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Democracy is a system of government by which political sovereignty is retained by the people and either exercised directly by citizens or through their elected representatives. Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions A system of government is a term that refers to the set of political Institutions by which a Government of a State is organized in order to exert its powers Democracy is a political system in which all the members of the society have an equal share of formal political power Here is a partial list of varieties of democracy. The types of Democracy listed here are not mutually exclusive * Democracy, a broad article on democracy especially its application in modernity Anticipatory democracy is a theory of Civics relying on democratic Decision making that takes into account predictions of future events that have some credibility Athenian democracy developed in the Greek City-state of Athens Christian democracy is a political ideology that seeks to apply Christian (and often specifically Catholic) principles to public policy Consensus democracy is the application of Consensus decision making to the process of legislation in a Democracy. Deliberative democracy also sometimes called discursive democracy, is a term used by some political theorists to refer to any system of political decisions based Demarchy ("Dem" being short for demos meaning people and " -archy " meaning rule is a hypothetical political system run by randomly selected decision Direct Democracy is a movement within the British Conservative Party dedicated to localism and Constitutional reform as a means of reviving public Grassroots democracy is a tendency towards designing political processes where as much decision-making authority as practical is shifted to the organization's lowest geographic An illiberal democracy is a governing system in which although fairly free elections take place citizens are cut off from real power due to the lack of Civil liberties. Known as Islamic democracy, two kinds of democratic states can be recognized in the Islamic countries The term "liberal" in "liberal democracy" does not imply that the government of such a democracy must follow the political ideology of Messianic democracy is a neologism originally used by Jacob Talmon is his book The Origins of Totalitarian Democracy (1951 to describe Non-partisan democracy (also no-party democracy) is a system of representative government or organization such that universal and periodic Elections Participatory democracy is a process emphasizing the broad Participation (decision making of constituents in the direction and operation of political systems Religious democracy means that the values of Religion play a role in the public arena in a society populated by religious people Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of the people's representatives A republican democracy is a Republic which has democratic Forms of government. Social democracy is a Political ideology of the left and centre-left For the Soviet republics of the Soviet Union see Republics of the Soviet Union. Totalitarian democracy is a term made famous by Israeli historian J It is derived from the Greek δημοκρατία ( ), "popular government" which was coined from δήμος (dēmos), "people" and κράτος (kratos), "rule, strength" in the middle of the 5th century BC to denote the political systems then existing in some Greek city-states, notably Athens. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly The city of Athens during Classical antiquity was a notable Polis ( City-state) of Attica, Greece, leading the 
In political theory, democracy describes a small number of related forms of government and also a political philosophy. See also Form of government This article lists forms of government and Political systems according to a series of different ways of categorising them Political philosophy is the study of questions about the City, Government, Politics, Liberty, Justice, Property, Rights Even though there is no universally accepted definition of 'democracy', there are two principles that any definition of democracy is required to have. The first principle is that all members of the society have equal access to power and the second that all members enjoy universally recognised freedoms and liberties. 
There are several varieties of democracy, some of which provide better representation and more freedoms for their citizens than others.  However, if any democracy is not carefully legislated to avoid an uneven distribution of political power with balances such as the separation of powers, then a branch of the system of rule is able to accumulate power in a way that is harmful to democracy itself. Separation of powers, a term ascribed to French Enlightenment Political philosopher Baron de Montesquieu, is a model for the Governance  The "majority rule" is often described as a characteristic feature of democracy, but without responsible government it is possible for the rights of a minority to be abused by the "tyranny of the majority". Majority rule is a decision rule that makes one of two alternatives the "winner" based on which has more than half the votes The term minority rights embodies two separate concepts first normal individual Rights as applied to members of racial Ethnic, class religious linguistic or The phrase tyranny of the majority, used in discussing systems of Democracy and Majority rule, is a criticism of the Scenario in which decisions made An essential process in representative democracies are competitive elections, that are fair both substantively and procedurally. An election is a Decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold formal office Furthermore, freedom of political expression, freedom of speech and freedom of the press are essential so that citizens are informed and able to vote in their personal interests. Political freedom is the absence of interference with the sovereignty of an individual by the use of coercion or aggression Freedom of speech is the freedom to speak freely without Censorship or Limitation. Freedom Constitutional or statutory protections pertaining to freedom of the press 
Popular sovereignty is common but not a universal motivating philosophy for establishing a democracy. Popular sovereignty or the sovereignty of the people is the belief that the legitimacy of the State is created by the will or consent of its people, who In some countries, democracy is based on the philosophical principle of equal rights. Many people use the term "democracy" as shorthand for liberal democracy, which may include additional elements such as political pluralism, equality before the law, the right to petition elected officials for redress of grievances, due process, civil liberties, human rights, and elements of civil society outside the government. The term "liberal" in "liberal democracy" does not imply that the government of such a democracy must follow the political ideology of The rule of law, in its most basic form is the principle that no one is above the law The right to petition is the freedom of individuals (and sometimes groups and corporations to Petition their government for a correction or repair of some form of Due process (more fully due process of law) is the principle that a person has a right to receive notice and be heard in an orderly proceeding in order to protect his or her thumb| |Broken Liberty Istanbul Archaeology Museum Civil liberties are freedoms that protect the Individual from the Government. Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning Society as opposed to the force-backed In the United States, separation of powers is often cited as a supporting attribute, but in other countries, such as the United Kingdom, the dominant philosophy is parliamentary sovereignty (though in practice judicial independence is generally maintained). The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Separation of powers, a term ascribed to French Enlightenment Political philosopher Baron de Montesquieu, is a model for the Governance The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Parliamentary sovereignty, Sovereignty of Parliament, parliamentary supremacy, or legislative supremacy is a concept in Constitutional law Judicial independence is the doctrine that decisions of the Judiciary should be impartial and not subject to influence from the other branches of government or from private or In other cases, "democracy" is used to mean direct democracy. Direct Democracy is a movement within the British Conservative Party dedicated to localism and Constitutional reform as a means of reviving public Though the term "democracy" is typically used in the context of a political state, the principles are also applicable to private organizations and other groups. A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. An organization (or organisation &mdash see spelling differences) is a social arrangement which pursues collective goals which controls its own performance and
