The Democratic Republic of Georgia (DRG; Georgian: საქართველოს დემოკრატიული რესპუბლიკა, Sakartvelos Demokratiuli Respublika), 1918–1921, was the first modern establishment of a Republic of Georgia. A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is The maneti (მანეთი was the currency of the Democratic Republic of Georgia and the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic between 1919 and 1923 Georgian (ka ქართული ენა kartuli ena) is the Official language of Georgia, a country in the Caucasus. Georgia ( საქართველო, Sakartvelo) is a Transcontinental country in the Caucasus region situated at the dividing line between
The DRG was created after the collapse of the Russian Empire that began with the Russian Revolution of 1917. The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya See also Russian Revolution (1905 The Russian Revolution of 1916 refers to a series of popular revolutions in Russia, and the events surrounding them Its established borders were with Russia, Kuban People's Republic and the Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus in the north, Ottoman Empire, Democratic Republic of Armenia in the south, and Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in the southeast. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The Kuban People's Republic (Кубанская Народная Республика Кубанська Народна Республiка was an anti- Bolshevik state The Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus ( MRNC; also known as the Mountain Republic or the Republic of the Mountaineers) (1917–1920 was The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish The Democratic Republic of Armenia ( DRA; Armenian: Դեմոկրատական Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic ( ADR; Azərbaycan Xalq Cümhuriyyəti was the first Democratic and Secular Republic in the Muslim world It had a total land area of roughly 107,600 km² (by comparison, the total area of today's Georgia is 69,700 km²), and a population of 2. Georgia ( საქართველო, Sakartvelo) is a Transcontinental country in the Caucasus region situated at the dividing line between 5 million.
Georgia's capital was Tbilisi, and its state language was Georgian. Tbilisi (ˌtbiˈliːsi in Georgian: თბილისი is the capital and the largest city of the Republic of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Mt'k'vari Georgian (ka ქართული ენა kartuli ena) is the Official language of Georgia, a country in the Caucasus. Proclaimed on May 26, 1918, on the break-up of the Transcaucasian Federation, it was led by the Social Democratic Menshevik party. Events 451 - The Battle of Avarayr between Armenian rebels and the Sassanid Empire takes place The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic (TDFR Закавказская демократическая Федеративная Республика (ЗКДФР Zakavkazskaya Social democracy is a Political ideology of the left and centre-left The Mensheviks (Minority (Меньшевик) were a faction of the Russian Revolutionary movement that emerged in 1903 after a dispute between Vladimir Facing permanent internal and external problems, the young state was unable to withstand the invasion by the Russian SFSR Red Armies, and collapsed between February and March of 1921 to become a Soviet republic. The Red Army ( Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия R aboche- K rest'yanskaya K rasnaya A rmiya The Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (საქართველოს საბჭოთასოციალისტური რესპუბლიკა
After the February Revolution of 1917 and collapse of the Tsarist administration in the Caucasus, most power was held by the Special Transcaucasian Committee (Ozakom, short for Osobyi Zakavkazskii Komitet) of the Provisional Government. The February Revolution (Февральская революция in 1917 in Russia was the first stage of the Russian Revolution of 1917. The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya The Caucasus ( also referred to as North Caucasus) is a geopolitical region located between Europe Asia & Middle East Special Transcaucasian Committee (Ozakom: Osobyi Zakavkazskii Komitet Особый Закавказский Комитет was established in 1917 by the Russian Provisional Government The Russian Provisional Government was formed in Petrograd in 1917 after the February Revolution and the Abdication All of the Soviets in Georgia were firmly controlled by the Mensheviks, who followed the lead of the Petrograd Soviet and supported the Provisional Government. A soviet (сове́т, "council" originally was a workers' local council in late Imperial Russia. The Mensheviks (Minority (Меньшевик) were a faction of the Russian Revolutionary movement that emerged in 1903 after a dispute between Vladimir The Petrograd Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies, usually called