Desalination, desalinization, or desalinisation refers to any of several processes that remove excess salt and other minerals from water. For sodium chloride in the diet see Salt. Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or Halite, is a A mineral is a naturally occurring substance formed through geological processes that has a characteristic chemical composition a highly ordered atomic structure and specific Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. Desalination may also refer to the removal of salts and minerals more generally, as in soil desalination, but the focus of this article is on water desalination. Salinity control relates to controlling the problem of soil salinity and reclaiming salinized agricultural land
Water is desalinated in order to be converted to fresh water suitable for consumption or irrigation, or, if almost all of the salt is removed, for human consumption. Irrigation is an artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus Sometimes the process produces table salt as a by-product. For sodium chloride in the diet see Salt. Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or Halite, is a A by-product is a secondary or incidental product deriving from a Manufacturing process a Chemical reaction or a biochemical pathway and is not the primary product It is used on many ships and submarines. A ship /ʃɪp/ is a large vessel that floats on water Ships are generally distinguished from Boats based on size A submarine is a Watercraft that can operate independently below water as distinct from a Submersible that has only limited underwater capability Most of the modern interest in desalination is focused on developing cost-effective ways of providing fresh water for human use in regions where the availability of water is limited.
Large-scale desalination typically requires large amounts of energy as well as specialized, expensive infrastructure, making it very costly compared to the use of fresh water from rivers or groundwater. Groundwater is Water located beneath the Ground surface in Soil pore spaces and in the Fractures of lithologic formations The large energy reserves of many Middle Eastern countries, along with their relative water scarcity, have led to extensive construction of desalination in this region. Saudi Arabia's desalination plants account for about 24% of total world capacity. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi
The world's largest desalination plant is the Jebel Ali Desalination Plant (Phase 2) in the United Arab Emirates. Jebel Ali (جبل علي is a Port town located 35 Kilometres southwest of the city of Dubai in the United Arab Emirates (UAE It is a dual-purpose facility that uses multi-stage flash distillation and is capable of producing 300 million cubic meters (243,000 acre feet) of water per year. CM3 redirects here If you were looking for the 3rd game in the Cooking Mama series abbreviated as CM3 see here. An acre-foot is a unit of Volume commonly used in the United States in reference to large-scale water resources such as reservoirs, Aqueducts  The largest desalination plant in the United States is located in Tampa Bay, Florida, which began desalinating 34. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Tampa Bay is a large natural Harbor and Estuary along the Gulf of Mexico on the western coast of Florida, comprising Old Tampa Bay Florida ( is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States, bordering Alabama to the northwest and Georgia to the 7 million cubic meters (28,740 acre feet) of water per year in December 2007. An acre-foot is a unit of Volume commonly used in the United States in reference to large-scale water resources such as reservoirs, Aqueducts  The Tampa Bay plant runs at around 12% the output of the Jebel Ali Desalination Plants. A January 17, 2008, article in the Wall Street Journal states, "World-wide, 13,080 desalination plants produce more than 12 billion U. Events 38 BC - Octavian marries Livia Drusilla. 1287 - King Alfonso III of Aragon invades Minorca 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common S. gallons (45,000,000 m³) of water a day, according to the International Desalination Association. " 
As of July 2004, the two leading methods were reverse osmosis (47. Distillation is a method of separating Mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture Multi-stage flash distillation (MSF is a Desalination process that distills Sea water by flashing a portion of the water into steam in multiple stages A multiple-effect evaporator, as defined in Chemical engineering, is an apparatus for efficiently using the heat from Steam to evaporate water Vapor-compression evaporation is the Evaporation method by which a Blower, compressor or jet ejector is used to compress, and thus increase Evaporation is the process by which Molecules in a Liquid state (e Condensation is the change of the physical state of aggregation (or simply state of matter from gaseous phase into liquid phase Ion exchange is an exchange of Ions between two Electrolytes or between an electrolyte Solution and a complex. Membrane operation or membrane process is considered like a unit operation in Chemical engineering. EDR desalination is an Electrodialysis reversal Desalination membrane process that has been commercially used since the early 1960s Reverse osmosis (RO is a separation process that uses pressure to force a Solution through a membrane that retains the Solute on one side and allows the Nanofiltration is a relatively recent membrane process used most often with low Total dissolved solids water such as Surface water and fresh groundwater with the Forward Osmosis is an osmotic process that like Reverse osmosis, uses a Semi-permeable membrane to effect Separation of Water from For freezing as a method of food preservation see Frozen food. Geothermal desalination is a proven process under development for the production of Fresh water using heat energy. The solar humidification-dehumidification method (HDH is a thermal Desalination method Methane clathrate, also called methane hydrate or methane ice, is a solid form of water that contains a large amount of Methane within its Crystal Reclaimed water, sometimes called recycled water, is former Wastewater (sewage that has been treated to remove solids and certain impurities and then allowed The Seawater Greenhouse is an established technology with the potential to create surplus fresh water from Seawater, using a novel form of Greenhouse that also provides 2% of installed capacity world-wide) and multi-stage flash (36. 5%).  The traditional process used in these operations is vacuum distillation—essentially the boiling of water at less than atmospheric pressure and thus a much lower temperature than normal. Vacuum distillation is a method of Distillation whereby the pressure above the liquid mixture to be distilled is reduced to less than its Vapor pressure (usually This is because the boiling of a liquid occurs when the vapor pressure equals the ambient pressure and vapor pressure increases with temperature. Vapor pressure (also known as equilibrium vapor pressure or saturation vapor pressure) is the Pressure of a Vapor in equilibrium Thus, because of the reduced temperature, energy is saved.