Democracy has its origins in Ancient Greece. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca  However other cultures have significant contributed to the evolution of democracy such as Ancient Rome, Europe, and North and South America. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC  Democracy has been called the "last form of government" and has spread considerably across the globe.  Suffrage has been expanded in many jurisdictions over time from relatively narrow groups (such as wealthy men of a particular ethnic group), but still remains a controversial issue with regard disputed territories, areas with significant immigration, and countries that exclude certain demographic groups. Suffrage (from the Latin suffragium, meaning "voting tablet" and figuratively "right to vote" probably from suffrago "hough" and originally Immigration refers to the movement of people among countries While the movement of people has existed throughout human history at various levels modern immigration implies long-term
Representative democracy involves the selection of government officials by the people being represented. A system of government is a term that refers to the set of political Institutions by which a Government of a State is organized in order to exert its powers Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions See also Form of government This article lists forms of government and Political systems according to a series of different ways of categorising them Anarchy (from αναρχία anarchía, "without ruler " may refer to any of the following "Absence of government a state of lawlessness Aristocracy is a form of Government, where rule is established through an internal struggle over who has the most status and influence over society and internal relations Authoritarianism describes a Form of government characterized by an emphasis on the Authority of the State in a republic or union An autocracy is a Form of government in which the Political power is held by a single self-appointed ruler A band society is the simplest form of human Society. A band generally consists of a small kin group no larger than an Extended family or Clan. A chiefdom is a type of complex society of varying degrees of centralization that is led by an individual known as a chief. This article is about a type of political territory For other uses see Colony (disambiguation. Communist state is a term used by many Political scientists to describe a Form of government in which the State operates under a one-party system Corporatocracy is a Neologism that describes a Government dominated by corporate influence banks and governments Direct Democracy is a movement within the British Conservative Party dedicated to localism and Constitutional reform as a means of reviving public Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of the people's representatives Despotism is a Form of government by a single authority either an individual or tightly knit group, which rules with absolute political power A dictatorship is usually defined as an autocratic Form of government in which the Government is ruled by a Dictator. A military dictatorship is a Form of government wherein the political power resides with the Military; it is similar but not identical to a Stratocracy, Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed A kleptocracy (sometimes cleptocracy, occasionally kleptarchy) ( root klepto+kratein = rule by thieves) is a term applied to a Kritarchy is a form of government ruled by judges It may have existed in Israel during the period of time described in the Book of Judges and exist in Somalia under the Meritocracy is a system of a government or another organization wherein Appointments are made and responsibilities are given based on demonstrated talent and Ability A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or Absolute monarchy is a monarchical Form of government where the king and queen have absolute power over everything A constitutional monarchy, or a limited monarchy, is a form of Constitutional Government, wherein either an elected or hereditary Monarch is An empire (from the Latin " Imperium " denoting military Command within the ancient Roman government) is a State that Ochlocracy ( Greek: οχλοκρατία or okhlokratía; Latin: ochlocratia) is government by mob or a mass of people Oligarchy' ( Greek, Oligarkhía) is a Form of government where Political power effectively rests with a small elite segment Plutocracy is rule by the wealthy or power provided by wealth A puppet state is a State that is nominally independent but in reality under the control of another power A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its Mixed government, also known as a mixed constitution, is a form of government that integrated facets of government by Democracy, Oligarchy, and Monarchy A constitutional Republic is a State where the Head of state and other officials are elected as representatives of the people and A parliamentary republic or parliamentary constitutional republic is a form of a Republic which operates under a Parliamentary system of government The term socialist state (or socialist republic, or workers' state) can carry one of several different (but related meanings In strictly speaking any A capitalist republic is a concept of government completely the reverse of Marxist thought Cybernetic revolt|Artificial intelligence in fiction The concept of Machine Rule is a common theme in Science fiction stories and film, in which an artificially A single-party state, one-party system or single-party system is a type of Party system Government in which a single Political party Technocracy: A form of government in which scientists and technical experts are in control "technocracy is described as that society in which those who govern justify themselves Theocracy is a form of government in which a god or deity is recognized as the supreme civil ruler Theodemocracy is a political system theorized by Joseph Smith Jr Constitutional theory defines a timocracy as either a State where only property owners may participate in Government; or a government Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a concept used to describe Political systems where a State regulates nearly every aspect of public and private A tribe, viewed historically or developmentally consists of a Social group existing before the development of or outside of States Many anthropologists use Here is a partial list of varieties of democracy. The types of Democracy listed here are not mutually exclusive Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of the people's representatives The most common mechanisms involve election of the candidate with a majority or a plurality of the votes.