the Petrograd Soviet, was the soviet (workers' council in Petrograd (Saint The Bolshevist coup in October changed the situation drastically. The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists ( Большевик Большевист (singular, derived from bolshe, "more" were a faction The October Revolution (Октябрьская революция Oktyabrskaya revolyutsiya) also known as the Soviet Revolution The Caucasian soviets refused to recognize Lenin's regime. Threats from the increasingly Bolshevistic deserting soldiers of the former Caucasus army, ethnic clashes and anarchy in the region forced the Georgian, Armenian and Azerbaijani politicians to create a unified regional authority known as the Transcaucasian Commissariat (November 14, 1917) and later a legislature, the Sejm (January 23, 1918). The Democratic Republic of Armenia ( DRA; Armenian: Դեմոկրատական Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic ( ADR; Azərbaycan Xalq Cümhuriyyəti was the first Democratic and Secular Republic in the Muslim world On April 22 1918, the Sejm declared the Transcaucasus an independent democratic federation. The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic (TDFR Закавказская демократическая Федеративная Республика (ЗКДФР Zakavkazskaya
Many Georgians, influenced by the ideas of Ilia Chavchavadze and other intellectuals from the late 19th century, insisted on national independence. St Ilia the Righteous, born Prince Ilia Ch’avch’avadze, known as Ilia Ch’avch’avadze (ილია ჭავჭავაძე ( &ndash) was a A cultural national awakening was further strengthened by the restoration of the autocephaly of the Georgian Orthodox Church (12 March 1917) and establishment of a national university in Tbilisi (1918). Christianity in ancient and feudal Georgia According to tradition when the Apostles were sent out to preach the Gospel to the nations of the world the Apostle Tbilisi Ivane Javakhishvili State University, better known as Tbilisi State University ( TSU) (თბილისის ივანე ჯავახიშვილის In contrast, the Georgian Mensheviks regarded the independence from Russia as a temporary step against the Bolshevik revolution and considered the calls for Georgia's independence chauvinistic and separatist. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The union of Transcaucasus was short-lived though. Undermined by increasing internal tensions and the pressure from the German and Ottoman empires, the Federation collapsed on May 26, 1918 when Georgia declared independence followed by Armenia and Azerbaijan within the next two days. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Events 451 - The Battle of Avarayr between Armenian rebels and the Sassanid Empire takes place Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
Georgia was immediately recognized by Germany and the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish The young state had to place itself under German protection and to cede its largely Muslim-inhabited regions (including the cities of Batum, Ardahan, Artvin, Akhaltsikhe and Akhalkalaki) to the Ottoman government (Treaty of Batum, June 4). The Treaty of Poti was a provisional agreement between the German Empire and the Democratic Republic of Georgia in which the latter accepted German protection and A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion Batumi (ბათუმი formerly Batum or Batoum) is a seaside city on the Black Sea coast and Capital of Adjara, an Autonomous Ardahan Province is a province in the far north-east of Turkey, at the very end of the country where Turkey borders with Georgia and Armenia. Artvin is a city in northeastern Turkey on the Çoruh River near the Georgian border Akhaltsikhe (ახალციხე Ahıska Ախալցխա Akhaltskha; also known as Lomsia) is a small city in southwestern Georgia, Mkhare Akhalkalaki (ახალქალაქი for New City; Ախալքալաք Akhalkalak) is a small city in Georgia 's southern region of Samtskhe-Javakheti However, German support enabled the Georgians to repel the Bolshevik threats from Abkhazia. Abkhazia (Аҧсны Apsny აფხაზეთი Apkhazeti or Abkhazeti Абха́зия Abhazia) is a De facto The German forces were almost certainly under the command of Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein. The German Caucasus Expedition was a military expedition sent by the German Empire to the formerly Russian Transcaucasia during the World War I Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein ( April 24, 1870 - October 16, 1948) was a German General from Nuremberg The British-held Batum remained, however, out of Georgia's control until 1920. On December 25 1918, a British force was deployed also in Tbilisi. Tbilisi (ˌtbiˈliːsi in Georgian: თბილისი is the capital and the largest city of the Republic of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Mt'k'vari
This article is part of the series on:
|Kingdom of Abkhazeti-Egrisi|
|Georgia Under Imperial Russia|
|Democratic Republic of Georgia|
|Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic|
|March 9 Tragedy|
|April 9 Tragedy|
|Republic of Georgia|
|Georgian Civil War|
|History By Autonomous Republics|
|History of Abkhazia|
|History of Adjara|
Georgia's relations with the neighbours were uneasy. The history of Georgia began with the rise of the early Georgian states of Colchis and Iberia, which in c The prehistory of Georgia is the period between the first human habitation of the territory of modern-day nation of Georgia and the time when Assyrian and Urartian In ancient Geography, Colchis or Kolchis ( Georgian and Laz: კოლხეთი k'olxeti; Greek:, Kolchís Egrisi (ეგრისი is a medieval Georgian name for the region and kingdom in the western part of modern-day Georgia, known to the Byzantine This article is about the people of ancient Georgia For the Iberians of ancient Iberian Peninsula see Iberians. Tao-Klarjeti ( Georgian: ტაო–კლარჯეთი is the term conventionally used in modern history writing to describe the historic south-western Georgian The Kingdom of Abkhazia, also known as Kingdom of Apkhazeti-Egrisi or the Kingdom of the Abkhazs (აფხაზთა სამეფო refers to an The history of Georgia began with the rise of the early Georgian states of Colchis and Iberia, which in c The Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (საქართველოს საბჭოთასოციალისტური რესპუბლიკა The March 9 massacre in Tbilisi 1956 was a crackdown of peaceful demonstrators in Tbilisi, Georgian SSR, Soviet Union by Soviet troops The April 9 tragedy refers to the events in Tbilisi, Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic on April 9, 1989, when an Anti-Soviet demonstration The history of Georgia began with the rise of the early Georgian states of Colchis and Iberia, which in c The Georgian Civil War consisted of inter-ethnic and inter-national conflicts in the regions of South Ossetia (1988-1992 and Abkhazia (1992-1993 as well The "Revolution of Roses quot (often translated into English as the Rose Revolution) (ვარდების რევოლუცია - vardebis The history of Georgia began with the rise of the early Georgian states of Colchis and Iberia, which in c | See also ISO 3166-2 codes for regions and autonomous republics of Georgia The article refers to the history of Republic of Abkhazia (or Abchasia) The article refers to the history of Georgia ’s autonomous province of Adjara. Territorial disputes with Armenia, Denikin's White Russian government and Azerbaijan led to armed conflicts in the first two cases. Anton Ivanovich Denikin (Анто́н Ива́нович Дени́кин ( December 16, 1872 – August 8, 1947) was Lieutenant General The White movement (Beloie Dvijenie Белое движение whose military arm is known as the White Army (Belaia Armia Белая Армия or White Guard A British military mission attempted to mediate these conflicts in order to consolidate all anti-Bolshevik forces in the region. To prevent White Russian army from crossing into the newly-established states, the British commander in the region drew a line across the Caucasus that Denikin would not be permitted to cross, giving both Georgia and Azerbaijan a temporary relief. The threat of invasion by Denikin's forces, not withstanding the British position, brought Georgia and Azerbaijan together in a mutual defense alliance on June 16, 1919.
On February 14 1919, Georgia held parliamentary elections won by the Social Democrats with 81. Social democracy is a Political ideology of the left and centre-left 5% of the votes. On March 21, Noe Zhordania formed a new government, which had to deal with armed peasants' revolts, excited by the local Bolshevik activists and largely supported from Russia, and becoming more troublesome when carried out by ethnic minorities such as Abkhazians and Ossetians. Noe Zhordania (ნოე ჟორდანია also transliterated as Jordania) ( January 2, 1868 – January 11, 1953) was a Abkhazia (Аҧсны Apsny აფხაზეთი Apkhazeti or Abkhazeti Абха́зия Abhazia) is a De facto South Ossetia ( or; Хуссар Ирыстон Xussar Iryston; Южная Осетия Yuzhnaya Osetiya; სამხრეთი ოსეთი Samxreti
However, the land reform was finally well handled by the Menshevik government and the country established a multi-party system in sharp contrast with the "dictatorship of the proletariat" established by the Bolsheviks in Russia. In 1919, the reforms in judicial system and local self-governance were carried out. Abkhazia was granted autonomy. Yet, ethnic issues continued to trouble the country, especially on the side of the Ossetians as in May 1920. Some contemporaries observed also increasing nationalism among the Mensheviks.