In the last decade, membrane processes have grown very fast, and most new facilities use reverse osmosis technology. Reverse osmosis (RO is a separation process that uses pressure to force a Solution through a membrane that retains the Solute on one side and allows the Membrane processes use semi-permeable membranes and pressure to separate salts from water. Membrane systems typically use less energy than thermal distillation, which has led to a reduction in overall desalination costs over the past decade. Desalination remains energy intensive, however, and future costs will continue to depend on the price of both energy and desalination technology.
Cogeneration is the process of using excess heat from power production to accomplish another task. Energy recycling Cogeneration (also combined heat and power, CHP) is the use of a Heat engine or a Power station to simultaneously generate both In the sense of desalination, cogeneration is the production of potable water from seawater or brackish groundwater in an integrated, or "dual-purpose", facility in which a power plant is used as the source of energy for the desalination process. Water of sufficient quality to serve as drinking water is termed potable water whether it is used for drinking or not The facility’s energy production may be dedicated entirely to the production of potable water (a stand-alone facility), or excess energy may be produced and incorporated into the energy grid (a true cogeneration facility). There are various forms of cogeneration, and theoretically any form of energy production could be used. However, the majority of current and planned cogeneration desalination plants use either fossil fuels or nuclear power as their source of energy. Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source Fuels that is Hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the Earth’s crust. Nuclear power is any Nuclear technology designed to extract usable Energy from atomic nuclei via controlled Nuclear reactions Most plants are located in the Middle East or North Africa, due to their petroleum resources and subsidies. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan The advantage of dual-purpose facilities is that they can be more efficient in energy consumption, thus making desalination a more viable option for drinking water in areas of scarce water resources. 
In a December 26, 2007 opinion column in the The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, Nolan Hertel, a professor of nuclear and radiological engineering at Georgia Tech, wrote, ". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution is the only major daily Newspaper in Atlanta Georgia, USA and its suburbs. The Georgia Institute of Technology, commonly known as Georgia Tech, or Tech, is a public, Coeducational Research university in . . nuclear reactors can be used. . . to produce large amounts of potable water. The process is already in use in a number of places around the world, from India to Japan and Russia. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Eight nuclear reactors coupled to desalination plants are operating in Japan alone. . . nuclear desalination plants could be a source of large amounts of potable water transported by pipelines hundreds of miles inland. . . "
Additionally, the current trend in dual-purpose facilities is hybrid configurations, in which the permeate from an RO desalination component is mixed with distillate from thermal desalination. Basically, two or more desalination processes are combined along with power production. The advantage to hybrid configurations is two qualities, such facilities have already been implemented in Saudi Arabia at Jeddah and Yambu-Medina. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi Jeddah (also spelled Jiddah, Jidda, or Jedda; جدّة Ǧiddah) is a Saudi Arabian city located on the coast of the 
A number of factors determine the capital and operating costs for desalination: capacity and type of facility, location, feed water, labor, energy, financing and concentrate disposal. Desalination stills now control pressure, temperature and brine concentrations to optimize the water extraction efficiency. Nuclear-powered desalination might be economical on a large scale, and there is a pilot plant in the former USSR. Nuclear power is any Nuclear technology designed to extract usable Energy from atomic nuclei via controlled Nuclear reactions The fast breeder or fast breeder reactor ( FBR) is a Fast neutron reactor designed to breed fuel by producing more Fissile material 
Critics point to the high costs of desalination technologies, especially for developing countries, the impracticability and cost of transporting or piping massive amounts of desalinated seawater throughout the interiors of large countries, and the byproduct of concentrated seawater, which some environmentalists have claimed "is a major cause of marine pollution when dumped back into the oceans at high temperatures"
It should be noted that typically the reverse osmosis technology that is used to desalinate water does not produce this "hot water" as a byproduct. Additionally, depending on the prevailing currents of receiving waters, the seawater concentrate byproduct can be diluted and dispersed to background levels within relatively short distances of the ocean outlet.