Representatives may be elected or become diplomatic representatives by a particular district (or constituency), or represent the entire electorate proportionally proportional systems, with some using a combination of the two. A constituency is any cohesive corporate unit or body bound by shared structures goals or loyalty Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation or PR is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes Some representative democracies also incorporate elements of direct democracy, such as referendums. A referendum (plural referendums or referenda) ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita A characteristic of representative democracy is that while the representatives are elected by the people to act in their interest, they retain the freedom to exercise their own judgment as how best to do so.
Parliamentary democracy where government is appointed by parliamentary representatives as opposed to a 'presidential rule' by decree dictatorship. A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in American English) is a System of government in which Under a parliamentary democracy government is exercised by delegation to an executive ministry and subject to ongoing review, checks and balances by the legislative parliament elected by the people. 
A Liberal democracy is a representative democracy in which the ability of the elected representatives to exercise decision-making power is subject to the rule of law, and usually moderated by a constitution that emphasizes the protection of the rights and freedoms of individuals, and which places constraints on the leaders and on the extent to which the will of the majority can be exercised against the rights of minorities (see civil liberties). The term "liberal" in "liberal democracy" does not imply that the government of such a democracy must follow the political ideology of The rule of law, in its most basic form is the principle that no one is above the law thumb| |Broken Liberty Istanbul Archaeology Museum Civil liberties are freedoms that protect the Individual from the Government.
Direct democracy is a political system where the citizens participate in the decision-making personally, contrary to relying on intermediaries or representatives. Direct Democracy is a movement within the British Conservative Party dedicated to localism and Constitutional reform as a means of reviving public The supporters of direct democracy argue that democracy is more than merely a procedural issue (i. e. , voting).  Most direct democracies to date have been weak forms, relatively small communities, usually city-states. A city-state is a Region controlled exclusively by a City, usually having Sovereignty. However, some see the extensive use of referendums, as in California, as akin to direct democracy in a very large polity with more than 20 million in California, 1898-1998 (2000) (ISBN 0-8047-3821-1). A referendum (plural referendums or referenda) ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. In Switzerland, five million voters decide on national referendums and initiatives two to four times a year; direct democratic instruments are also well established at the cantonal and communal level. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation In Political science, the initiative (also known as popular or citizen's initiative) provides a means by which a Petition signed by a certain Vermont towns have been known for their yearly town meetings, held every March to decide on local issues. Vermont ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America.