The year 1920 was marked by increased threats from the Russian SFSR. With the defeat of the White movement and the Red Armies' advance toward the Caucasus frontiers, the situation around the DRG became extremely tense. In January, the Soviet leadership offered Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan to form an alliance against the White armies in South Russia and the Caucasus. The Government of the DRG refused to enter any military alliance, referring to its policy of neutrality and noninterference, but suggested to start negotiations on political settlement of the relations between two countries in the hope that this would apparently lead to the recognition of Georgia's independence by Moscow. Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of Severe criticism of the Georgian refusal by the Russian leaders was followed by several attempts of local Communists to organize mass anti-governmental protests, which ended unsuccessfully.
In April 1920, the 11th Red Army established a Soviet regime in Azerbaijan, and the Georgian Bolshevik Grigoriy Ordzhonikidze requested from Moscow permission to advance into Georgia. The Second International (1889-1916 was an organization of socialist and labour parties formed in Paris on July 14, 1889. The Red Army ( Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия R aboche- K rest'yanskaya K rasnaya A rmiya Azerbaijan ( English; Azərbaycan officially the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası is the largest and most populous country in the South Grigoriy Konstantinovich Ordzhonikidze (გრიგოლ (სერგო ორჯონიკიძე - Grigol (Sergo Orjonikidze Russian: Григорий Константинович Though official consent was not given by Lenin and Sovnarkom, local Bolsheviks attempted to seize the Military School of Tbilisi as a preliminary to a coup d'état on May 3, 1920, but were successfully repulsed by General Kvinitadze. Council of Ministers of the USSR (Совет Министров СССР tr Giorgi Kvinitadze (გიორგი კვინიტაძე Георгий Иванович Квинитадзе Georgy Ivanovich Kvinitadze; his real surname was Georgian government began mobilization and appointed Kvinitadze as commander-in-chief. A commander-in-chief is the Commander of a nation's Military forces or significant element of those forces In the meantime, in response to Georgia's alleged assistance to the Azeri nationalist rebellion in Ganja, Soviet forces attempted to penetrate Georgian territory, but were repelled by Kvinitadze in brief border clashes at the Red Bridge. The Red Bridge (Кра́сный мост Krasniy most) is a single-span bridge across the Moika River in Saint Petersburg, Russia. In a few days, peace talks were resumed in Moscow. By the controversial Moscow Peace Treaty of May 7, Georgian independence was recognized in return for the legalization of Bolshevik organizations and a commitment not to allow foreign troops on Georgian soil. The Treaty of Moscow (Московский договор Moskovskiy dogovor, მოსკოვის ხელშეკრულება Moskovis khelshekruleba
Refused entry into the League of Nations, Georgia gained de jure recognition from the Allies on 27 January 1921. The League of Nations was an International organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919–1920 This, however, did not prevent the country from being attacked by Soviet Russia a month later.
After Azerbaijan and Armenia had been Sovietized by the Red Army, Georgia found itself surrounded by hostile Soviet republics. Sovietization is term that may be used with two distinct (but related meanings the adoption of a political system based on the model of soviets (workers' councils In addition, as the British had already evacuated the Caucasus, the country was left without any foreign support.