While noting that costs are falling, and generally positive about the technology for affluent areas that are proximate to oceans, one study argues that "Desalinated water may be a solution for some water-stress regions, but not for places that are poor, deep in the interior of a continent, or at high elevation. Unfortunately, that includes some of the places with biggest water problems. " and "Indeed, one needs to lift the water by 2000 m, or transport it over more than 1600 km to get transport costs equal to the desalination costs. Thus, it may be more economical to transport fresh water from somewhere else than to desalinate it. In places far from the sea, like New Delhi, or in high places, like Mexico City, high transport costs would add to the high desalination costs. Desalinated water is also expensive in places that are both somewhat far from the sea and somewhat high, such as Riyadh and Harare. In places close to the ocean, the dominant cost is desalination, not transport; the process would therefore be less expensive in places like Beijing, Bangkok, Zaragoza, Phoenix, and, of course, coastal cities like Tripoli. " After being desalinized at Jubail, Saudi Arabia, water is pumped 200 miles (320 km) inland though a pipeline to the capital city of Riyadh. Jubail ( Arabic: "الجبيل" Al Jubayl) is a city in the Eastern province on the Persian Gulf coast of Saudi The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi Riyadh ( الرياض Ar-Riyāḍ) is the Capital of Saudi Arabia and its largest city  For cities on the coast, desalination is being increasingly viewed as an untapped and unlimited water source.
Israel is now desalinizing water at a cost of US$0. 53 per cubic meter.  Singapore is desalinizing water for US$0. 49 per cubic meter.  Many large coastal cities in developed countries are considering the feasibility of seawater desalination, due to its cost effectiveness compared with other water supply options, which can include mandatory installation of rainwater tanks or stormwater harvesting infrastructure. Studies have shown that desalination is among the most cost-effective options for boosting water supply in major Australian state capitals. The city of Perth has been successfully operating a reverse osmosis seawater desalination plant since 2006, and the West Australian government has announced that a second plant will be built to service the city's needs. Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia. A desalination plant is to be built in Australia's largest city, Sydney, and Wonthaggi, Victoria in the near future. Sydney (ˈsɪdniː is the most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 4 
The Perth desalination plant is powered partially by renewable energy from the Emu Downs Wind Farm. The 792 MW Emu Downs Wind Farm ( is a joint development between Stanwell Corporation and Griffin Energy and construction of the $180 million project commenced in The Sydney plant will be powered entirely from renewable sources, thereby eliminating harmful greenhouse gas emissions to the environment, a common argument used against seawater desalination due to the energy requirements of the technology. The purchase or production of renewable energy to power desalination plants naturally adds to the capital and/or operating costs of desalination. However, recent experience in Perth and Sydney indicates that the additional cost is acceptable to communities, as a city may then augment its water supply without doing environmental harm to the atmosphere. The Gold Coast desalination plant will be powered entirely from fossil fuels and at a time when the coal fired power stations have significantly reduced capacity due to the drought. At a rate of over 4 kWh per cubic meter to produce this will be the most expensive source of water in Australia.
In December of 2007 the South Australian Government announced that it would build a seawater desalination plant for the city of Adelaide, Australia located at Port Stanvac. Lonsdale is an industrial suburb of Adelaide, South Australia. The desalination plant is to be funded by raising water rates to achieve full cost recovery.   An online, unscientific poll showed that nearly 60% of votes cast were in favor of raising water rates to pay for desalination. 