Socialist thought has several different views on democracy. Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Social democracy, democratic socialism, and the dictatorship of the proletariat (usually exercised through Soviet democracy) are some examples. Social democracy is a Political ideology of the left and centre-left Democratic socialism is a description used by various socialist movements tendencies and organizations to emphasize the democratic character of their political orientation The " dictatorship of the proletariat " or workers' state is a term employed by Marxists that refers to what they see as a temporary state between the For the Soviet republics of the Soviet Union see Republics of the Soviet Union. Many democratic socialists and social democrats believe in a form of participatory democracy and workplace democracy combined with a representative democracy. Participatory democracy is a process emphasizing the broad Participation (decision making of constituents in the direction and operation of political systems Workplace democracy is the application of Democracy in all its forms (including Voting systems Debates Democratic structuring, Due process Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of the people's representatives
Within Marxist orthodoxy there is a hostility to what is commonly called "liberal democracy", which they simply refer to as parliamentary democracy because of its often centralized nature. The Marxist view is fundamentally opposed to Liberal democracy believing that the capitalist state cannot be Democratic by its nature as it represents Because of their desire to eliminate the political elitism they see in capitalism, Marxists, Leninists and Trotskyists believe in direct democracy implemented though a system of communes (which are sometimes called soviets). Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin. Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. Direct Democracy is a movement within the British Conservative Party dedicated to localism and Constitutional reform as a means of reviving public Traditionally the revolutionary left sees the commune as a populist replacement for the elitist parliament A soviet (сове́т, "council" originally was a workers' local council in late Imperial Russia. This system ultimately manifests itself as council democracy and begins with workplace democracy. (See Democracy in Marxism)
The only form of democracy considered acceptable to many anarchists is direct democracy. The Marxist view is fundamentally opposed to Liberal democracy believing that the capitalist state cannot be Democratic by its nature as it represents Some anarchists oppose direct democracy while others favour it. Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i Pierre-Joseph Proudhon argued that the only acceptable form of direct democracy is one in which it is recognized that majority decisions are not binding on the minority, even when unanimous. Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (ˈpruːd ɒn in British English, dɔ̃ in French) ( 15 January 1809 – 19 January 1865) was  However, anarcho-communist Murray Bookchin criticized individualist anarchists for opposing democracy, and says "majority rule" is consistent with anarchism. Murray Bookchin ( January 14, 1921 – July 30, 2006) was an American libertarian socialist, political and social Individualist anarchism refers to any of several traditions that hold that "individual conscience and the pursuit of self-interest should not be constrained by any collective  Some anarcho-communists oppose the majoritarian nature of direct democracy, feeling that it can impede individual liberty and opt in favour of a non-majoritarian form of consensus democracy, similar to Proudhon's position on direct democracy. Consensus democracy is the application of Consensus decision making to the process of legislation in a Democracy. 
Iroquois society had a form of participatory democracy and representative democracy. The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the "League of Peace and Power" the "Five Nations" the "Six Nations" or the "People of the Longhouse  Iroquois government and law was discussed by Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson.  Because of this, some scholars regard it to have influenced the formation of American representative democracy.  However scholars who reject multiculturalism disagree that the influence existed or was of any great importance. The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of racial, cultural and ethnic diversity within the Demographics of a specified 
Sometimes called "democracy without elections", sortition is the process of choosing decision makers via a random process. Sortition, also known as allotment, is an equal-chance method of selection by some form of lottery such as drawing coloured pebbles from a bag The intention is that those chosen will be representative of the opinions and interests of the people at large, and be more fair and impartial than an elected official. The technique was in widespread use in Athenian Democracy and is still used in modern jury selection. Athenian democracy developed in the Greek City-state of Athens Jury selection refers to several methods used to choose the people who will serve on a trial jury. It is not universally agreed that sortition should be considered "democracy" due to the lack of actual elections.
Consensus democracy requires varying degrees of consensus rather than just a mere democratic majority. Consensus democracy is the application of Consensus decision making to the process of legislation in a Democracy. It typically attempts to protect minority rights from domination by majority rule.
Interactive Democracy seeks to utilise information technology to involve voters in law making. Interactive Democracy (ID advocates the use of information technology to develop current democratic systems of government in order to give the electorate greater involvement It provides a system for proposing new laws, prioritising proposals, clarifying them through parliament and validating them through referendum.
The term democracy first appeared in ancient Greek political and philosophical thought. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca The philosopher Plato contrasted democracy, the system of "rule by the governed", with the alternative systems of monarchy (rule by one individual), oligarchy (rule by a small élite class) and timocracy. Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language Biography Early life Birth and family Plato was born in Athens Greece A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or Oligarchy' ( Greek, Oligarkhía) is a Form of government where Political power effectively rests with a small elite segment Constitutional theory defines a timocracy as either a State where only property owners may participate in Government; or a government  Although Athenian democracy is today considered by many to have been a form of direct democracy, originally it had two distinguishing features: firstly the allotment (selection by lot) of ordinary citizens to government offices and courts, and secondarily the assembly of all the citizens. Athenian democracy developed in the Greek City-state of Athens All the male Athenian citizens were eligible to speak and vote in the Assembly, which set the laws of the city-state, but neither political rights, nor citizenship, were granted to women, slaves, or metics. Slavery is a social-economic system under which certain persons — known as slaves — are deprived of personal freedom and compelled to perform labour or services In Ancient Greece, the term metic meant resident alien a person who did not have citizen rights in their Greek City-state ( Polis) of residence Of the 250,000 inhabitants only some 30,000 on average were citizens. Of those 30,000 perhaps 5,000 might regularly attend one or more meetings of the popular Assembly. Most of the officers and magistrates of Athenian government were allotted; only the generals (strategoi) and a few other officers were elected. For the board game see Stratego. "Strategus" redirects here 
Even though the Roman Republic contributed significantly into certain aspects of democracy, such as Laws, it never became a democracy. The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the The Romans had elections for choosing representatives, but again women, slaves, and the large foreign population were excluded. Also the votes of the wealthy were given more weight and almost all high officials, such as being member of Senate, come from a few wealthy and noble families. The Roman Senate was a political institution in Ancient Rome. 