According to Soviet sources, relations with Georgia deteriorated over alleged violations of the peace treaty, re-arrests of Georgian Bolsheviks, obstructiveness to the passage of convoys passing through to Armenia, and a strong suspicion that Georgia was aiding armed rebels in the North Caucasus. Armenia (Հայաստան transliterated: Hayastan,) officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Hayastani On the other hand, Georgia accused Moscow of fomenting anti-governmental riots in various regions of the country, and of provoking border incidents in Zaqatala region, disputed with the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic ( ADR; Azərbaycan Xalq Cümhuriyyəti was the first Democratic and Secular Republic in the Muslim world Lorri “neutral zone” was another challenge as Soviet Armenia categorically demanded that Georgia withdraw its troops stationed in the region since the fall of the Armenian Republic. The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic (Հայկական ՍովետականՍոցիալիստական Հանրապետություն Haykakan Sovetakan Sotsialistakan Hanrapetutyun
The Act of Independence of Georgia declared on May 26 1918, in brief, outlined the main principles of the nation's future democracy. In accordance with it, “the Democratic Republic of Georgia equally guarantees to every citizen within her limits, political rights irrespective of nationality, creed, social rank or sex". The first government formed the same day was led by Noe Ramishvili. Noe Ramishvili (ნოე რამიშვილი his name is also transliterated as Noah or Noi) ( 1881 - December 7, 1930) was In October 1918, the National Council of Georgia was renamed into Parliament which prepared new elections held on February 14 1919.
During its two-year history (1919–1921), the newly elected Constituent Assembly of Georgia adopted 126 laws. Noe Zhordania (ნოე ჟორდანია also transliterated as Jordania) ( January 2, 1868 – January 11, 1953) was a The Constituent Assembly of Georgia (საქართველოს დამფუძნებელი კრება sak’art’velos damp’udznebeli kreba) was a national Notably, the laws on citizenship, local elections, the country's defence, official language, agriculture, legal system, political and administrative arrangements for ethnic minorities (including an act about the People's Council of Abkhazia), a national system of public education, and some other laws and regulations on fiscal/monetary policy, the Georgian railways, trade and domestic production, etc. Abkhazia (Аҧсны Apsny აფხაზეთი Apkhazeti or Abkhazeti Абха́зия Abhazia) is a De facto On February 21, 1921, facing the onset of Soviet aggression, the Constituent Assembly adopted a constitution of the Democratic Republic of Georgia, the first modern fundamental law in the nation's history.
Chairman of the Government was the chief executive post approved by the parliament for one-year terms of office (the post could not be held more than two times running). The chairman assigned ministers, and was responsible for governing the country and represented Georgia in foreign relations. The Government of the Democratic Republic of Georgia in Exile continued to be recognized by Europe as the only legal government of Georgia for some time. The Government of the Democratic Republic of Georgia (DRG continued to function as the Government in exile (National Government of Georgia NGG after the Soviet 1919 Government of Georgia adopted law on jury trials. Right to jury trials was later incorporated into Constitution of Democratic Republic of Georgia of 1921.
Georgia's 1918–1921 borders were formed through the border conflicts with its neighbours and ensuing treaties and conventions.