A January 17, 2008 article in the Wall. Events 38 BC - Octavian marries Livia Drusilla. 1287 - King Alfonso III of Aragon invades Minorca St. Journal states, "In November, Connecticut-based Poseidon Resources Corp. won a key regulatory approval to build a [US]$300 million water-desalination plant in Carlsbad, north of San Diego. Carlsbad or Karlsbad is a German placename meaning "Charles's spa" The facility would be the largest in the Western Hemisphere, producing 50 million [U. S. ] gallons [190,000 m³] of drinking water a day, enough to supply about 100,000 homes. . . Improved technology has cut the cost of desalination in half in the past decade, making it more competitive. . . Poseidon plans to sell the water for about [US]$950 per acre-foot [1200 m³]. An acre-foot is a unit of Volume commonly used in the United States in reference to large-scale water resources such as reservoirs, Aqueducts That compares with an average [US]$700 an acre-foot [1200 m³] that local agencies now pay for water. "  $1,000 per acre-foot works out to $3. 06 for 1,000 gallons, which is the unit of water measurement that residential water users are accustomed to being billed in. 
According to a May 9, 2008 article in Forbes, a San Leandro, California company called Energy Recovery has been desalinizing water for US$0. Forbes is an American Publishing and media company Its flagship publication Forbes magazine is published bi-weekly San Leandro is a city in Alameda County, California, United States. 46 per cubic meter. 
According to a June 5, 2008 article in Globe and Mail, a Jordanian born chemical engineering Ph. The Globe and Mail is a Canadian English language nationally distributed Newspaper, based in Toronto and printed in six cities D. student at the University of Ottawa named Mohammed Rasool Qtaisha has invented a new desalination technology that is alleged to be between 600% and 700% more efficient than current technology. For the university in Ottawa Kansas see Ottawa University. The University of Ottawa or Université d'Ottawa in French According to the article, General Electric is looking into similar technology, and the U. S. National Science Foundation announced a grant to the University of Michigan to study it as well. The National Science Foundation (NSF is a United States Government agency that supports fundamental Research and Education in all the non-medical The University of Michigan Ann Arbor ( U of M, U-M, UM or simply Michigan) is a top-ranked Coeducational public research Because the patents were still being worked out, the article was very vague about the details of this alleged technology. 
One of the main environmental considerations of ocean water desalination plants is the impact of the open ocean water intakes, especially when co-located with power plants. A power station (also referred to as generating station, power plant or powerhouse) is an industrial facility for the generation of Many proposed ocean desalination plants initial plans relied on these intakes despite perpetuating ongoing huge impacts on marine life. In the United States, due to a recent court ruling under the Clean Water Act these intakes are no longer viable without reducing mortality by ninety percent of the life in the ocean; the plankton, fish eggs and fish larvae. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Clean Water Act is the primary Federal law in the United States governing Water pollution. Plankton consist of any drifting Organisms ( Animals Plants Archaea, or Bacteria) that inhabit the Pelagic zone of  There are alternatives including beach wells that eliminate this concern, but require more energy and higher costs while limiting output.  Other environmental concerns include air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from the power plants that provide electricity and/or thermal energy to the desalination plants. Air pollution is the human introduction into the atmosphere of Chemicals Particulate matter, or Biological materials that cause harm or discomfort Greenhouse gases are gaseous constituents of the atmosphere bothnatural and anthropogenic that absorb and emit radiation at specific wavelengths within the spectrum of thermal infrared
Regardless of the method used, there is always a highly concentrated waste product consisting of everything that was removed from the created fresh water. Freshwater is a word that refers to bodies of water such as Ponds lakes rivers and streams containing low concentrations of dissolved Salts and other Total dissolved This is sometimes referred to as brine, which is also a common term for the byproduct of recycled water schemes that is often disposed of in the ocean. Brine (lat saltus) is Water saturated or nearly saturated with Salt (NaCl These concentrates are classified by the United States Environmental Protection Agency as industrial wastes. Industrial waste is a type of waste produced by industrial activity, such as that of factories, mills and mines. With coastal facilities, it may be possible to return it to the sea without harm if this concentrate does not exceed the normal ocean salinity gradients to which osmoregulators are accustomed. Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the Osmotic pressure of bodily fluids to maintain the Homeostasis of the body's Water content that is it keeps Reverse osmosis, for instance, may require the disposal of wastewater with salinity twice that of normal seawater. The benthic community cannot accommodate such an extreme change in salinity and many filter-feeding animals would be destroyed when the water is returned to the ocean. Benthos are the organisms which live on in or near the Seabed, also known as the Benthic zone. This presents an increasing problem further inland, where one needs to avoid ruining existing fresh water supplies such as ponds, rivers and aquifers. As such, proper disposal of concentrate needs to be investigated during the design phases.