During the Middle Ages, there were various systems involving elections or assemblies, although often only involving a minority of the population, such as the election of Gopala in Bengal, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Althing in Iceland, certain medieval Italian city-states such as Venice, the tuatha system in early medieval Ireland, the Veche in Novgorod and Pskov Republics of medieval Russia, Scandinavian Things, The States in Tyrol and Switzerland and the autonomous merchant city of Sakai in the 16th century in Japan. "Gopala" redirects here For the mathematician see Gopala (mathematician. Etymology and ethnology The exact origin of the word Bangla or Bengal is unknown though it is believed to be derived from the Dravidian-speaking tribe Bang The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, officially the Commonwealth of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania also known as the Most Serene Republic The Alþingi, Anglicized variously as Althing or Althingi, is the national Parliament —literally “(the all- thing ”—of Iceland, officially the Republic of Iceland ( ( Ísland or Lýðveldið Ísland ( This is the History of Italy during the Middle Ages. Late Antiquity Gothic Wars and the Lombard conquest Italy was invaded by the Visigoths Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the Túath (plural túatha) is an Old Irish word often translated as "people tribe or nation" Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Veche ( Russian: вече Polish: wiec Ukrainian: віче was a Popular assembly in Medieval Slavic countries The Novgorod Republic (Новгородская республика / Novgorodskaya respublika Новгородская земьля / Novgorodskaya zemlja) was a Pskov Republic ( Псковская республика in Russian) was a Russian Medieval state between the second half of the 13th century Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well See also Medieval Scandinavian laws A thing or ting ( Old Norse, Old English and Icelandic: þing; other modern The States or the Estates signifies in different countries and Dominions the assembly of the ( feudalistic) representatives of the Estates of Tyrol is a region in Western Central Europe, which included the present day Austrian state of Tyrol (consisting of North Tyrol and East Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation is a city located in Osaka Prefecture, Japan. It has been one of the largest and most important Seaports of Japan since the Medieval era However, participation was often restricted to a minority, and so may be better classified as oligarchy. Oligarchy' ( Greek, Oligarkhía) is a Form of government where Political power effectively rests with a small elite segment Most regions during the middle-ages were ruled by clergy or feudal lords.
The Parliament of England had its roots in the restrictions on the power of kings written into Magna Carta. The Parliament of England was the Legislature of the Kingdom of England. Magna Carta ( Latin for Great Charter, literally " Great Paper " also called Magna Carta Libertatum ( Great Charter of Freedoms The first elected parliament was De Montfort's Parliament in England in 1265. De Montfort's Parliament was an English parliament of 1265, instigated by Simon de Montfort 6th Earl of Leicester without royal approval However only a small minority actually had a voice; Parliament was elected by only a few percent of the population (less than 3% in 1780. ), and the system had problematic features such as rotten boroughs. The term "rotten" or "decayed" borough referred to a parliamentary borough or Constituency in Great Britain and Ireland The power to call parliament was at the pleasure of the monarch (usually when he or she needed funds). After the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the English Bill of Rights was enacted in 1689, which codified certain rights and increased the influence of the Parliament. The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland in 1688 by a union The Bill of Rights (or Declaration of Rights) is an act of the Parliament of England, with the Long title An Act Declaring the Rights and Liberties  The franchise was slowly increased and the Parliament gradually gained more power until the monarch became largely a figurehead. 
Democracy was also seen to a certain extent in bands and tribes such as the Iroquois Confederacy. A band society is the simplest form of human Society. A band generally consists of a small kin group no larger than an Extended family or Clan. A tribe, viewed historically or developmentally consists of a Social group existing before the development of or outside of States Many anthropologists use The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the "League of Peace and Power" the "Five Nations" the "Six Nations" or the "People of the Longhouse However, in the Iroquois Confederacy only the males of certain clans could be leaders and some clans were excluded. Only the oldest females from the same clans could choose and remove the leaders. This excluded most of the population. An interesting detail is that there should be consensus among the leaders, not majority support decided by voting, when making decisions.  Band societies, such as the Bushmen, which usually number 20-50 people in the band often do not have leaders and make decisions based on consensus among the majority. A band society is the simplest form of human Society. A band generally consists of a small kin group no larger than an Extended family or Clan. The Bushmen, San, Sho, Basarwa, ǃKung or Khwe are indigenous people of southern Africa that spans most areas of South Africa In Melanesia, farming village communities have traditionally been egalitarian and lacking in a rigid, authoritarian hierarchy. Melanesia (from Greek: μέλας black, νῆσος island) means "islands of the black-skinned people" Although a "Big man" or "Big woman" could gain influence, that influence was conditional on a continued demonstration of leadership skills, and on the willingness of the community. A big man, within the context of Anthropology, refers to a highly influential individual in a Tribe, especially in Melanesia and Polynesia Every person was expected to share in communal duties, and entitled to participate in communal decisions. However, strong social pressure encouraged conformity and discouraged individualism. 
Although not described as a democracy by the founding fathers, the United States has been described as the first liberal democracy on the basis that its founders shared a commitment to the principle of natural freedom and equality. Founding Fathers are persons instrumental in the establishment of an Institution, usually a political institution especially those connected to the origination of its Ideals The United States of America —commonly referred to as the  The United States Constitution, adopted in 1788, provided for an elected government and protected civil rights and liberties. The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme Law of the United States. However, in the colonial period before 1776, only adult white male property owners could vote; enslaved Africans, free black people and women were not extended the franchise. On the American frontier, democracy became a way of life, with widespread social, economic and political equality. The Frontier Thesis or Turner Thesis is the conclusion of Frederick Jackson Turner that the wellsprings of American exceptionalism and vitality have always  However the frontier did not produce much democracy in Canada, Australia or Russia. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending By the 1840s almost all property restrictions were ended and nearly all white adult male citizens could vote; and turnout averaged 60-80% in frequent elections for local, state and national officials. The system gradually evolved, from Jeffersonian Democracy to Jacksonian Democracy and beyond. Jeffersonian Democracy is the set of political goals that were named after Thomas Jefferson Jacksonian Democracy refers to the political philosophy of United States President Andrew Jackson and his supporters In Reconstruction after the Civil War (late 1860s) the newly freed slaves became citizens with (in the case of men) the right to vote.
In 1789, Revolutionary France adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen and, although short-lived, the National Convention was elected by all males. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (Déclaration des droits de l'Homme et du citoyen is a fundamental document of the French Revolution, defining During the French Revolution, the National Convention or Convention, in France, comprised the Constitutional and legislative assembly 
Liberal democracies were few and often short-lived before the late nineteenth century. Various nations and territories have claimed to be the first with universal suffrage. Universal suffrage (also universal adult suffrage, general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to
20th century transitions to liberal democracy have come in successive "waves of democracy," variously resulting from wars, revolutions, decolonization, and economic circumstances. Decolonization refers to the undoing of Colonialism, the establishment of governance or authority through the creation of settlements by another country or jurisdiction World War I and the dissolution of the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian empires resulted in the creation of new nation-states in Europe, most of them at least nominally democratic. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish In the 1920s democracy flourished, but the Great Depression brought disenchantment, and most of the countries of Europe, Latin America, and Asia turned to strong-man rule or dictatorships. Fascism and dictatorships flourished in Nazi Germany, Italy, Spain and Portugal, as well as nondemocratic regimes in the Baltics, the Balkans, Brazil, Cuba, China, and Japan, among others. Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers 
World War II brought a definitive reversal of this trend in western Europe. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The successful democratization of the American, British, and French sectors of occupied Germany (disputed ), Austria, Italy, and the occupied Japan served as a model for the later theory of regime change. The Allied Control Council or Allied Control Authority, known in German as the Alliierter Kontrollrat, also referred to as the Four Powers (German At the end of World War II, Japan was occupied by the Allied Powers, led by the United States with contributions also from Australia, British " Regime change " is literally the replacement of one Regime with another However, most of Eastern Europe, including the Soviet sector of Germany was forced into the non-democratic Soviet bloc. Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent. The German Democratic Republic ( GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik DDR; commonly known in English as East Germany) was a Socialist state During the Cold War, the term Communist Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) was used to refer to the Soviet Union and countries it either controlled or that were The war was followed by decolonization, and again most of the new independent states had nominally democratic constitutions. Decolonization refers to the undoing of Colonialism, the establishment of governance or authority through the creation of settlements by another country or jurisdiction India, however emerged as the world's largest democracy and continues to be so.  In the decades following World War II, most western democratic nations had mixed economies and developed a welfare state, reflecting a general consensus among their electorates and political parties. A mixed economy is an Economic system that incorporates aspects of more than one economic system This article refers specifically to the Welfare state of the United Kingdom. In the 1950s and 1960s, economic growth was high in both the western and Communist countries; it later declined in the state-controlled economies. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based By 1960, the vast majority of nation-states were nominally democracies, although the majority of the world's populations lived in nations that experienced sham elections, and other forms of subterfuge (particularly in Communist nations and the former colonies. )