In the north, Georgia was bordered by various Russian Civil War polities until the Bolshevik power was established in North Caucasus in the spring of 1920. The Russian Civil War (1917–1923 was a multi-party war that occurred within the former Russian Empire after the Russian provisional government collapsed The North Caucasus, also Ciscaucasus, Ciscaucasia or Forecaucasia, is the northern part of the Caucasus region between Europe The international border between Soviet Russia and Georgia was regulated by the 1920 Moscow Treaty. During the Sochi conflict with the Russian White movement, Georgia briefly controlled the Sochi district (1918). Sochi conflict was a three-party border conflict which involved the counterrevolutionary White Russian forces, Bolshevik Red Army and the Democratic The White movement (Beloie Dvijenie Белое движение whose military arm is known as the White Army (Belaia Armia Белая Армия or White Guard Sochi (Сочи ˈsotɕɪ is a Russian Resort city, situated in Krasnodar Krai just north of the southern Russian border
In the southwest, the DRG's border with Ottoman Empire changed with the course of the World War I and was modified after the Ottoman defeat in the hostilities. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Georgia regained control over Artvin, Ardahan, part of Batum province, Akhaltsikhe and Akhalkalaki. Batum was finally incorporated into the republic after the British evacuated the area in 1920. The Treaty of Sèvres of 1920 granted Georgia control over eastern Lazistan including Rize and Hopa. The Treaty of Sèvres ( 10 August 1920) was the Peace treaty between the Ottoman Empire and Allies at the end of World War Lazistan ( Lazona - ლაზონა in Laz, ლაზეთი - lazeti or ჭანეთი - č’aneti in Georgian) was the Rize ( Greek: Riza, რიზე Ռիզե is the capital of Rize Province, in northeast Turkey, on the Black Sea Hopa ( Laz: Xopa Georgian: ხოფა Armenian: Հոպա Russian: Хопа also known as Khupati, Khopta, or However, the Georgian government, unwilling to be involved in a new war with Turkish Revolutionaries, did nothing to take control of these areas. Turkish revolutionaries ( Turkish: Kuvâyi Milliye or Kuvva-i Milliye) were Patriots of the Turkish national movement who rebelled against
The border disputes with Democratic Republic of Armenia over a part of Borchalo district led to a brief war between the two countries in December 1918, see: Georgian-Armenian War 1918. Marneuli is a small city in southern Georgia. It is located near the border with neighboring Azerbaijan and Armenia. With the British intervention the Lori "neutral zone" was created only to be reoccupied by Georgia after the fall of the Armenian republic at the end of 1920.
In the southeast, Georgia was bordered by Azerbaijan which claimed the control of Zaqatala district. Azerbaijan ( English; Azərbaycan officially the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası is the largest and most populous country in the South The dispute, however, never led to hostilities and the relations between the two countries were generally peaceful until the Sovietization of Azerbaijan.
The Soviet occupation of the DRG led to significant territorial rearrangements by which Georgia lost almost 1/3 of its territories. Artvin, Ardahan and part of Batumi provinces were ceded to Turkey; Armenia gained control of Lorri, and Azerbaijan obtained Zaqatala district. A portion of the Georgian marches along the Greater Caucasus Mountains was taken by Russia. Greater Caucasus (Большой Кавказ Azerbaijani: Böyük Qafqaz Dağları sometimes translated as "Caucasus Major" "Big Caucasus" or "Large
The People's Guard was the privileged military force in the country. Founded on September 5 1917 as the Worker's Guard it was later renamed into the Red Guard, and finally into the People's Guard. It was a highly politicized military structure placed directly under the control of the Parliament rather than the Ministry of War. Throughout its existence (1917–1921), the Guard was commanded by the Menshevik activist Valiko Jugheli. Vladimir “Valiko” Jugheli (ვალიკო ჯუღელი ( January 1, 1887 - January 9, 1924) was a Georgian politician
The DRG formed also its own regular army. Only a part of them were armed in peacetime, the majority being on furlough and following their callings. ˈfɝloʊ}} is a temporary leave of absence especially from duty in the [[armed services]] or from a [[prison]] term If the Republic had been in danger, they would have been called up by the General Staff, supplied with arms, and allotted to their places. A military staff is a group of officers and enlisted personnel that provides a bi-directional flow of information between a commander and subordinate units Although Georgia had almost 200,000 veterans of World War I with skilled generals and officers, the government failed to build up an effective defense system, a factor that greatly contributed to the fall of the first Georgian republic. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All
Agriculture was a mainstay of the local economy of Georgia, a typical agrarian country with long wine-making traditions. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Winemaking, or vinification, is the production of Wine, starting with selection of the Grapes and ending with bottling the finished wine Land reform well managed by the government contributed to a degree of stability in this field.
The manganese industry at Chiatura had very great importance in the field of European metallurgy, providing about 70% of the manganese supply of the world early in the 20th century. Manganese (ˈmæŋgəniːz is a Chemical element, designated by the symbol Mn. Chiatura (ჭიათურა is a city in the Imereti region of Western Georgia. Metallurgy is a domain of Materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their Traditionally, Georgia served also as an international transportation corridor through the key Black Sea ports of Batumi and Poti. The Black Sea is an inland Sea bounded by southeastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Anatolian peninsula ( Turkey Batumi (ბათუმი formerly Batum or Batoum) is a seaside city on the Black Sea coast and Capital of Adjara, an Autonomous Poti (ფოთი is a Port city in Georgia, located on the eastern Black Sea coast in the region of Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti
However, the lack of international recognition and the government's not completely successful policy in the field hindered the economic development of the DRG and the country suffered an economic crisis. Some signs of improvement were observed towards 1920–1921.
The most important event in the country's cultural life during this turbulent period was indeed the foundation of a national university in Tbilisi (now known as the Tbilisi State University) (1918), a long-time dream of Georgians thwarted by the Imperial Russian authorities for several decades. Tbilisi Ivane Javakhishvili State University, better known as Tbilisi State University ( TSU) (თბილისის ივანე ჯავახიშვილის The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya Other educational centers included gymnasiums in Tbilisi, Batumi, Kutaisi, Ozurgeti, Poti and Gori, Tbilisi Military School, Gori Pedagogical Seminary, the Pedagogical Seminary for Women, etc. A gymnasium (pronounced with ɡ- in several languages is a type of school providing Secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar Tbilisi (ˌtbiˈliːsi in Georgian: თბილისი is the capital and the largest city of the Republic of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Mt'k'vari Batumi (ბათუმი formerly Batum or Batoum) is a seaside city on the Black Sea coast and Capital of Adjara, an Autonomous Kutaisi (ქუთაისი ancient names Aea / Aia, Kutatisi, Kutaïssi) is Georgia 's second largest city and the capital of the Ozurgeti ( Georgian: ოზურგეთი is a town and the regional administrative centre of Western Georgian province of Guria, former Macharadze or Poti (ფოთი is a Port city in Georgia, located on the eastern Black Sea coast in the region of Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti Georgia had also a number of schools for ethnic minorities.
The National Museum of Georgia, theaters in Tbilisi and Kutaisi, Tbilisi National Opera House, the National Academy of Art were in the vanguard of cultural life. The Georgian National Museum (საქართველოს ეროვნული მუზეუმი sak'art'velos erovnuli muzeumi) is a museum network in Georgia
The newspapers — Sakartvelos Respublika (“Republic of Georgia”), Sakartvelo (“Georgia”), Ertoba (“Unity”), Samshoblo (“Motherland”), Sakhalkho Sakme (“Public Affair”), The Georgian Messenger and The Georgian Mail (both published in English) — led the national press. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States
The 1918–1921 independence of Georgia, though short-lived, was of particular importance for the development of national feeling among the Georgians, a major factor that made the country one of the most active independent forces within the Soviet Union. Georgia ( საქართველო, Sakartvelo) is a Transcontinental country in the Caucasus region situated at the dividing line between The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Leaders of the national movement of the late 1980s frequently referred to the DRG as a victory in the struggle against the Russian Empire and made parallels with the contemporary political situation creating somewhat an idealized image of the Georgian First Republic. The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya
On April 9, 1991 the independence of Georgia was restored when the Act of the Restoration of State Independence of Georgia was adopted by the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia. Events 193 - Septimius Severus is proclaimed Roman Emperor by the army in Illyricum (in the Balkans) Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. Georgia ( საქართველო, Sakartvelo) is a Transcontinental country in the Caucasus region situated at the dividing line between The Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia was the first National Parliament of the Republic of Georgia in the post-Soviet era (in 1990 - 1992) The national symbols used by the DRG were reestablished as those of the newly independent nation and were in use until 2004. May 26, the day of the establishment of the DRG, is still celebrated as a national holiday — the Independence Day of Georgia. Events 451 - The Battle of Avarayr between Armenian rebels and the Sassanid Empire takes place Public holidays in the country of Georgia include the following (Labour Code of Georgia Article 64
Karl Kautsky ( October 16 1854 - October 17 1938) was a leading theoretician of Social democracy. Leon Trotsky ( Russian:, Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij