Death is when signs of life in an organism cease. Life is a state that distinguishes Organisms from non-living objects such as non-life and dead organisms being manifested by growth through Metabolism It refers both to a specific event and, particularly in humans, to a condition the true nature of which it has for millennia been a central concern of the world's religious traditions to penetrate. The world's principal Religions and spiritual traditions may be classified into a small number of major groups or world religions'.  Numerous factors can cause death: predation, disease, habitat destruction, senescence, conflict, malnutrition, for example, or mere accidents resulting in terminal physical injury. A disease is an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs bodily functions and can be deadly Habitat destruction is the process in which natural Habitat is rendered functionally unable to support the species originally present Senescence refers to the biological processes of a living Organism approaching an advanced age (i War is an international relations Dispute, characterized by organized Violence between National Military units Malnutrition is a general term for a medical condition caused by an improper or insufficient diet. An accident is a specific identifiable unexpected unusual and unintended external event which occurs in a particular time and place without apparent or deliberate Treatment of physical trauma is described here and in First aid. Principal cause of death in people in developed countries is disease precipitated by aging. The term developed country, or advanced country, is used to categorize countries with developed Economies in which the tertiary and quaternary sectors A disease is an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs bodily functions and can be deadly Ageing or aging (American English is the accumulation of changes in an organism  The chief concern of medicine has been to postpone and avert death. Medicine is the art and science of healing It encompasses a range of Health care practices evolved to maintain and restore Human Health by the Precise medical definition of death, however, becomes more problematical, paradoxically, as scientific knowledge and technology advance. Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding Technology is a broad concept that deals with a Species ' usage and knowledge of Tools and Crafts and how it affects a species' ability to control and adapt
In animals, small movements of the limbs (for example twitching legs or wings) known as a postmortem spasm can sometimes be observed following death. Sometimes after an organism has died, small movements of the limbs (a twitch of a finger or even a whole leg moving can be observed Pallor mortis is a postmortem paleness which accompanies death due to a lack of capillary circulation throughout the body . Pallor mortis ( Latin: paleness of death is a Postmortem paleness which happens in those with light skin almost instantly (in the 15–120 minutes after the death Capillaries are the smallest of a body's Blood vessels measuring 5-10 μm in diameter which connect Arterioles and Venules and enable the interchange Algor mortis describes the predictable decline in body temperature until ambient temperature is reached. Algor mortis ( Latin: algor —coolness mortis —of death is the reduction in body temperature following Death. Thermoregulation is the ability of an Organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries even when temperature surrounding is very different Room temperature (also referred to as ambient temperature) is a common term to denote a certain Temperature within enclosed space at which humans are accustomed Within a few hours of death rigor mortis is observed with a chemical change in the muscles, causing the limbs of the corpse to become stiff (Latin rigor) and difficult to move or manipulate. Rigor mortis is one of the recognizable signs of Death ( Latin mors mortis) that is caused by a chemical change in the Muscles A chemical reaction is a process that always results in the interconversion of Chemical substances The substance or substances initially involved in a chemical reaction are called Muscle (from Latin musculus, diminutive of mus "mouse" is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the A cadaver or corpse is a dead Body. "Cadaver" is normally used as a more formal term for a body being used in medical training or research Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Assuming mild temperatures, full rigor occurs at about 12 hours, eventually subsiding to relaxation at about 36 hours; however, decomposition is not always a slow process. Decomposition (or spoilage) refers to the break down of tissue of a formerly living Organism into simpler forms of matter Fire, for example, is the primary mode of decomposition in most grassland ecosystems. A wildfire, also known as a wildland fire, forest fire, brush fire, vegetation fire, grass fire, Peat fire, An ecosystem is a natural unit consisting of all plants animals and micro-organisms( Biotic factors in an area functioning together with all of the non-living physical ( 
Some organisms have hard parts such as shells or bones which may fossilize before decomposition can occur. Bones are rigid organs that form part of the Endoskeleton of Vertebrates They function to move support and protect the various organs of the body produce Decomposition (or spoilage) refers to the break down of tissue of a formerly living Organism into simpler forms of matter Fossils are the mineralized or otherwise preserved remains or traces (such as footprints) of animals, plants, and other organisms. FOSSIL is a standard protocol for allowing serial communication for Telecommunications programs under the DOS Operating system. A mineral is a naturally occurring substance formed through geological processes that has a characteristic chemical composition a highly ordered atomic structure and specific Fossils vary in size from microscopic, such as single cells, to gigantic, such as dinosaurs. A microscope ( Greek: ( micron) = small + ( skopein) = to look or see is an instrument for viewing objects that are A fossil normally preserves only a small portion of the deceased organism, usually that portion that was partially mineralized during life, such as the bones and teeth of vertebrates, or the chitinous exoskeletons of invertebrates. Vertebrates are members of the Subphylum Vertebrata, Chordates with backbones or spinal columns The grouping sometimes includes Chitin ( C 8 H 13 O 5 N)n (ˈkaɪtən is a long-chain Polymer of a N-acetylglucosamine An exoskeleton is an external Skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body in contrast to the internal Endoskeleton of for example a Human. An invertebrate is an Animal lacking a Vertebral column. The group includes 98% of all animal Species — all animals except those in the Chordate Preservation of soft tissues, such as in mummification, is extremely rare in the fossil record. In Medicine, the term soft tissue refers to tissues that connect support or surround other structures and organs of the body A mummy is a Corpse whose Skin and Flesh have been preserved by either intentional or Incidental exposure to Chemicals extreme
Death is an important part of the process of natural selection. Competition can be defined as an interaction between Organisms or Species, in which the fitness of one is lowered by the presence of another Natural selection is the process by which favorable Heritable traits become more common in successive Generations of a Population of In Biology and Ecology, extinction is the cessation of existence of a Species or group of taxa. Natural selection is the process by which favorable Heritable traits become more common in successive Generations of a Population of Organisms that are less adapted to their current environment than others are more likely to die having produced fewer offspring, reducing their contribution to the gene pool of succeeding generations. An adaptation is a characteristic of an Organism that has been favored by Natural selection and In Population genetics, a gene pool is the complete set of unique Alleles in a Species or Population. Weaker genes are thus eventually bred out of a population, leading to processes such as speciation and extinction. Speciation is the Evolutionary process by which new biological Species arise It should be noted however that reproduction plays an equally important role in determining survival, for example an organism that dies young but leaves many offspring will have a much greater Darwinian fitness than a long-lived organism which leaves only one. Reproduction is the Biological process by which new individual Organisms are produced Fitness (often denoted w in Population genetics models is a central concept in evolutionary theory.
Extinction is the cessation of existence of a species or group of taxa, reducing biodiversity. In Biology and Ecology, extinction is the cessation of existence of a Species or group of taxa. In Biology, a species is one of the basic units of Biological classification and a Taxonomic rank. A taxon (plural taxa) or taxonomic unit, is a name designating an organism or a group of Organisms In Biological nomenclature according to Biodiversity is the variation of Life forms within a given Ecosystem, Biome or for the entire Earth. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of that species (although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point). A population bottleneck (or genetic bottleneck) is an Evolutionary event in which a significant percentage of a population or species is killed or otherwise prevented Because a species' potential range may be very large, determining this moment is difficult, and is usually done retrospectively. Population distribution redirects here For the probability distribution of a statistical population see Probability distribution and Statistical population This difficulty leads to phenomena such as Lazarus taxa, where a species presumed extinct abruptly "reappears" (typically in the fossil record) after a period of apparent absence. In Paleontology, a Lazarus taxon (plural taxa) is a Taxon that disappears from one or more periods of the Fossil record, only to appear FOSSIL is a standard protocol for allowing serial communication for Telecommunications programs under the DOS Operating system.
Through evolution, new species arise through the process of speciation — where new varieties of organisms arise and thrive when they are able to find and exploit an ecological niche — and species become extinct when they are no longer able to survive in changing conditions or against superior competition. eVolution is the third Album by eLDee, it was due to be released in 2008 Speciation is the Evolutionary process by which new biological Species arise In Ecology, a niche (pronounced nich nēsh or nish A shorthand definition of niche is how an organism makes a living A typical species becomes extinct within 10 million years of its first appearance, although some species, called living fossils, survive virtually unchanged for hundreds of millions of years. Living fossil is an informal term for any living Species (or Clade) of organism which appears Only one in a thousand species that have existed remain today. 
After death an organism's remains become part of the biogeochemical cycle. In Ecology and Earth science, a biogeochemical cycle is a circuit or pathway by which a Chemical element or Molecule moves through both biotic Animals may be consumed by a predator or scavenger. Scavenging, or necrophagy, is a Carnivorous Feeding behaviour in which a predator consumes Corpses or Carrion that were killed Organic material may then be further decomposed by detritivores, organisms which recycle detritus, returning it to the environment for reuse in the food chain. Organic matter (or organic material) is Matter that has come from a once-living Organism; is capable of Detritivores, also known as detritus feeders or saprophages, are Heterotrophs that obtain Nutrients by consuming Detritus (decomposing In Biology, detritus is non-living particulate organic material (as opposed to dissolved organic material Food chains, also called food networks and/or trophic networks, describe the feeding relationships between species within an Ecosystem. Examples include earthworms, woodlice and dung beetles. Earthworm is the usual name for the largest members of Oligochaeta (which is either a class or subclass depending on the author in the phylum Annelida In classical Woodlice (known by many Common names see below) are Crustaceans with a rigid segmented long Exoskeleton and fourteen jointed limbs Dung beetles are beetles which feed partly or exclusively on Feces. Microorganisms also play a vital role, raising the temperature of the decomposing material as they break it down into simpler molecules. A microorganism (also spelled micro organism or micro-organism and also called a microbe) is an Organism that is Microscopic (usually Not all material need be decomposed fully however; for example coal is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems. Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source Fuels that is Hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the Earth’s crust. A swamp is a Wetland featuring temporary or permanent inundation of large areas of land by shallow bodies of water
Enquiry into the evolution of aging aims to explain why almost all living things weaken and die with age (a notable exception being hydra, which may be biologically immortal). Enquiry into the evolution of ageing aims to explain why almost all living things weaken Hydra is a Genus of simple fresh-water animals possessing radial symmetry. Biological Immortality can be defined as the absence of a sustained increase in rate of mortality as a function of chronological age The evolutionary origin of senescence remains one of the fundamental puzzles of biology. Senescence refers to the biological processes of a living Organism approaching an advanced age (i
Historically, attempts to define the exact moment of death have been problematic. Death was once defined as the cessation of heartbeat (cardiac arrest) and of breathing, but the development of CPR and prompt defibrillation have rendered that definition inadequate because breathing and heartbeat can sometimes be restarted. The heart is a muscular organ in all Vertebrates responsible for pumping Blood through the Blood vessels by repeated rhythmic A cardiac arrest, also known as cardiorespiratory arrest, cardiopulmonary arrest or circulatory arrest, is the abrupt cessation of normal circulation of Breathing takes Oxygen in and Carbon dioxide out of the body Aerobic Organisms require oxygen to create energy via respiration, in Defibrillation is the definitive treatment for the life-threatening Cardiac arrhythmias Ventricular fibrillation and Ventricular tachycardia. This is now called "clinical death". Clinical death is the popular term for cessation of blood circulation and breathing Events which were causally linked to death in the past no longer kill in all circumstances; without a functioning heart or lungs, life can sometimes be sustained with a combination of life support devices, organ transplants and artificial pacemakers. Causality (but not causation) denotes a necessary relationship between one event (called cause and another event (called effect) which is the direct consequence Life support, in the medical field refers to a set of therapies for preserving a patient's life when essential body systems are not functioning sufficiently to sustain life unaided For other uses see Pacemaker (disambiguation A pacemaker (or artificial pacemaker, so as not to be confused with the heart's natural pacemaker
Today, where a definition of the moment of death is required, doctors and coroners usually turn to "brain death" or "biological death": People are considered dead when the electrical activity in their brain ceases (cf. Brain death is a legal definition of death that emerged in the 1960s as a response to the ability to resuscitate individuals and mechanically keep the heart and lungs working persistent vegetative state). A persistent vegetative state (PVS is a condition of patients with severe Brain damage in whom Coma has progressed to a state of wakefulness without detectable It is presumed that a stoppage of electrical activity indicates the end of consciousness. Consciousness has been defined loosely as a constellation of attributes of Mind such as Subjectivity, Self-awareness, Sentience, and the However, suspension of consciousness must be permanent, and not transient, as occurs during sleep, and especially a coma. Sleep is a Natural state of bodily rest observed throughout the animal kingdom In Medicine, a coma (from the Greek koma, meaning deep sleep is a profound state of Unconsciousness. In the case of sleep, EEGs can easily tell the difference. Identifying the moment of death is important in cases of transplantation, as an organ for transplant must be harvested as quickly as possible after the death of the body.