A subsequent wave of democratization brought substantial gains toward true liberal democracy for many nations. Democratization ( British English: Democratisation) is the transition to a more democratic Political regime. Spain, Portugal (1974), and several of the military dictatorships in South America returned to civilian rule in the late 1970s and early 1980s (Argentina in 1983, Bolivia, Uruguay in 1984, Brazil in 1985, and Chile in the early 1990s). The Spanish transition to democracy was the era when Spain moved from the Dictatorship of Francisco Franco to a liberal democratic state. Portugal 's experience with democracy before the Carnation Revolution of 1974 had not been particularly successful South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a This article is about the History of Argentina. See also History of South America, History of Latin America, History of the Americas, and This is the History of Bolivia.See also the History of Latin America, the History of the Americas, and the History of present-day nations This is about the History of Uruguay. See also the History of South America. The Chilean transition to democracy (colloquially known in Chile as the Transición) began on September 11, 1980, when a Constitution establishing This was followed by nations in East and South Asia by the mid- to late 1980s. Economic malaise in the 1980s, along with resentment of communist oppression, contributed to the collapse of the Soviet Union, the associated end of the Cold War, and the democratization and liberalization of the former Eastern bloc countries. The Soviet Union 's collapse into independent nations began early in 1985 Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the In general liberalization (or liberalisation) refers to a relaxation of previous government restrictions usually in areas of social or economic policy During the Cold War, the term Communist Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) was used to refer to the Soviet Union and countries it either controlled or that were The most successful of the new democracies were those geographically and culturally closest to western Europe, and they are now members or candidate members of the European Union . The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The liberal trend spread to some nations in Africa in the 1990s, most prominently in South Africa. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Some recent examples of attempts of liberalization include the Indonesian Revolution of 1998, the Bulldozer Revolution in Yugoslavia, the Rose Revolution in Georgia, the Orange Revolution in Ukraine, the Cedar Revolution in Lebanon, and the Tulip Revolution in Kyrgyzstan. Suharto retired in May 1998 following collapse of support for his three-decade long Presidency of Indonesia. The 5th October Overthrow (sometimes colloquially called the Bulldozer Revolution) is a term referring to the series of events that occurred in 2000 in the Federal Republic The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Савезна Република Југославија / Savezna Republika Jugoslavija) or FRY was a federal state The "Revolution of Roses quot (often translated into English as the Rose Revolution) (ვარდების რევოლუცია - vardebis Georgia ( საქართველო, Sakartvelo) is a Transcontinental country in the Caucasus region situated at the dividing line between The Orange Revolution (Помаранчева революція Pomarancheva revolyutsiya) was a series of Protests and political events that took place in Ukraine Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. The Cedar Revolution ( Arabic: ثورة الأرز - thawrat al-arz) or Independence Intifada ( intifāḍat al-istiqlāl) was a chain of demonstrations Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية The Tulip Revolution (sometimes called the Pink Revolution) refers to the overthrow of President Askar Akayev and his government in the Central Asian Kyrgyzstan (ˈkɻ̩gɪztɑn (AmE or /'kɝgəztan/ (BrE Kyrgyz: Кыргызстан; Russian: Киргизия or Киргизстан or Кыргызстан
Currently, there are 123 countries that are democratic, and the trend is increasing (up from 40 in 1972). As such, it has been speculated that this trend may continue in the future to the point where liberal democratic nation-states become the universal standard form of human society. A society is a Population of Humans characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals that share a distinctive Culture and Institutions This prediction forms the core of Francis Fukayama's "End of History" controversial theory. Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama (born 27 October 1952) is an American Philosopher, political economist, and author The End of History and the Last Man is a 1992 book by Francis Fukuyama, expanding on his 1989 essay "The End of History?" published in the international These theories are criticized by those who fear an evolution of liberal democracies to Post-democracy, and other who points out the high number of illiberal democracies. The term Post-democracy designate a State conducted by Democratic rules but whose application is progressively limited An illiberal democracy is a governing system in which although fairly free elections take place citizens are cut off from real power due to the lack of Civil liberties.
Aristotle contrasted rule by the many (democracy/polity), with rule by the few (oligarchy/aristocracy), and with rule by a single person (tyranny/monarchy or today autocracy). Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Polity ( Greek: Πολιτεία or Πολίτευμα transliterated as Politeía or Políteuma) was originally a term used in Ancient Greece Oligarchy' ( Greek, Oligarkhía) is a Form of government where Political power effectively rests with a small elite segment Aristocracy is a form of Government, where rule is established through an internal struggle over who has the most status and influence over society and internal relations In modern usage a tyrant is a single ruler holding absolute power over a State or within an Organization. A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or An autocracy is a Form of government in which the Political power is held by a single self-appointed ruler He also thought that there was a good and a bad variant of each system (he considered democracy to be the degenerate counterpart to polity). 