To limit the environmental impact of returning the brine to the ocean, it can be diluted with another stream of water entering the ocean, such as the outfall of a wastewater treatment plant or power plant. Wastewater treatment plant also called wastewater treatment works Sewage treatment – treatment and disposal of human waste While seawater power plant cooling water outfalls are not freshwater like wastewater treatment plant outfalls, the salinity of the brine will still be reduced. If the power plant is medium to large sized and the desalination plant is not enormous, the flow of the power plant's cooling water is likely to be at least several times larger than that of the desalination plant. Another method to reduce the increase in salinity is to spread the brine over a very large area so that there is only a slight increase in salinity. For example, once the pipeline containing the brine reaches the sea floor, it can split off into many branches, each one releasing the brine gradually along its length through small holes. This method can be used in combination with the joining of the brine with power plant or wastewater plant outfalls.
The concentrated seawater has the potential to harm ecosystems, especially marine environments in regions with low turbidity and high evaporation that already have elevated salinity. An ecosystem is a natural unit consisting of all plants animals and micro-organisms( Biotic factors in an area functioning together with all of the non-living physical ( Examples of such locations are the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea and, in particular, coral lagoons of atolls and other tropical islands around the world. The Persian Gulf, in the Southwest Asian region is an extension of the The Red Sea is a Salt water Inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. Corals are Marine organisms from the class Anthozoa and exist as small Sea anemone –like Polyps typically in colonies of many A lagoon is a body of comparatively shallow salt or Brackish water separated from the deeper Sea by a shallow or exposed sandbank, coral An atoll (pronounced /ˈætʌl/ is an island of Coral that encircles a Lagoon partially or completely The Tropics are centered on the Equator and limited in Latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere at approximately 23°26' (23 Because the brine is more dense than the surrounding sea water due to the higher solute concentration, discharge into water bodies means that the ecosystems on the bed of the water body are most at risk because the brine sinks and remains there long enough to damage the ecosystems. Careful re-introduction can minimize this problem. For example, for the desalination plant and ocean outlet structures to be built in Sydney from late 2007, the water authority states that the ocean outlets will be placed in locations at the seabed that will maximize the dispersal of the concentrated seawater, such that it will be indistinguishable from normal seawater between 50 meters and 75 meters from the outlet points. Sydney is fortunate to have typical oceanographic conditions off the coast that allow for such rapid dilution of the concentrated byproduct, thereby minimizing harm to the environment.
In Perth, Australia, in 2007, a wind powered desalination plant was opened. The Kwinana Desalination Plant, located just south of Perth Western Australia, turns water from the Indian Ocean into nearly 140000 m3 The water is sucked in from the ocean at only 0. 1 meter per second, which is slow enough to let fish escape. The plant provides nearly 140,000 m³ of clean water per day. 
Increased water conservation and water use efficiency remain the most cost effective priority for supplying water. Water conservation refers to reducing the use of water The goals of water conservation efforts include Sustainability - To ensure availability for  While comparing ocean water desalination to wastewater reclamation for drinking water shows desalination as the first option, using reclamation for irrigation and industrial use provides multiple benefits.  Urban runoff and storm water capture also provide multiple benefits in treating, restoring and recharging groundwater. 
In the past many novel desalination techniques have been researched with varying degrees of success. Some are still on the drawing board now while others have attracted research funding. For example, to offset the energy requirements of desalination, the U. S. Government is working to develop practical solar desalination. Solar desalination is a technique to desalinate Water using Solar energy.
As an example of newer theoretical approaches for desalination, focusing specifically on maximizing energy efficiency and cost effectiveness, we may consider the Passarell Process.
Other approaches involve the use of geothermal energy. An example would be the work being done by SDSU CITI International Consortium for Advanced Technologies and Security. History Established on March 13 1897 San Diego State University first began as the San Diego Normal School intended to educate local future female elementary school teachers  From an environmental and economic point of view, in most locations geothermal desalination can be preferable to using fossil groundwater or surface water for human needs, as in many regions the available surface and groundwater resources already have long been under severe stress. Geothermal desalination is a proven process under development for the production of Fresh water using heat energy.
Recent research in the U. S. indicates that nanotube membranes may prove to be extremely effective for water filtration and may produce a viable water desalination process that would require substantially less energy than reverse osmosis. Nanotube membranes are films composed of open-ended Nanotubes that are oriented perpendicularly to the surface of an impermeable film matrix like the cells of a Honeycomb