A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. An English Noun The English noun people has two distinct fields of application as a countable noun, a group of Humans In English, a demonym is often the same as the name of the people's native language: e. g. , the "French" (people from France). Legal residents and citizens To be French according to the first article of the Constitution is to be a citizen of France regardless of one's origin race or religion ( This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The word comes from the Greek word for 'populace' (δῆμος demos) plus the suffix -onym and was popularized in 1997 by Merriam-Webster editor Paul Dickson in his book Labels for Locals. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly DEMOS (meaning "Dialogovaya Edinaya Mobilnaya Operatsionnaya Sistema" (Диалоговая Единая Мобильная Операционная Система ДЕМОС Merriam-Webster, which was originally the G & C Merriam Company of Springfield Massachusetts, is an American company that publishes reference books  The term is not widely employed or known outside geographical circles and does not appear in mainstream dictionaries. It is used by some geographers, both online and within their studies and teaching. 
The dictionary aggregation site OneLook. com only finds the word in Wikipedia, Wiktionary, and The Word Spy, and not in any print dictionaries.  The alternative gentilic is even less frequently used, and only two references can be found through OneLook. com, both citing Wikipedia as the source, one of the citations being this page. 
Some places, particularly smaller cities and towns, may not have an established word for their residents; toponymists have a particular challenge in researching these. Toponymy refers to the scientific study of place-names ( toponyms) their origins meanings use and Typology. See also ethnonym. An ethnonym ( Gk έθνος ethnos, 'tribe' + όνομα onoma, 'name' is the name applied to a given Ethnic group.
While many demonyms are derived from placenames, many countries are named for their inhabitants: Germany for the Germans, Thailand for the Thais, Denmark for the Danes.
France is named for the Franks, a German tribe who conquered the former Roman province of Gaul.
Some placenames originated as adjectives. In such cases the placename and the demonym often are the same word, sometimes specialized in form.
This dual function is very common in French, where for example Lyonnais means either the region or an inhabitant of Lyon. ||-||} Lyon, also known as Lyons in English is a city in east-central France.
The English language uses several models to create demonyms. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States The most common is to add a suffix to the end of the location's name, slightly modified in some instances. An affix is a Morpheme that is attached to a stem to form a word These may be modelled after Late Latin, Semitic or Germanic suffixes, such as:
There are many irregular demonyms for recently formed entities, such as those in the New World. For other uses see Monaco (disambiguation Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco ( French: Principauté de Monaco; Monégasque Menton (mɑ̃tɔ̃ Occitan: Menton in classical norm or Mentan in Mistralian norm Italian: Mentone) is a commune The New World is one of the names used for the non-Eurasian/non-African parts of the Earth specifically the Americas and Australia. There are other demonyms which are borrowed from the native or another language.
In some cases, both the location's name and the demonym are produced by suffixation, for example England and English and English(wo)man (derived from the Angle tribe). In some cases the derivation is concealed enough that it is no longer morphemic: France → French (or Frenchman/Frenchwoman) or Flanders → Flemish or Wales → Welsh. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Flanders (Vlaanderen Flandre Flandern is a geographical region located in parts of present day Belgium, France, and the Netherlands.
In some of the latter cases the noun is formed by adding -man or -woman (English/Englishman/Englishwoman; Irish/Irishman/Irishwoman; Chinese/Chinese man/Chinese woman, versus the archaic or derogatory terms Chinaman/Chinawoman). The English people (from the adjective in Englisc) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to England who predominantly speak English The Irish people ( Irish: Muintir na hÉireann, na hÉireannaigh, na Gaeil) are a Western European Ethnic group who originate The Irish people ( Irish: Muintir na hÉireann, na hÉireannaigh, na Gaeil) are a Western European Ethnic group who originate The term Chinese people may refer to any of the following A person who resides in and holds citizenship of the People's Republic of China (including Hong Chinaman is a term that refers to a Chinese man It was not defined as offensive by older dictionaries
In the case of most Canadian provinces and territories and U.S. states, it is unusual to use demonyms as attributive adjectives (for example "Manitoba maple", not "Manitoban maple"); thus they are generally used only predicatively ("Ben Franklin was Pennsylvanian") or substantively ("Eight Virginians have become Presidents of the United States. Exeter ( (IPA ˈeksɪtər is a city, district and County town of Devon, England. See also Halifax Nova Scotia See also Halifax Regional Municipality municipal election 2008 Halifax Regional Municipality is the capital Halifax Nova Scotia may refer to any of the following Municipalities Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM a Regional municipality and Melbourne ( is the second most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 3 Melburnian is the term used to describe a resident of Melbourne, Australia. Newcastle upon Tyne ( (often shortened to Newcastle) is a city and Metropolitan borough of Tyne and Wear, England Newcastle upon Tyne ( (often shortened to Newcastle) is a city and Metropolitan borough of Tyne and Wear, England Naples ( Napoli, Neapolitan: Nàpule) is a historic City in southern Italy, the Capital of the The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University) located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University) located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the