The possession of brain activities, or ability to resume brain activity, is a necessary condition to legal personhood in the United States. "It appears that once brain death has been determined … no criminal or civil liability will result from disconnecting the life-support devices. " (Dority v. Superior Court of San Bernardino County, 193 Cal. San Bernardino County is a county in the US state of California. Rptr. 288, 291 (1983))
Those people maintaining that only the neo-cortex of the brain is necessary for consciousness sometimes argue that only electrical activity there should be considered when defining death. The neocortex ( Latin for "new Bark " or "new Rind " is a part of the Brain of Mammals It is the outer layer of Eventually it is possible that the criterion for death will be the permanent and irreversible loss of cognitive function, as evidenced by the death of the cerebral cortex. Cognition is a concept used in different ways by different disciplines but is generally accepted to mean the process of awareness or thought The cerebral cortex is a structure within the Brain that plays a key role in Memory, Attention, perceptual Awareness, Thought, All hope of recovering human thought and personality is then gone given current and foreseeable medical technology. Personality psychology studies personality based on theories of individual differences However, at present, in most places the more conservative definition of death — irreversible cessation of electrical activity in the whole brain, as opposed to just in the neo-cortex — has been adopted (for example the Uniform Determination Of Death Act in the United States). The Uniform Determination of Death Act ( UDDA) is a Uniform act approved in the United States in 1980 by the National Conference of Commissioners on The United States of America —commonly referred to as the In 2005, the case of Terri Schiavo brought the question of brain death and artificial sustenance to the front of American politics. Theresa Marie Schindler "Terri" Schiavo ( December 3 1963 – March 31 2005 was an American woman who suffered brain damage and became dependent on a Feeding tube Politics of the United States takes place in the framework of a presidential, Federal republic where the President of the United States (the Head of
Even by whole-brain criteria, the determination of brain death can be complicated. EEGs can detect spurious electrical impulses, while certain drugs, hypoglycemia, hypoxia, or hypothermia can suppress or even stop brain activity on a temporary basis. A drug, broadly speaking is any chemical substance that when absorbed into the body Hypoglycemia or hypoglycaemia is the medical term for a pathologic state produced by a lower than normal level of Glucose ( sugar) in the blood Chronic Hypoxia is a pathological condition in which the body as a whole ( generalized hypoxia) or region of the body ( tissue hypoxia) is deprived of adequate Hypothermia is a condition in which an organism's temperature drops below that required for normal Metabolism and bodily functions Because of this, hospitals have protocols for determining brain death involving EEGs at widely separated intervals under defined conditions.
There are many anecdotal references to people being declared dead by physicians and then 'coming back to life', sometimes days later in their own coffin, or when embalming procedures are just about to begin. Embalming, in most modern Cultures is the Art and Science of temporarily preserving human remains to forestall Decomposition Owing to significant scientific advancements in the Victorian era, some people in Britain became obsessively worried about living after being declared dead. Culture The Victorian fascination with novelty resulted in a deep interest in the relationship between modernity and cultural continuities The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located 
A first responder is not authorized to pronounce a patient dead. A certified first responder is a person who has completed forty to sixty hours of training in providing prehospital care for medical emergencies. Some EMT training manuals specifically state that a person is not to be assumed dead unless there are clear and obvious indications that death has occurred. The Emergency Medical Technician ( EMT) exists in many countries and is a health care provider trained to provide prehospital emergency medical care A Training Manual is a Book or Booklet of instructions designed to improve the quality of a performed task  These indications include mortal decapitation, rigor mortis (rigidity of the body), livor mortis (blood pooling in the part of the body at lowest elevation), decomposition, incineration, or other bodily damage that is clearly inconsistent with life. Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head or beheading, is the cutting off of the head of a person or animal Rigor mortis is one of the recognizable signs of Death ( Latin mors mortis) that is caused by a chemical change in the Muscles Livor mortis or postmortem lividity or hypostasis ( Latin: livor —bluish color mortis —of death one of the signs of Death If there is any possibility of life and in the absence of a do not resuscitate (DNR) order, emergency workers are instructed to begin resuscitation and not end it until a patient has been brought to a hospital to be examined by a physician. A Do Not Resuscitate, or DNR order is a written order from a doctor that Resuscitation should not be attempted if a person suffers cardiac Emergency services are organizations which ensure Public safety by addressing different emergencies This frequently leads to situation of a patient being pronounced dead on arrival (DOA). Dead on arrival or DOA is a term used to indicate that a patient was found to be dead upon the arrival of professional medical assistance such as a hospital often However, some states allow paramedics to pronounce death. A paramedic is a medical professional usually a member of the emergency medical service, who primarily provides Pre-hospital advanced medical and This is usually based on specific criteria. Aside from the above mentioned, conditions include advanced measures including CPR, intubation, IV access, and administering medicines without regaining a pulse for at least 20 minutes. In Medicine, intubation refers to the placement of a tube into an external or internal orifice of the body
In cases of electric shock, CPR for an hour or longer can allow stunned nerves to recover, allowing an apparently dead person to survive. "Electrocute" redirects here For the band see Electrocute (band. A nerve is an enclosed cable-like bundle of peripheral Axons (the long slender projections of Neurons. People found unconscious under icy water may survive if their faces are kept continuously cold until they arrive at an emergency room. The term face refers to the central sense organ complex for those animals that have one normally on the ventral surface of the head and can depending on the definition  This "diving response", in which metabolic activity and oxygen requirements are minimal, is something humans share with cetaceans called the mammalian diving reflex. Metabolism is the set of Chemical reactions that occur in living Organisms in order to maintain Life. The Order Cetacea (sɪˈteɪʃiə L cetus, whale includes Whales Dolphins and Porpoises Cetus is The mammalian diving reflex optimizes Mammals Respiration to stay underwater for a long time 
As medical technologies advance, ideas about when death occurs may have to be re-evaluated in light of the ability to restore a person to vitality after longer periods of apparent death (as happened when CPR and defibrillation showed that cessation of heartbeat is inadequate as a decisive indicator of death). The lack of electrical brain activity may not be enough to consider someone scientifically dead. Therefore, the concept of information theoretical death has been suggested as a better means of defining when true death actually occurs, though the concept has few practical applications outside of the field of cryonics. Information-theoretic death is the destruction of the human brain and information within it to such an extent that recovery of the original mind and person that occupied the brain is Cryonics is the low-temperature Preservation of Humans and other Animals that can no longer be sustained by contemporary Medicine until
There have been some scientific attempts to bring dead organisms back to life, but with limited success.  In science fiction scenarios where such technology is readily available, real death is distinguished from reversible death. A scenario (from Italian, that which is pinned to the scenery) is a synthetic description of an event or series of actions and events Real death is a term used in some Science fiction stories where a character who has died may be resurrected in some way
See also: Legal death
Legally a person is dead if a Statement of Death, which is similar to a Birth Certificate, is approved by a licensed medical practitioner. Legal death is a legal pronouncement by a qualified person that further medical care is not appropriate and that a patient should be considered dead under the law
Death can be caused by disease, suffocation/asphyxiation or prolonged lack of oxygen to the brain, or physical trauma as a result of an accident ("unintentional circumstance"), homicide ("intentional act by someone else"), or suicide ("intentional act against one's self"). This list shows causes of Human Deaths worldwide for a single year 2002 arranged by the associated Mortality rate. A disease is an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs bodily functions and can be deadly An accident is a specific identifiable unexpected unusual and unintended external event which occurs in a particular time and place without apparent or deliberate List of countries by homicide rate Homicide ( Latin homicidium, homo human being + caedere to cut kill refers to the act of killing another  The leading cause of death in developing countries is infectious disease. Developing countries are countries that haven't reached Western-style standards of democratic government free market economy industrialization social programs and human rights guaranties An infectious disease is a clinically evident Disease resulting from the presence of Pathogenic microbial agents including Pathogenic viruses Pathogenic The leading causes of death in developed countries are atherosclerosis (heart disease and stroke), cancer, and other diseases related to obesity and aging. The term developed country, or advanced country, is used to categorize countries with developed Economies in which the tertiary and quaternary sectors Atherosclerosis is a Disease affecting arterial Blood vessels It is a chronic inflammatory response in the walls of arteries in large part due to the accumulation Heart disease is an Umbrella term for a variety for different diseases affecting the Heart. A stroke is the rapidly developing loss of brain functions due to a disturbance in the blood vessels supplying blood to the brain Cancer (medical term Malignant Neoplasm) is a class of Diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled Obesity is a condition in which excess Body fat has accumulated to such an extent that health may be negatively affected Ageing or aging (American English is the accumulation of changes in an organism These conditions cause loss of homeostasis, leading to cardiac arrest, causing loss of oxygen and nutrient supply, causing irreversible deterioration of the brain and other tissues. Homeostasis (from Greek: ὅμος hómos, "equal" and ιστημι istēmi, "to stand" lit A cardiac arrest, also known as cardiorespiratory arrest, cardiopulmonary arrest or circulatory arrest, is the abrupt cessation of normal circulation of Oxygen (from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys (acid literally "sharp" from the taste of acids and -γενής (-genēs (producer literally begetteris the The brain is the center of the Nervous system in animals All Vertebrates and the majority of Invertebrates have a brain Tissue is a cellular organizational level intermediate between cells and a complete organism With improved medical capability, dying has become a condition to be managed. Respite care is the provision of short-term temporary relief to those who are caring for family members who might otherwise require permanent placement in a facility outside Home deaths, once normal, are now rare in the developed world.
In developing nations, inferior sanitary conditions and lack of access to modern medical technology makes death from infectious diseases more common than in developed countries. Developing countries are countries that haven't reached Western-style standards of democratic government free market economy industrialization social programs and human rights guaranties Medical technology refers to the diagnostic or therapeutic application of Science and Technology to improve the management of Health conditions An infectious disease is a clinically evident Disease resulting from the presence of Pathogenic microbial agents including Pathogenic viruses Pathogenic The term developed country, or advanced country, is used to categorize countries with developed Economies in which the tertiary and quaternary sectors One such disease is tuberculosis, a bacterial disease which killed 1. Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or T u' b' erculosis Bacillus --> is a common 7 million people in 2004.  Malaria causes about 400–900 million cases of fever and approximately one to three million deaths annually. Malaria is a vector -borne Infectious disease caused by Protozoan Parasites It is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions including  AIDS death toll in Africa may reach 90-100 million by 2025. 
