSS) (see External link below. The National Park Service ( NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation )
In WWII, the US Navy experimented with the USS Mason, a ship with black crew members and commanded by white officers. Some called it "Eleanor's folly," after President Franklin Roosevelt's wife. The Mason’s purpose was to allow African American sailors to serve in the full range of billets (positions), rather than being restricted to stewards and messmen, as they were on most ships. The Navy had already been pressured to train black sailors for billets. Mrs. Roosevelt insisted that African-American sailors be given the jobs which they were trained to do. This experiment was an historic step on the long road to integration.
In 1957, in the wake of the Brown v. The American Civil Rights Movement (1955–1968 refers to the reform movements in the United States aimed at abolishing racial discrimination against African Board decision, U. S. President Dwight Eisenhower enforced the Supreme Court's 1954 school desegregation order by sending US Army troops to Little Rock, Arkansas to protect the "Little Rock Nine" students' entry to school. Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14 1890 – March 28 1969 was President of the United States from 1953 until 1961 and a five-star general Little Rock is the Capital and the most populous city of the U The Little Rock Nine was a group of African-American students who were enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in 1957 Governor Orval Faubus had mobilized troops from the Arkansas National Guard to prevent the students' entry. For the National Guard of a State and other countries' National Guard see National Guard. Eisenhower federalized the National Guard, as he had the authority to do, and also used the US Army to ensure that the federal mandate was carried out at Little Rock Central High School. Little Rock Central High School is a secondary school Central is located at the intersection of Daisy L Eisenhower thus set a precedent for the Executive Branch to enforce Supreme Court rulings related to racial integration.
Racial integration expanded as a result of the Civil Rights Movement. The best-known spokesman for racial integration during the Civil Rights era was Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.. Martin Luther King Jr ( January 15, 1929 April 4, 1968) was an American clergyman, Activist and prominent leader As a result of the movement, most of the legal basis for racial segregation were removed. The primary barriers to racial integration remained social and cultural, which were more difficult to change. The United States remains somewhat segregated in housing patterns, although far less so than previously, and quite segregated religiously.
Beginning in Philadelphia after the American Revolution, the African-American community created a separate system of religious denominations, in part because of discrimination. Until after decades of the Great Migration, the overwhelming number of African Americans lived in the South. The black churches grew after the Civil War because freedmen wanted their own organizations. The churches were also an expression of a distinct African-American spirituality. Since then, blacks developed their own churches within nearly all of the leading Protestant denominations. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. With the expansion of the Pentecostal and community church movements, there has been an increase in non-denominational racially integrated churches. Pentecostalism is a renewalist religious movement within Christianity that places special emphasis on the direct personal experience of God through the Baptism
In Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education (1971), the Supreme Court ruled unanimously that forced busing of students may be ordered to achieve racial desegregation. Swann v Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, 402 US 1 ( 1971) was an important United States Supreme Court case dealing with the Desegregation busing in the United States (also known as forced busing or busing) is the practice of attempting to integrate schools by assigning students to However, such court-enforced school desegregation efforts have decreased over time.
A major decline in manufacturing in northern cities, with a shift of jobs to suburbs, the South and overseas, has led shifts in numbers of residents of all races increasing in suburbs, plus major shifts in population from the North to the Southwest and South. Left behind in many northern and midwestern inner cities have been the poorest blacks and other minorities. According to Jonathan Kozol, in the early 21st century U. Jonathan Kozol (born September 5, 1936 in Boston Massachusetts) is a non-fiction writer educator and activist best known for his books on Public S. schools have again become as segregated as in the late 1960s. 
According to the Civil Rights Project at Harvard University, the desegregation of U. S. public schools peaked in 1988; since then, schools have become more segregated. As of 2005, the proportion of Black students at majority white schools was at "a level lower than in any year since 1968. " 
Some critics of school desegregation have argued that court-enforced desegregation efforts were either unnecessary or self-defeating. Numerous middle-class and wealthy white people continued moving from cities to suburbs during the 1970s and later, in part to escape certain integrated school systems, but also as part of a suburbanization of the society, caused by movement of jobs to suburbs, continuing state and Federal support for expansion of highways, and changes in the economy.
Sociologist David Armor in court testimony and in his book Forced Justice: School Desegregation and the Law (1995) said that efforts to change the racial compositions of schools had not contributed substantially to academic achievement by minorities. Carl L. Bankston III and Stephen J. Caldas, in their books A Troubled Dream: The Promise and Failure of School Desegregation in Louisiana (2002) and Forced to Fail: The Paradox of School Desegregation (2005), argued that continuing racial inequality in the larger American society had undermined efforts to force schools to desegregate. They maintained that racial inequality had resulted in popular associations between school achievement and race. Therefore, the achievement levels of American schools were generally associated with their class and racial compositions. This meant that even parents without racial prejudice tended to seek middle class or better residential neighborhoods in seeking the best schools for their children. As a result, efforts to impose court-ordered desegregation often led to school districts in which there were too few white students for effective desegregation, as white students increasingly left for majority white suburban districts or for private schools.
The increasing diversity of American society has led to more complex issues related to school and ethnic proportion. In the 1994 federal court case Ho v. San Francisco Unified School District, parents of Chinese-American schoolchildren alleged that racial caps under a 1983 consent decree constituted racial discrimination in violation of the U. Ho v San Francisco Unified School District was a 1994 lawsuit by the Asian American Legal Foundation challenging the use of Racial quotas limiting the enrollment of Chinese-Americans Chinese Americans ( Chinese: 华裔美国人 are Americans of Chinese descent S. Constitution’s Equal Protection Clause. The desegregation plan did not allow any school to enroll more than 50 percent of any ethnic group. Originally intended to aid integration of African Americans, the ruling had a perverse effect on the admissions of Chinese students, who had become the largest ethnic group in the district. Asians of all ethnicities comprise more than 50 percent of students in the early 21st century.
Articles in the newspaper Asian Week documented the Chinese American parents' challenge. AsianWeek is a widely circulated publication of pan-Asian news across all Asian ethnic groups providing coverage of Asian American issues such as the killing of Vincent Since Chinese Americans were already nearly half the student population, the consent decree had the effect of requiring competitive Lowell high school to apply much higher academic admission standards for Chinese-American students than other students. The civil rights group Chinese for Affirmative Action, led by Henry Der, sided with the school district. Chinese for Affirmative Action (CAA is a San Francisco -based advocacy organization They argued that such standards were not harmful to Chinese Americans, and were necessary to avoid resegregation of schools. In effect, a ruling designed to eliminate discrimination against African Americans had instead created a situation in which Chinese American students could be discriminated against. Similarly, an organization dedicated to the elimination of discrimination against Chinese found itself supporting a policy that resulted in such discrimination. In 2006, Chinese parents continued to protest race-based school assignments. 
The best means for achieving desegregated schools in a society divided by class and, in many areas, ethnic groups, continues to be a matter of debate and disagreement.