The Demographics of India are overall remarkably diverse. India's population of approximately 1. 13 billion people (estimate for March 10, 2008) comprises approximately one-sixth of the world's population. India is expected to overtake China by 2030 and will then be the most populated country in the world. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National  India has more than two thousand ethnic groups, and every major religion is represented, as are four major families of languages (Indo-European, Dravidian, Austro-Asiatic and Tibeto-Burman languages) as well as a language isolate (the Nihali language spoken in parts of Maharashtra). For information on only the Major religions in India see Major religions in India. List of language familiesA language family is a group of Languages related by descent from a common ancestor called the Proto-language of that family The Dravidian family of languages includes approximately 73 languages (including the four literary languages of Tamil, Telugu, Kannada The Austro-Asiatic languages are a large Language family of Southeast Asia, and also scattered throughout India and Bangladesh. The Tibeto-Burman family of languages (often considered a sub-group of the Sino-Tibetan Language family) is spoken in various central and south Asian countries including A language isolate, in the absolute sense is a Natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic" relationship with other living languages that is Kalto (also known as Nihali or Nahali) is a Language isolate spoken in west-central India (in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra Maharashtra ( Marathi: mahārāṣṭra, IPA) is a state located on the western coast of India. Further complexity is lent by the great variation that occurs across this population on social parameters such as income and education. Only the continent of Africa exceeds the linguistic, cultural and genetic diversity of the nation of India. 
Although India occupies only 2. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country 4% of the world's land area, it supports over 17. 5% of the world's population. 31. 8% of Indians are younger than 15 years of age.  As per the 2001 census, 72. 22% of the people live in more than 550,000 villages, and the remainder in more than 2000 towns and cities. 
Although 80. 5% of the people are Hindus, India, with 13. Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. 4% of its population Muslim, is also home to the third-largest Muslim population in the world after Indonesia and Pakistan. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and India also contains the majority of the world's Zoroastrians, Sikhs and Jains. Zoroastrianism (ˌzɔroʊˈæstriəˌnɪzəm is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings Sikh (English or; ਸਿੱਖ sikkh, IPA) is the title and name given to an adherent of Sikhism. Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma / Shraman Dharma (जैन धर्म is an ancient religion of India. Other religious groups include Christians (2. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings 3%), Buddhists (0. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices 8%), Jews and Bahá'ís. Indian Jews are a religious minority of India. Judaism was one of the first non- Dharmic religions to arrive in India in recorded history The Bahá'í Faith is a Religion founded by Bahá'u'lláh in nineteenth-century Persia, emphasizing the spiritual unity of all humankind 
The most recent census of India was performed in 2001 for enumeration as of March 1 of that year. A census is the procedure of acquiring information about every member of a given population Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar.  It was the 14th census in an unbroken series, and the 6th after independence in 1947 (with the exception that census could not be held for Assam in the 1981 and Jammu & Kashmir in 1991). The term " Indian independence movement " is diffuse incorporating various national and regional campaigns agitations and efforts of both Nonviolent and Militant Assam) ( Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a northeastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city ( Dogri: जम्मू और कश्मीर Urdu: جموں و کشمیر is the northernmost state of India. Eight censuses were performed under the British Raj, the first one was carried out throughout the 1860s and completed in 1872. For usage see British rule in India British Raj ( rāj, lit "reign" in Hindustani) primarily refers to the British Events and trends Technology The First Transcontinental Railroad in the USA was completed in 1869 Year 1872 ( MDCCCLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year After this, there has been one census every decade starting in 1881.
The 2001 census was conducted in two phases, the first being Housenumbering and Houselisting operations, carried out in May 2000, and the second being population enumeration, carried out from February 9 to 28, 2001. The reference time for the census is 1 March, 2001. The homeless population was enumerated on 28 February. A revisional round was undertaken 1 to 5 March 2001 to account for mutations between the time of visit in February and 1 March.
The total population calculated for 1 March 2001 was 1,027,015,247, making the 2001 census the first to count more than a billion Indians.  The population had risen by 21. 34% compared to the 1991 total. The female population had increased by 0. 3 percentage points to 48. 4%. 
See list of States of India by urban population. This is a list of States and Union Territories of India by urban population estimated for the year 2001 by Census of India Maharashtra has the largest urban agglomeration while Delhi is the most urbanised market at over 93% urbanization.
Total Population: 1,147. 996 million (July 2008 est. CIA) 1,028. 7 million (2001 Census final figures, March 1 enumeration and estimated 124,000 in areas of Manipur that could not be covered in the enumeration)
Rural Population: 72. 2%, male: 381,668,992, female: 360,948,755 (2001 Census)
Table 1: Population History
Table 2: Population Projections (in millions)
Source: Based on P. N. Mari Bhat, "Indian Demographic Scenario 2025", Institute of Economic Growth, New Delhi, Discussion Paper No. 27/2001.
0–14 years: 30. 8%, male: 188,208,196, female: 171,356,024
15–64 years: 64. 3%, male: 386,432,921, female: 364,215,759
65+ years: 4. 9%, male: 27,258,259, female: 30,031,289 (2007 est. ) The average age of Indians is 24. 8 years.
Population growth rate: 1. 38% (2007 est. )
Birth rate: 22. 69 births/1,000 population (2007 est. )
Death rate: 6. 58 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est. )
Literacy rate: 79. 9%
Percent of the population under the poverty line: 22% (2006 est. )
Unemployment Rate: 7. 8%
Net migration rate: − -0. 05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est. )
at birth: 1. 12 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1. 098 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 1. 061 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0. 908 male(s)/female
total population: 1. 064 male(s)/female (2006 est. )
Infant mortality rate: total: 34. 61 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est. ) female: 29. 23 deaths/1,000 live births male: 39. 42 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68. Life expectancy is the average number of years of life remaining at a given age 59 years
male: 66. 28 years
female: 71. 17 years (2007 est. )
Total fertility rate: 2. 81 children born/woman (2007 est. ) The TFR (Total number of children born per women ) according to Religion in 2001 was :
Hindus - 2. 0, Muslims - 2. 4, Sikhs - 1. 6, Christians - 2. 1, Buddhists - 2. 1, Jains - 1. 4 , Animists and Others - 2. 99, Tribals - 3. 16, Scheduled Castes - 2. 89. 
Scheduled Castes and Tribes: Scheduled Castes: 16. 2% (2001 Census) Scheduled Tribes: 8. 2% (2001 Census)
Languages: See Languages of India and List of Indian languages by total speakers. India is home to several hundred languages. Most languages spoken in India belong either to the Indo-European ( ca There are 216 languages with more than 10,000 native speakers in India. The largest of these is Hindi with some 337 million (the second largest being Bengali with some 207 million). Hindi ( Devanāgarī: hi [[wiktहिन्दी हिन्दी]] or hi [[wiktहिंदी हिंदी]] IAST:, IPA:) is 22 languages are recognized as official languages. In India, there are 1,652 languages and dialects in total. A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος dialektos) is a variety of a Language that is characteristic of a particular group of 
Censuses were conducted in parts of India in the ancient times with examples such as Kautilya's Arthashastra which describes the collection of population statistics for taxation in 4th century B. For information on only the Major religions in India see Major religions in India. Chanakya Sanskrit: चाणक्य Cāṇakya) (c 350-283 BC was an adviser and a Prime minister to the first Maurya Emperor The Arthashastra ( IAST: Arthaśāstra) is a Treatise on statecraft, economic policy and Military strategy which C. . The British census in 1865-1872 was the first conducted in modern times in India. For usage see British rule in India British Raj ( rāj, lit "reign" in Hindustani) primarily refers to the British Year 1865 ( MDCCCLXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Year 1872 ( MDCCCLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year
The 2001 census figures released by the India Census Commission give a breakdown by various parameters including religion. Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar.
|% total of population 2005||80. A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Sikh (English or; ਸਿੱਖ sikkh, IPA) is the title and name given to an adherent of Sikhism. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma / Shraman Dharma (जैन धर्म is an ancient religion of India. 4%||13. 4%||2. 3%||1. 9%||1. 1%||0. 4%||0. 5%|
|10-Yr Growth % (est '91–'01)[β]||20. 3%||29. 5%||22. 6%||18. 2%||24. 5%||26. 0%||103. 1%|
|Sex ratio* (avg. 944)||935||940||1009||895||955||940||100|
|Literacy rate (avg. 79. 9)||75. 5||60. 0||90. 3||70. 4||73. 0||95. 0||50. 0|
|Work Participation Rate||40. 4||31. 3||39. 7||37. 7||40. 6||32. 9||48. 4|
|Rural sex ratio||944||953||1001||895||958||937||995|
|Urban sex ratio||922||907||1026||886||944||941||966|
|Child sex ratio (0–6 yrs)||925||950||964||786||942||870||976|
Source: The First Report on Religion: Census of India 2001
β. Senapati is a district of Manipur state in India. Senapati District is located between 93 Manipur (mnipur in Meitei Mayek) is a state in northeastern India, making its capital in the city of ^ The data is "unadjusted" (without excluding Assam and Jammu and Kashmir); 1981 census was not conducted in Assam and 1991 census was not conducted in Jammu and Kashmir
It should also be noted that about 40% of the Hindus speak Hindi while the rest speak Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Gujarati,Kannada and other languages. Assam) ( Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a northeastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city ( Dogri: जम्मू और कश्मीर Urdu: جموں و کشمیر is the northernmost state of India. Almost 70% of the Muslims speak Urdu while the rest speak Kashmiri, Bengali, Malayalam, Tamil, Gujarati and other languages. About one-third of the Christians speak Malayalam, one-sixth speak Tamil while the rest speak a variety of languages.
Unlike the United States of America, United Kingdom, and Australian Censuses, the national Census of India does not recognize racial or ethnic groups within India, but recognizes many of the tribal groups as Scheduled Castes and Tribes (see list of Scheduled Tribes in India). A nationwide Census, commonly known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 29 April 2001 The Australian census is administered by the Australian Bureau of Statistics every five years Various attempts have been made under the British Raj and later times to classify the population of India according to a racial typology. Scheduled Castes ("SC"s and Scheduled Tribes ("ST"s are Indian population groupings that are explicitly recognized by the Constitution of This is a full list of Scheduled Tribes in India, as recognised in India 's Constitution a total of 645 distict tribes
It should be noted that Indo-Aryan, Dravidian, Tibeto-Burman and Austro-Asiatic are mainly linguistic terms and denote speakers of these linguistic groups. The Indo-Aryan languages (within the context of Indo-European studies also Indic) are a branch of the Indo-European language family The Dravidian family of languages includes approximately 73 languages (including the four literary languages of Tamil, Telugu, Kannada The Tibeto-Burman family of languages (often considered a sub-group of the Sino-Tibetan Language family) is spoken in various central and south Asian countries including The Austro-Asiatic languages are a large Language family of Southeast Asia, and also scattered throughout India and Bangladesh.