For Aristotle the underlying principle of democracy is freedom, since only in a democracy the citizens can have a share in freedom. In essence, he argues that this is what every democracy should make its aim. There are two main aspects of freedom: being ruled and ruling in turn, since everyone is equal according to number, not merit, and to be able to live as one pleases.
|“||But one factor of liberty is to govern and be governed in turn; for the popular principle of justice is to have equality according to number, not worth, and if this is the principle of justice prevailing, the multitude must of necessity be sovereign and the decision of the majority must be final and must constitute justice, for they say that each of the citizens ought to have an equal share; so that it results that in democracies the poor are more powerful than the rich, because there are more of them and whatever is decided by the majority is sovereign. This then is one mark of liberty which all democrats set down as a principle of the constitution. And one is for a man to live as he likes; for they say that this is the function of liberty, inasmuch as to live not as one likes is the life of a man that is a slave. This is the second principle of democracy, and from it has come the claim not to be governed, preferably not by anybody, or failing that, to govern and be governed in turns; and this is the way in which the second principle contributes to equalitarian liberty. ||”|
Among political theorists, there are many contending conceptions of democracy.
Initially after the American and French revolutions the question was open whether a democracy, in order to restrain unchecked majority rule, should have an elitist upper chamber, the members perhaps appointed meritorious experts or having lifetime tenures, or should have a constitutional monarch with limited but real powers. Republicanism is the Ideology of governing a nation as a Republic, with an emphasis on Liberty, Rule of law, Popular sovereignty An upper house is one of two chambers of a Bicameral Legislature, the other chamber being the Lower house. A constitutional monarchy, or a limited monarchy, is a form of Constitutional Government, wherein either an elected or hereditary Monarch is Some countries (as Britain, the Netherlands, Belgium, Scandinavian countries and Japan) turned powerful monarchs into constitutional monarchs with limited or, often gradually, merely symbolic roles. Often the monarchy was abolished along with the aristocratic system (as in the U. S. , France, China, Russia, Germany, Austria, Hungary, Italy, Greece and Egypt). Many nations had elite upper houses of legislatures which often had lifetime tenure, but eventually these senates lost power (as in Britain) or else became elective and remained powerful (as in the United States).
Qualified majority voting (QMV) is designed by the Treaty of Rome to be the principal method of reaching decisions in the European Council of Ministers. Voting procedures for decisions not requiring unanimity Here is an overview of the formerly used currently used and proposed voting systems employed in the Council of the European The Council of the European Union is the principal decision making institution in the European Union (EU This system allocates votes to member states in part according to their population, but heavily weighted in favour of the smaller states. This might be seen as a form of representative democracy, but representatives to the Council might be appointed rather than directly elected. Some might consider the "individuals" being democratically represented to be states rather than people, as with many other international organizations. International Organization is a peer-reviewed Academic journal that covers the entire field of International affairs.
European Parliament members are democratically directly elected on the basis of universal suffrage, may be seen as an example of a supranational democratic institution. The European Parliament ( Europarl or EP) is the only directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU Supranationalism is a method of decision-making in political communities wherein power is democratically entrusted to independent experienced appointed personalities or to representatives
Aside from the public sphere, similar democratic principles and mechanisms of voting and representation have been used to govern other kinds of communities and organizations.
The United Nations has declared 15 September as the International Day of Democracy. * Democracy, a broad article on democracy especially its application in modernity The Community of Democracies ( CD) is an Intergovernmental organization of democracies and Democratizing countries with a stated commitment to The Economist has in a study examined the state of Democracy in 167 countries and attempted to quantify this with an Economist Intelligence Unit Index of Democracy The democratic peace theory (or liberal peace theory or simply the democratic peace) holds that democracies &mdash usually liberal democracies Democratization ( British English: Democratisation) is the transition to a more democratic Political regime. Direct Democracy is a movement within the British Conservative Party dedicated to localism and Constitutional reform as a means of reviving public E-democracy, a combination of the words " electronic " and " Democracy," comprises the use of electronic Communications Technologies An election is a Decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold formal office The Foucault/Habermas debate is a dispute concerning whether Michel Foucault 's ideas of "power analytics" and "genealogy" or Jürgen Habermas 's Freedom deficit is a term coined by a group of Arab scholars for the UNDP Arab Human Development Report in 2002 Freedom House is a United States -based international Non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on Democracy, political The term "liberal" in "liberal democracy" does not imply that the government of such a democracy must follow the political ideology of Majority rule is a decision rule that makes one of two alternatives the "winner" based on which has more than half the votes Media democracy is a production and distribution model which promotes a Mass media system that informs and empowers all members of society and enhances democratic values Netocracy was a term invented by the editorial board of the American technology magazine ''Wired'' in the early 1990s Polymerase (DNA directed lambda, also known as POLL, is a human Gene. In modern political science the term Polyarchy ( Greek: poly many arkhe rule was introduced by Robert A Sociocracy is a system of governance using consent-based decision making among equivalent individuals and an organizational structure based on Cybernetic principles Sortition, also known as allotment, is an equal-chance method of selection by some form of lottery such as drawing coloured pebbles from a bag The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Events 668 - Eastern Roman Emperor Constans II is assassinated in his bath at Syracuse Italy. 
Events 41 - Gaius Caesar (Caligula, known for his eccentricity and cruel Despotism, is Assassinated by his disgruntled Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.