An Oxonian is a member (or former member of the University of Oxford, England. (ڪراچي) is the largest city in Pakistan. It is the world's second largest city proper behind Mumbai in terms of population which exceeds 10 million Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and The University of St Andrews is the oldest University in Scotland and third oldest in the English-speaking world, having been founded between Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Latin script: Bosna i Hercegovina, Cyrillic script: Босна и Херцеговина is a country on the Balkan Bosnian language (Bosnian bosanski jezik) sometimes referred as Bosniak language or Bosniac language is a South Slavic language native Burkina Faso (bɚˌkiːnəˈfɑːsoʊ burr-KEE-na FAH-soh) also known by its short-form name Burkina, is a Landlocked nation in West Africa Burkina Faso (bɚˌkiːnəˈfɑːsoʊ burr-KEE-na FAH-soh) also known by its short-form name Burkina, is a Landlocked nation in West Africa Colchester ( /ˈkəʊltʃɛstə/ is a town and the largest settlement within the borough of Colchester, in Essex, England. Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. The terms Finns and Finnish people ( Finnish: suomalaiset, Swedish: finländare) are used in English to Swedish ( is a North Germanic language spoken by more than nine million people predominantly in Sweden and parts of Finland, especially along the Glasgow (ˈglæzgoʊ is the largest city in Scotland and third most populous in the United Kingdom Glasgow (ˈglæzgoʊ is the largest city in Scotland and third most populous in the United Kingdom Karnataka (ಕರ್ನಾಟಕ pronounced) is a state in the southern part of India Kannadiga ( Kannada: ಕನ್ನಡಿಗ | masculine|) or Kannadati ( Kannada: ಕನ್ನಡತಿ | feminine|) refers to populations Kosovo has an estimated population of 21 million (as of 2007 The dominant ethnic group is Albanian (92% with significant minorities of Serbs and others Albanian (sq ''Gjuha shqipe'' ˈɟuha ˈʃcipɛ is an Indo-European language spoken by nearly 6 million peoplewhile others claim that it derives from Daco - Liverpool ( is a City and Metropolitan borough of Merseyside, England along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary Liverpool ( is a City and Metropolitan borough of Merseyside, England along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary Hartlepool ('hɑːtlɪpuːl is a North Sea port in North East England Lviv ( Ukrainian: Львів, L’viv, Lwów Lemberg Львов L'vov; see also other names) is a major city in western ||-||} Lyon, also known as Lyons in English is a city in east-central France. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Mumbai ( Marathi:,, IPA: formerly Bombay, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra and the financial Mumbaikar is the Marathi word to signify a resident of Mumbai. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Dutch ( is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people 22 million of which are from the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname Middle Dutch is a collective name for a number of closely related West Germanic dialects (whose ancestor was Old Dutch) which were spoken and written between 1150 Dietsch ( "Diets" in modern Dutch) is a colloquial word for the Middle Dutch language. The Netherlands is known under various terms both in English and other languages. Nice (nis Niçard Occitan: Niça norm or Nissa, Italian: Nizza or Nizza Marittima, Greek Niçoise salad (niˡswaz sometimes referred to as Salade niçoise or insalata nizzarda, is a type of Salad. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Pegswood is a former coal mining village in Northumberland, England. Quebec (kwɨˈbɛk A Québécois or Quebecois (pronounced) or in the feminine Québécoise (pronounced) (plural Québécoises) is a native or resident of the French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية šibh al-jazīra al-ʻarabīya or جزيرة العرب jazīrat al-ʻarab) The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between Croats (Hrvati are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe The term Dane may refer to People with a Danish ancestral or ethnic identity whether living in Denmark, emigrants or the descendants of emigrants Flanders (Vlaanderen Flandre Flandern is a geographical region located in parts of present day Belgium, France, and the Netherlands. Flemish (Vlaams in Dutch) is a popular informal term to refer to Belgian Dutch ( Belgisch-Nederlands in Dutch Dutch as spoken in Belgium Madagascar, or Republic of Madagascar (older name Malagasy Republic) is an Island nation in the Indian Ocean off the southeastern Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj The Thai (or Tai) are the main ethnic group of Thailand and are part of the larger Tai ethnolinguistic peoples found in Thailand and adjacent countries The provinces and territories of Canada combine to make up the world's second largest country in total area. A US state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the United States of America that share Sovereignty with the federal government Benjamin Franklin ( April 17 1790 was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States of America. The Pennsylvanian is a subperiod of the Carboniferous period lasting from roughly   to  Ma (million years ago The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by ") There are some exceptions – the attributive adjective for Alaska is widely held to be Alaskan and in addition, to a less than universal degree, exceptions exist especially with respect to Alberta (Albertan), Texas (Texan) and Hawaii (Hawaiian). Alaska ( Аляска Alyaska) is a state in the United States of America, in the northwest of the North American continent Alberta (ælˈbɝtə is one of Canada's prairie provinces. It became a province on September 1 1905 Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. The State of Hawaii ( or həˈwaɪʔiː Hawaiian: Mokuāina o Hawaii) is a state in the United States located on an Archipelago in the
According to Webster's New International Dictionary, 1993, a person who is a native or resident of Connecticut is a "Connecticuter," although many prefer the more graceful "Connecticutian. " Nutmegger is also used. Nutmegger is a nickname for people from the state of Connecticut.
Some regions and populaces also have double forms, as the concepts of nation and state are diverging once more. Florida ( is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States, bordering Alabama to the northwest and Georgia to the The following are some notable people from the US state of Maryland, listed by field of endeavor The Commonwealth of Massachusetts ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States. This is a list of people from Massachusetts. It includes both people born in the state and people famous for association with it Michigan ( is a Midwestern state of the United States of America. Michigander is a Demonym for residents of the US state of Michigan. Michigander is a Demonym for residents of the US state of Michigan. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern Sydney (ˈsɪdniː is the most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 4 Sydney (ˈsɪdniː is the most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 4 Western Australia is a state occupying the entire western third of the Australian continent. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia. A nation is a Human Cultural and Social Community. In as much as most members never meet each other yet feel a common bond it may be considered A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. Hence, one whose genetic ancestors were from Britain is a Briton, whereas one with a passport from the country is considered British. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Franks settled France, but the citizens are French. The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group This may be the case for states which were formed or dissolved relatively recently. As in the examples below, another reason for double forms of demonyms may be in relation to historical, cultural or religious issues.
Due to the flexibility of the international system, the opposite is often also true, where one word might apply to multiple groups. The U.S. Department of State states that 98 percent of the Austrian population is ethnically German, while the CIA World Factbook contradicts this assertion by saying Austrians are a separate group (see Various terms used for Germans). The World Factbook ( ISSN; also known as the CIA World Factbook) is an annual publication of the Central Intelligence Agency of the There are many alternative ways to describe the people of Germany, though the official designated nationality as well as the standard Noun is German. A child born in the United States to a Turkish family would be considered American, both by law, and by much of the general populace; however, if the child had been born in Germany, the law, and many of the people, would consider him a Turk. Jus soli ( Latin for "right of the soil" or somewhat figuratively "right of the territory" or birthright citizenship, is a Right Jus sanguinis ( Latin for "right of blood" is a Social policy by which Nationality or Citizenship is not determined by place of birth Some countries go so far as to explicitly recognize a difference between citizenship and nationality, e. Nationality is a relationship between a Person and their State of Origin, Culture, association Affiliation and/or Loyalty g. , Russia. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending
Literature and science have created a wealth of demonyms that are not directly associated with a cultural group, such as Martian for hypothetical people of Mars (credited to scientist Percival Lowell), Jovian for those of Jupiter or its moons, Earthling (from the diminutive -ling, ultimately from Old English -ing meaning 'descendant') as a possible name for the people of Earth (as also "Terran" and "Terrene" and "terrestrial"), and Lilliputians from the island of Lilliput in the satire Gulliver's Travels. As an adjective the term "martian" is used to describe anything pertaining to the Planet Mars. Percival Lawrence Lowell ( March 13, 1855 – November 12, 1916) was a businessman author mathematician and Astronomer who fueled In Science fiction, a Jovian is an inhabitant of the planet Jupiter. Earthling refers to an individual of a Species originating from Earth. A diminutive is a formation of a Word used to convey a slight degree of the root meaning smallness of the object or quality named encapsulation intimacy or endearment Lilliput and Blefuscu are two fictional island nations that appear in the 1726 novel Gulliver's Travels by Jonathan Gulliver's Travels (1726 amended 1735 officially Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World in Four Parts Some of these, like Venusians for a putative resident of Venus, are technically incorrect; to conform with the Latin etymon, they should be Venerians. In Science fiction and Ufology, a Venusian is a native inhabitant of the Planet Venus. The VENUS ( V ictoria E xperimental N etwork U nder the S ea project is a cabled sea floor observatory operated by the University Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Etymology is the study of the History of Words &mdash when they entered a language from what source and how their form and meaning have changed over time
Some peoples, especially cultures that were overwhelmed by European colonists, have no commonly accepted demonym, or have a demonym that is the same as the name of their (current or historical) nation. Examples include Iroquois, Aztec, Māori, and Czech. The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the "League of Peace and Power" the "Five Nations" the "Six Nations" or the "People of the Longhouse Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political This article discusses the Māori people of New Zealand For their language see Māori language, and for other meanings see Māori (disambiguation. The Czech Republic ( ˈt͡ʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka short form in Česko ˈt͡ʃɛskɔ also called Czechia, Such peoples' native languages often have differentiated forms that simply did not survive the transfer to English. In Czech, for example, the language is Čeština, the nation is Česko or Česká republika, and the people are Češi. Czech (ˈʧɛk čeština ˈʧɛʃcɪna in Czech is a West Slavic language with about 12 million native speakers it is the majority language in the The Czech Republic ( ˈt͡ʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka short form in Česko ˈt͡ʃɛskɔ also called Czechia, Czechs (Češi ˈt͡ʃɛʃɪ archaic Čechové) are a western Slavic people of Central Europe, living predominantly in the Czech Republic
The most serious demonym dispute in the international arena is over the Macedonian identity. Greece has blocked the Republic of Macedonia's entry into NATO and threatens to veto their accession to the European Union over this naming dispute. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία The Republic of Macedonia (Република The North Atlantic Treaty The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Background See also Foreign relations of the Republic of Macedonia#Greece, Foreign relations of Greece#Balkans Controversy and conflict
Both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China officially adhere to the One-China policy, use "Chinese" to describe their nationals, and refuse to have diplomatic relations with states that recognize the other. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES The One-China policy ( is a principle that there is one China and that Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan are all part of Chinese identity is itself challenged within the ROC by Taiwanese nationalists.
Both North Korea and South Korea officially refer to their nationals simply as Koreans since they recognize a single nationhood even if they don't recognize each other. North Korea is the commonly used short form name for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (or DPRK) a State located in East Asia, South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː They have diplomatic relations with states that recognize their rival.
The demonym for citizens of the United States of America suffers a similar problem albeit non-politically, because "American" may ambiguously refer to both the USA and North and South America. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a United Statian is awkward in English, but it exists in Spanish (estadounidense), French (étatsunien(ne)), Portuguese (estado-unidense or estadunidense), Italian (statunitense), and also in Interlingua (statounitese). Interlingua is an International auxiliary language (IAL developed between 1937 and 1951 by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA US American (for the noun) and US-American (when used as a compound modifier preceding a noun) is another option, and is a common demonym in German (US-Amerikaner), though almost unheard of in English. Latin Americans (who are the most affected by this use of American) also have yanqui (Yankee) and the euphemism norteamericano/norte-americano (North American, which includes the USA, Mexico, Canada, and several other countries). The term Yankee, sometimes abbreviated to Yank, has a few related meanings often referring to someone of U A euphemism is a substitution of an agreeable or less offensive expression in place of one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener or in the case of doublespeak Frank Lloyd Wright proposed Usonian (which was taken over into Esperanto: country Usono, demonym Usonano, adjective usona). Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8 1867 &ndash April 9 1959 was an American (of Welsh descent Architect, Interior designer, Writer, and educator who is by far the most widely spoken constructed International auxiliary language in the world In the spirit of Sydneysider, Statesider is also a possibility. Sydney (ˈsɪdniː is the most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 4 See main article: Use of the word American. Use of the word American in the English language differs according to the historic geographic and political context in which it is used
The 2007 Miss Teen USA contestant Caitlin Upton, who gained international notoriety for her otherwise nonsensical response to a question posed during the pageant, referred to the people of the United States as "U. Miss Teen USA is a Beauty pageant run by the Miss Universe Organization for girls aged 15–19 Lauren Caitlin Upton (born March 27 1989 is an American fashion model and former beauty queen from Lexington South Carolina. S. Americans. "
Sharing a demonym does not necessarily bring conflict. During the 1996 Olympics, the residents of Atlanta, Georgia gave a rousing applause to the Republic of Georgia during the opening ceremony. The 1996 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXVI Olympiad and unofficially known as the Centennial Olympics, were an International Georgia ( საქართველო, Sakartvelo) is a Transcontinental country in the Caucasus region situated at the dividing line between Many cities that share the same name have sister city relations. The demonyms for the Caribbean nations Dominican Republic and Dominica, though pronounced differently, are spelled the same way, Dominican. The Dominican Republic ( Spanish: República Dominicana;) is a nation located in the Caribbean region and shares the island of Hispaniola with The Commonwealth of Dominica, commonly known as Dominica, is an Island nation in the Caribbean Sea. The former country's demonym is the ordinary English adjective "dominican", stressed on the second syllable. The demonym for Dominica, like the name of the country, is stressed on the third syllable: IPA: [ˌdɒmɪˈniːkən]. Another example is the Republic of the Congo and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The Republic of the Congo (République du Congo Kongo: Repubilika ya Kongo; Lingala: Republiki ya Kongó) also known as Congo-Brazzaville The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo often referred to as DR Congo, DRC or RDC, and formerly known or referred to Their nationals are both known as Congolese.