According to Jean Ziegler, who was the United Nations Special reporter on the Right to Food from 2000 to March 2008; mortality due to malnutrition accounted for 58% of the total mortality rate in 2006. Jean Ziegler (born April 19, 1934) is a senior professor of Sociology at the University of Geneva and the The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Malnutrition is a general term for a medical condition caused by an improper or insufficient diet. Ziegler says worldwide approximately 62 millions people died from all causes and of those deaths more than 36 millions died of hunger or diseases due to deficiencies in micronutrients. Dietary minerals are the Chemical elements required by living Organisms other than the four elements Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and "
Tobacco smoking killed 100 million people worldwide in the 20th century and could kill 1 billion people around the world in the 21st century, the WHO Report warned. Tobacco is an Agricultural product recognized as an addictive drug processed from the fresh Leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. 
Many leading developed world causes of death can be postponed by diet and physical activity, but the accelerating incidence of disease with age still imposes limits on human longevity. This article is primarily about the human diet For a discussion of animal diets see List of feeding behaviours. Physical fitness is used in two close meanings general fitness (a state of Health and well-being and specific fitness (a task-oriented definition based on the ability The word longevity is sometimes used as a synonym for " Life expectancy " in Demography. The evolutionary cause of aging is, at best, only just beginning to be understood. Enquiry into the evolution of ageing aims to explain why almost all living things weaken It has been suggested that direct intervention in the aging process may now be the most effective intervention against major causes of death. 
The signs of death, strongly indicating that a person is no longer alive, are:
An autopsy, also known as a postmortem examination or an obduction, is a medical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a human corpse to determine the cause and manner of a person's death and to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present. Rigor mortis is one of the recognizable signs of Death ( Latin mors mortis) that is caused by a chemical change in the Muscles Livor mortis or postmortem lividity or hypostasis ( Latin: livor —bluish color mortis —of death one of the signs of Death Decomposition (or spoilage) refers to the break down of tissue of a formerly living Organism into simpler forms of matter The Anatomy Lesson of Dr Nicolaes Tulp is a 1632 Oil painting by Rembrandt housed in the Mauritshuis museum in The Hague, the Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (July 15 1606 &ndash October 4 1669 was a Dutch painter and etcher. An autopsy, also known as a post-mortem examination, necropsy, or obduction, is a Medical procedure that consists of a thorough Examination A medical procedure is a course of action intended to achieve a result in the care of patients used by medical or paramedical personnel To examine somebody or something is to inspect it closely hence an examination is a detailed inspection or analysis of an object or person Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus A cadaver or corpse is a dead Body. "Cadaver" is normally used as a more formal term for a body being used in medical training or research A disease is an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs bodily functions and can be deadly Injury or bodily injury is Damage or Harm caused to the Structure or function of the Body caused by an outside agent or It is usually performed by a specialized medical doctor called a pathologist. A physician, medical practitioner or medical doctor who practices Medicine, and is concerned with maintaining or restoring human Health Pathology (from Greek grc πάθος pathos, "fate harm" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study and
Autopsies are either performed for legal or medical purposes. A forensic autopsy is carried out when the cause of death may be a criminal matter, while a clinical or academic autopsy is performed to find the medical cause of death and is used in cases of unknown or uncertain death, or for research purposes. Autopsies can be further classified into cases where external examination suffices, and those where the body is dissected and an internal examination is conducted. Permission from next of kin may be required for internal autopsy in some cases. Next of kin is the term used to describe a person's closest living blood relative or Relatives. Once an internal autopsy is complete the body is reconstituted by sewing it back together. Autopsy is important in a medical environment and may shed light on mistakes and help improve practices.
A necropsy is a postmortem examination performed on a non-human animal, such as a pet.
Life extension refers to an increase in maximum or average lifespan, especially in humans, by slowing down or reversing the processes of aging. Life extension refers to an increase in maximum or average lifespan, especially in humans by slowing down or reversing the processes of aging. Life extension refers to an increase in maximum or average lifespan, especially in humans by slowing down or reversing the processes of aging. Maximum life span is a measure of the maximum amount of time one or more members of a group has been observed to survive between birth and death Life expectancy is the average number of years of life remaining at a given age Senescence refers to the biological processes of a living Organism approaching an advanced age (i Average lifespan is determined by vulnerability to accidents and age and lifestyle-related afflictions such as cancer or cardiovascular disease. An accident is a specific identifiable unexpected unusual and unintended external event which occurs in a particular time and place without apparent or deliberate Cancer (medical term Malignant Neoplasm) is a class of Diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled Cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular diseases refers to the class of diseases that involve the Heart or Blood vessels ( arteries and Extension of average lifespan can be achieved by good diet, exercise and avoidance of hazards such as smoking. This article is primarily about the human diet For a discussion of animal diets see List of feeding behaviours. Tobacco Smoking is the inhalation of smoke from burned dried or cured leaves of the Tobacco plant most often in the form of a Cigarette. Maximum lifespan is determined by the rate of aging for a species inherent in its genes. Maximum life span is a measure of the maximum amount of time one or more members of a group has been observed to survive between birth and death Ageing or aging (American English is the accumulation of changes in an organism History See also History of genetics The existence of genes was first suggested by Gregor Mendel (1822-1884 who in the 1860s studied inheritance Currently, the only widely recognized method of extending maximum lifespan is calorie restriction. Calorie restriction, or caloric restriction (CR aims to improve health and slow the aging process by limiting dietary energy intake Theoretically, extension of maximum lifespan can be achieved by reducing the rate of aging damage, by periodic replacement of damaged tissues, or by molecular repair or rejuvenation of deteriorated cells and tissues. Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells Engineering and materials methods and suitable biochemical and Nanobiotechnology is the branch of Nanotechnology with biological and biochemical applications or uses Rejuvenation is the procedure of reversing the aging process, thus regaining youth
Researchers of life extension are a subclass of biogerontologists known as "biomedical gerontologists". Gerontology (from Greek γερο gero, "old age" and λόγος Logos, "speech" lit Gerontology (from Greek γερο gero, "old age" and λόγος Logos, "speech" lit They try to understand the nature of aging and they develop treatments to reverse aging processes or to at least slow them down, for the improvement of health and the maintenance of youthful vigor at every stage of life. Those who take advantage of life extension findings and seek to apply them upon themselves are called "life extensionists" or "longevists". The primary life extension strategy currently is to apply available anti-aging methods in the hope of living long enough to benefit from a complete cure to aging once it is developed, which given the rapidly advancing state of biogenetic and general medical technology, could conceivably occur within the lifetimes of people living today.
Many biomedical gerontologists and life extensionists believe that future breakthroughs in tissue rejuvenation with stem cells, organs replacement (with artificial organs or xenotransplantations) and molecular repair will eliminate all aging and disease as well as allow for complete rejuvenation to a youthful condition. Life extension refers to an increase in maximum or average lifespan, especially in humans by slowing down or reversing the processes of aging. Rejuvenation is the procedure of reversing the aging process, thus regaining youth Stem cells are cells found in most if not all multi-cellular Organisms. In Biology, an organ ( Latin: organum, "instrument tool" from Greek όργανον - organon "organ instrument In Biology, an organ ( Latin: organum, "instrument tool" from Greek όργανον - organon "organ instrument Xenotransplantation ( xeno- from the Greek meaning "foreign" is the transplantation of living cells tissues or organs In Chemistry, a molecule is defined as a sufficiently stable electrically neutral group of at least two Atoms in a definite arrangement held together by Whether such breakthroughs can occur within the next few decades is impossible to predict. Some life extensionists arrange to be cryonically preserved upon legal death so that they can await the time when future medicine can eliminate disease, rejuvenate them to a lasting youthful condition and repair damage caused by the cryonics process. Cryonics is the low-temperature Preservation of Humans and other Animals that can no longer be sustained by contemporary Medicine until Medicine is the art and science of healing It encompasses a range of Health care practices evolved to maintain and restore Human Health by the A disease is an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs bodily functions and can be deadly Rejuvenation is the procedure of reversing the aging process, thus regaining youth Cryonics is the low-temperature Preservation of Humans and other Animals that can no longer be sustained by contemporary Medicine until
Death is the center of many traditions and organizations, and is a feature of every culture around the world. This article is about Death in the different Cultures and organizations around the world Much of this revolves around the care of the dead, as well as the afterlife and the disposal of bodies upon the onset of death. AfterLife is a film drama set in Scotland directed by Alison Peebles made in 2003 about an ambitious Scottish journalist forced to choose between The disposal of human corpses does, in general, begin with the last offices before significant time has passed, and ritualistic ceremonies often occur, most commonly interment or cremation. Disposal of human corpses is the practice and process of dealing with the remains of a deceased Human being. The last offices are the procedures performed usually by a Nurse in the Developed world, to a dead person shortly after Death has been confirmed Cremation is the act of reducing a Corpse by burning, generally in a crematorium furnace or crematory fire This is not a unified practice, however, as in Tibet for instance the body is given a sky burial and left on a mountain top. Definitions of Tibet See also Definitions of Tibet Name In English The English word Tibet, like the word for Tibet in most European Sky burial or ritual Dissection was once a common funerary practice in Tibet wherein a human corpse is cut into small pieces and placed on a mountaintop Mummification or embalming is also prevalent in some cultures, to retard the rate of decay. Embalming, in most modern Cultures is the Art and Science of temporarily preserving human remains to forestall Decomposition
Such rituals are accompanied by grief and mourning in almost all cases, and this is not limited to human loss, but extends to the loss of an animal. Grief is a multi-faceted response to loss Although conventionally focused on the emotional response to loss it also has physical cognitive behavioral social and philosophical Mourning is in the simplest sense synonymous with Grief over the Death of someone The loss of a Pet or an Animal to which one has become emotionally bonded can be an intense loss comparable with the Death of a loved one Legal aspects of death are also part of many cultures, particularly the settlement of the deceased estate and the issues of inheritance and in some countries, inheritance taxation. An estate is the Net worth of a person at any point in time It is the sum of a person's Assets - legal rights interests and entitlements to Property of "Heir" and "Heiress" redirect here For the men and women fragrances endorsed by Paris Hilton see Heiress (fragrance. Estate tax and Death duty redirect here Inheritance tax, estate tax and death duty are the names given to various taxes which
Capital punishment is also a divisive aspect of death in culture. Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. In most places that practice capital punishment today, the death penalty is reserved as punishment for premeditated murder, espionage, treason, or as part of military justice. Murder is the unlawful killing of another human person with Malice aforethought, as defined in Common Law countries In Law, treason is the Crime that covers some of the more serious acts of disloyalty to one's sovereign or Nation. Military law is a distinct legal system to which members of Armed forces are subject In some countries, sexual crimes, such as adultery and sodomy, carry the death penalty, as do religious crimes such as apostasy, the formal renunciation of one's religion. Adultery is the voluntary Sexual intercourse between a married person and another person who is not his or her Spouse, though in many places it is Sodomy (ˈsɒdəmi is a term used today predominantly in Law (derived from traditional Christian usage to describe the act of Anal intercourse, Oral intercourse In many retentionist countries, drug trafficking is also a capital offense. At one time Capital punishment was used in almost every part of the globe but over the last few decades many Countries have abolished it The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global Black market consisting of the cultivation manufacture distribution and sale of illegal Drugs In China human trafficking and serious cases of corruption are also punished by the death penalty. Human trafficking is the recruitment transportation harbouring or receipt of people for the purposes of slavery forced labor (including bonded labor or debt bondage and servitude Political corruption is the use of governmental powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain In militaries around the world courts-martial have imposed death sentences for offenses such as cowardice, desertion, insubordination, and mutiny. A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a Military court. These military courts can determine Punishments for members of the Military subject Coward redirects here For other meanings including as a surname see Coward (disambiguation. In Military terminology desertion is the Abandonment of a " Duty " or post without permission from one's Government or superior Insubordination is the act of a subordinate deliberately disobeying a lawful order Mutiny is a conspiracy among members of a group of similarly-situated individuals (typically members of the Military; or the Crew of any ship even 
Death in warfare and in suicide attack also have cultural links, and the ideas of dulce et decorum est pro patria mori, mutiny punishable by death, grieving relatives of dead soldiers and death notification are embedded in many cultures. This article is about suicide attacks for political and/or military reasons Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori is a line from the Roman lyrical Poet Horace 's Odes (iii 2 Mutiny is a conspiracy among members of a group of similarly-situated individuals (typically members of the Military; or the Crew of any ship even A death notification is a letter delivered to the family of a soldier or public service member who has died on duty Recently in the western world, with the increase in terrorism following the September 11 attacks, but also further back in time with suicide bombers and terrorism in Northern Ireland, kamikaze missions in World War II and suicide missions in a host of other conflicts in history, death for a cause by way of suicide attack, and martyrdom have had significant cultural impacts. Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of ( is a word of Japanese origin which in English usually refers to the Suicide attacks by military aviators from the Empire of Japan against World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The term martyr ( Greek μάρτυς martys "witness" is most commonly used today to describe an individual who sacrifices their life (or personal freedom
Suicide in general, and particularly euthanasia are also points of cultural debate. Euthanasia (literally "good death" in Ancient Greek) refers to the practice of ending a life in a painless manner Both acts are understood very differently in contrasting cultures. In Japan, for example, ending a life with honor by hari kari is considered a desirable death, whereas in many western cultures the idea of euthanasia is looked upon with mixed feelings. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. is a form of Japanese ritual suicide by Disembowelment. Seppuku was originally reserved only for Samurai. Death is also personified in many cultures, with such creations as the Grim Reaper, Azrael, Father Time. In English Death is often given the name the " Grim Reaper " and shown as a skeletal figure carrying a large Scythe, and wearing a midnight black gown robe In English Death is often given the name the " Grim Reaper " and shown as a skeletal figure carrying a large Scythe, and wearing a midnight black gown robe Azrael is the Islamic Archangel of Death. It is an English form of the Arabic name Azra'il (عزرائيل or Azra'eil (عزرایل the name traditionally attributed Father Time (known as Pakiž in some countries is a Personification of Time. Such cultural ideas are part of a global fascination with death. The fascination with death extends far back into human history