Data processing is any computer process that converts data into information or knowledge. A computer is a Machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions. In computing a process is an instance of a Computer program that is being sequentially executed by a computer system that has the ability to run several computer Debt AIDS Trade in Africa (or DATA) is a Multinational non-government organization founded in January 2002 in London by U2 's Information as a concept has a diversity of meanings from everyday usage to technical settings Knowledge is defined ( Oxford English Dictionary) variously as (i expertise and skills acquired by a person through experience or education the theoretical or practical understanding  The processing is usually assumed to be automated and running on a computer. A computer is a Machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions. Because data are most useful when well-presented and actually informative, data-processing systems are often referred to as information systems to emphasize their practicality. The term information system (IS sometimes refers to a System of persons Data records and activities that process the data and Information in an organization Nevertheless, both terms are roughly synonymous, performing similar conversions; data-processing systems typically manipulate raw data into information, and likewise information systems typically take raw data as input to produce information as output.
Data processing, data are defined as numbers or characters that represent measurements from observable phenomena. Debt AIDS Trade in Africa (or DATA) is a Multinational non-government organization founded in January 2002 in London by U2 's A number is an Abstract object, tokens of which are Symbols used in Counting and measuring. For other uses see Character. In Computer and machine-based Telecommunications terminology a character is a unit of Measurement is the process of estimating the magnitude of some attribute of an object such as its length or weight relative to some standard ( unit of measurement) such as A single datum is a single measurement from observable phenomena. Debt AIDS Trade in Africa (or DATA) is a Multinational non-government organization founded in January 2002 in London by U2 's Measured information is then algorithmically derived and/or logically deduced and/or statistically calculated from multiple data. (evidence). Evidence in its broadest sense includes anything that is used to determine or demonstrate the Truth of an assertion Information is defined as either a meaningful answer to a query or a meaningful stimulus that can cascade into further queries. Information as a concept has a diversity of meanings from everyday usage to technical settings
For example gathering seismic data leads to alteration of seismic data to suppress noise, enhance signal and migrate seismic events to the appropriate location in space. Processing steps typically include analysis of velocities and frequencies, static corrections, deconvolution, normal moveout, dip moveout, stacking, and migration, which can be performed before or after stacking. Seismic processing facilitates better interpretation because subsurface structures and reflection geometries are more apparent.
More generally, the term data processing can apply to any process that converts data from one format to another, although data conversion would be the more logical and correct term. Data conversion is the conversion of one form of computer data to another--the changing of Bits from being in one format to a different one usually for the purpose From this perspective, data processing becomes the process of converting information into data and also the converting of data back into information. Information as a concept has a diversity of meanings from everyday usage to technical settings Debt AIDS Trade in Africa (or DATA) is a Multinational non-government organization founded in January 2002 in London by U2 's The distinction is that conversion doesn't require a question (query) to be answered. For example, information in the form of a string of characters forming a sentence in English is converted or encoded meaningless hardware-oriented data to evermore-meaningful information as the processing proceeds toward the human being. Information as a concept has a diversity of meanings from everyday usage to technical settings ENCODE (the ENC yclopedia O f D NA E lements is a public research consortium launched by the US National Human Genome Research Institute ( NHGRI
Conversely, that simple example for pedagogical purposes here is usually described as an embedded system (for the software resident in the keyboard itself) or as (operating-)systems programming, because the information is derived from a hardware interface and may involve overt control of the hardware through that interface by an operating system. An embedded system is a special-purpose Computer system designed to perform one or a few dedicated functions often with Real-time computing constraints Systems programming (or system programming) is the activity of Programming System software. Typically control of hardware by a device driver manipulating ASIC or FPGA registers is not viewed as part of data processing proper or information systems proper, but rather as the domain of embedded systems or (operating-)systems programming. FPGAs should not be confused with the Flip-chip pin grid array, a form of integrated circuit packaging Systems programming (or system programming) is the activity of Programming System software. Instead, perhaps a more conventional example of the established practice of using the term data processing is that a business has collected numerous data concerning an aspect of its operations and that this multitude of data must be presented in meaningful, easy-to-access presentations for the managers who must then use that information to increase revenue or to decrease cost. That conversion and presentation of data as information is typically performed by a data-processing application. Application software is a subclass of Computer software that employs the capabilities of a computer directly and thoroughly to a task that the user wishes to perform
When the domain from which the data are harvested is a science or an engineering, data processing and information systems are considered too broad of terms and the more specialized term data analysis is typically used, focusing on the highly-specialized and highly-accurate algorithmic derivations and statistical calculations that are less often observed in the typical general business environment. Data analysis is the process of looking at and summarizing Data with the intent to extract useful Information and develop conclusions In these contexts data analysis packages like DAP, gretl or PSPP are often used. Dap is a statistics and graphics program that performs data management analysis and graphical visualisation tasks which are commonly required in statistical consulting practice gretl is an Open-source Software application for compiling and interpreting data mainly for Econometrics. PSPP is a Free software application for analysis of sampled data This divergence of culture is exhibited in the typical numerical representations used in data processing versus numerical; data processing's measurements are typically represented by integers or by fixed-point or binary-coded decimal representations of numbers whereas the majority of data analysis's measurements are often represented by floating-point representation of rational numbers. The integers (from the Latin integer, literally "untouched" hence "whole" the word entire comes from the same origin but via French In Computing and electronic systems binary-coded decimal ( BCD) is an encoding for decimal numbers in which each digit is represented by its own binary In Computing, floating point describes a system for numerical representation in which a string of digits (or Bits represents a Real number.
Practically all naturally occurring processes can be viewed as examples of data processing systems where "observable" information in the form of pressure, light, etc. In Data processing or Information processing, a Data Processor or Data Processing Unit or Data Processing System is a System Pressure (symbol 'p' is the force per unit Area applied to an object in a direction perpendicular to the surface Light, or visible light, is Electromagnetic radiation of a Wavelength that is visible to the Human eye (about 400–700 are converted by human observers into electrical signals in the nervous system as the senses we recognize as touch, sound, and vision. Observation is either an activity of a living being (such as a Human) which senses and assimilates the Knowledge of a Phenomenon, or the recording of data The nervous system is a Network of specialized cells that communicate information about an animal's surroundings and itself Senses are the physiological methods of Perception. The senses and their operation classification and theory are overlapping topics studied by a variety of fields Sound' is Vibration transmitted through a Solid, Liquid, or Gas; particularly sound means those vibrations composed of Frequencies In Psychology, visual perception is the ability to interpret information from Visible light reaching the Eyes The resulting Perception is also Even the interaction of non-living systems may be viewed in this way as rudimentary information processing systems. An information processor or information processing system, as its name suggests is a System (be it Electrical, Mechanical or Biological Conventional usage of the terms data processing and information systems restricts their use to refer to the algorithmic derivations, logical deductions, and statistical calculations that recur perennially in general business environments, rather than in the more expansive sense of all conversions of real-world measurements into real-world information in, say, an organic biological system or even a scientific or engineering system.
In order to be processed by a computer, the data needs first to be converted into a machine readable format. Once data is in digital format, various procedures can be applied on the data to get useful information. Data Processing includes all the processes from Data Entry up to Data Mining: