Data (singular: datum) refers to a collection of natural phenomena descriptors including the results of experience, observation or experiment, or a set of premises. Experience as a general concept comprises Knowledge of or skill in or Observation of some thing or some event gained through involvement in or Observation is either an activity of a living being (such as a Human) which senses and assimilates the Knowledge of a Phenomenon, or the recording of data In scientific inquiry an experiment ( Latin: Ex- periri, "to try out" is a method of investigating particular types of research questions or In Discourse and Logic, a premise is a claim that is a reason (or element of a set of reasons for or objection against some other claim This may consist of numbers, words, or images, particularly as measurements or observations of a set of variables. A number is an Abstract object, tokens of which are Symbols used in Counting and measuring. A word is a unit of Language that carries meaning and consists of one or more Morphemes which are linked more or less tightly together and has a Phonetic An image (from Latin imago) or picture is an artifact usually two-dimensional that has a similar appearance to some subject &mdashusually Measurement is the process of estimating the magnitude of some attribute of an object such as its length or weight relative to some standard ( unit of measurement) such as A variable (ˈvɛərɪəbl is an Attribute of a physical or an abstract System which may change its Value while it is under Observation.
The word data is the plural of Latin datum, neuter past participle of dare, "to give", hence "something given". Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Debt AIDS Trade in Africa (or DATA) is a Multinational non-government organization founded in January 2002 in London by U2 's In Linguistics, grammatical genders, sometimes also called Noun classes are classes of nouns reflected in the behavior of associated words every noun must belong In Linguistics, a participle (from Latin participium, a Calque of Greek μετοχη "partaking" is a derivative of a non-finite The past participle of "to give" has been used for millennia, in the sense of a statement accepted at face value; one of the works of Euclid, circa 300 BC, was the Dedomena (in Latin, Data). In Linguistics, a participle (from Latin participium, a Calque of Greek μετοχη "partaking" is a derivative of a non-finite Euclid ( Greek:.) fl 300 BC also known as Euclid of Alexandria, is often referred to as the Father of Geometry In discussions of problems in geometry, mathematics, engineering, and so on, the terms givens and data are used interchangeably. Geometry ( Greek γεωμετρία; geo = earth metria = measure is a part of Mathematics concerned with questions of size shape and relative position Mathematics is the body of Knowledge and Academic discipline that studies such concepts as Quantity, Structure, Space and Engineering is the Discipline and Profession of applying technical and scientific Knowledge and Such usage is the origin of data as a concept in computer science: data are numbers, words, images, etc. Computer science (or computing science) is the study and the Science of the theoretical foundations of Information and Computation and their , accepted as they stand. Pronounced dey-tuh, dat-uh, or dah-tuh.
Experimental data are data generated within the context of a scientific investigation. Data produced by an experimental or quasi-experimental design Mathematically, data can be grouped in many ways.
In English, the word datum is still used in the general sense of "something given", and more specifically in cartography, geography, geology, NMR and drafting to mean a reference point, reference line, or reference surface. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία - geografia) is the study of the Earth and its lands features inhabitants and phenomena Geology (from Greek γη gê, "earth" and λόγος Logos, "speech" lit A technical drawing is a form of graphic communication This type of Drawing is used in the transforming of an idea into physical form More generally speaking, any measurement or result can be called a (single) datum, but data point is more common. Both datums (see usage in datum article) and the originally Latin plural data are used as the plural of datum in English, but data is more commonly treated as a mass noun and used in the singular, especially in day-to-day usage. Debt AIDS Trade in Africa (or DATA) is a Multinational non-government organization founded in January 2002 in London by U2 's In Linguistics, a mass noun (also uncountable noun or non-count noun) is a common Noun that presents entities as an unbounded mass In linguistics grammatical number is a Grammatical category of nouns pronouns and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one" For example, "This is all the data from the experiment". This usage is inconsistent with the rules of Latin grammar and traditional English, which would instead suggest "These are all the data from the experiment". Many British and UN academic, scientific, and professional style guides (e. A style guide or style manual is a set of standards for design and writing of documents either for general use or for a specific publication or organization g. , see page 43 of the World Health Organization Style Guide) request that authors treat data as a plural noun. Nevertheless, it is now usually treated as a singular mass noun in informal usage, but usage in scientific publications shows a strong UK/U. S divide. U. S. usage tends to treat data in the singular, including in serious and academic publishing, although some major newspapers (such as the New York Times) regularly use it in the plural.  UK usage now widely accepts treating data as singular in standard English, including everyday newspaper usage at least in non-scientific use.  UK scientific publishing usually still prefers treating it as a plural. . Some UK university style guides recommend using data for both singular and plural use and some recommend treating it only as a singular in connection with computers. 
Raw data are numbers, characters, images or other outputs from devices to convert physical quantities into symbols, in a very broad sense. In Computer science, data is anything in a form suitable for use with a Computer. A number is an Abstract object, tokens of which are Symbols used in Counting and measuring. For other uses see Character. In Computer and machine-based Telecommunications terminology a character is a unit of An image (from Latin imago) or picture is an artifact usually two-dimensional that has a similar appearance to some subject &mdashusually Such data are typically further processed by a human or input into a computer, stored and processed there, or transmitted (output) to another human or computer. Input is the term denoting either an entrance or changes which are inserted into a System and which activate/modify a Process. A computer is a Machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions. Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, refers to Computer components devices and recording media that retain digital Output is the term denoting either an exit or changes which exit a System and which activate/modify a Process. Raw data is a relative term; data processing commonly occurs by stages, and the "processed data" from one stage may be considered the "raw data" of the next.
Mechanical computing devices are classified according to the means by which they represent data. An analog computer represents a datum as a voltage, distance, position, or other physical quantity. An analog computer (spelt analogue in British English is a form of Computer that uses continuous physical phenomena such as electrical mechanical A digital computer represents a datum as a sequence of symbols drawn from a fixed alphabet. A computer is a Machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions. An alphabet is a standardized set of letters basic written symbols each of which roughly represents a Phoneme, a Spoken language, either The most common digital computers use a binary alphabet, that is, an alphabet of two characters, typically denoted "0" and "1". More familiar representations, such as numbers or letters, are then constructed from the binary alphabet.
Some special forms of data are distinguished. A computer program is a collection of data, which can be interpreted as instructions. Computer programs (also software programs, or just programs) are instructions for a Computer. Most computer languages make a distinction between programs and the other data on which programs operate, but in some languages, notably Lisp and similar languages, programs are essentially indistinguishable from other data. Lisp (or LISP) is a family of Computer Programming languages with a long history and a distinctive fully parenthesized syntax It is also useful to distinguish metadata, that is, a description of other data. Metadata ( meta data, or sometimes metainformation) is "data about data" of any sort in any media A similar yet earlier term for metadata is "ancillary data. " The prototypical example of metadata is the library catalog, which is a description of the contents of books.
The terms information and knowledge are frequently used for overlapping concepts. Information as a concept has a diversity of meanings from everyday usage to technical settings Knowledge is defined ( Oxford English Dictionary) variously as (i expertise and skills acquired by a person through experience or education the theoretical or practical understanding The main difference is in the level of abstraction being considered. --> Abstraction is the process or result of generalization by reducing the information Data are of highest level, information is next, and finally, knowledge is of the lowest level among all three. In other words, one can call both information and knowledge as data, not vice versa. However, in recent interdisciplinary research a few independent specializations of these terms have been proposed. . . .
Information as a concept bears a diversity of meanings, from everyday usage to technical settings. Generally speaking, the concept of information is closely related to notions of constraint, communication, control, data, form, instruction, knowledge, meaning, mental stimulus, pattern, perception, and representation.
Beynon-Davies  uses the concept of a sign to distinguish between data and information. A sign is an entity which signifies another entity A natural sign is an entity which bears a causal relation to the signified entity as thunder is a sign of storm Information as a concept has a diversity of meanings from everyday usage to technical settings Data are symbols. Information occurs when symbols are used to refer to something.
This article was originally based on material from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing, which is licensed under the GFDL. The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing ( FOLDOC) is an online searchable encyclopedic Dictionary of Computing subjects The GNU Free Documentation License ( GNU FDL or simply GFDL) is a Copyleft License for free documentation designed by the Free Software