The Darling Scarp (previously known as the Darling Range or Darling Ranges) is a low escarpment running North-South to the East of the Swan Coastal Plain and Perth, Western Australia. In Geomorphology, an escarpment is a transition zone between different physiogeographic provinces that involves a sharp steep Elevation differential characterized The Swan Coastal Plain in Western Australia is the geographic feature that lies directly west of the Darling Scarp, and which contains the Swan River Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia. Western Australia is a state occupying the entire western third of the Australian continent.
Maps from the 1830s show the scarp labelled "General Darlings Range"; this later became Darling Range, a name by which the formation was still commonly known in the late 20th century, despite common understanding of it being an escarpment. General Sir Ralph Darling, GCH (1772 – 2 April 1858) was a British colonial Governor and the seventh Governor of New There is also a tendency to identify the locations on or behind the scarp as being in the "Perth Hills" (or simply "The Hills"). Perth Hills is a term used primarily for marketing purposes to identify that part of the Darling Scarp and hinterland east of the scarp that lies within the shires of Mundaring
The earliest traverses by British settlers in the Swan River Colony occurred in the 1830s. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established permanent residence there often to colonize the area Swan River Colony was a British settlement established at the Swan River on the west coast of Australia in 1829 The best known of these is the expedition of Ensign Robert Dale, who appears to have gone from a point near Guildford, to the south side of Greenmount Hill and up through the Helena Valley. Lieutenant Robert Dale (1812&ndash 20 July 1853[[ Notes|1]] was the first European explorer to cross the Darling Range in Western Guildford, a suburb of Perth, Western Australia, was established in 1829 on the Swan River, being sited near a permanent fresh water supply Greenmount is a locality and a geographical feature in the Shire of Mundaring, Western Australia, on the edge of the Darling Scarp. Helena Valley is the name of a river valley and a locality in the foothills of the Darling Scarp in Perth Western Australia.
The Darling Scarp is the local expression, in the Perth area, of the extensive Darling Fault, a major and ancient geological discontinuity separating the Archaean Yilgarn Craton in the east from the younger Pinjarra Orogen and overlying Phanerozoic Perth Basin to the west. The Darling Fault is one of the longest and most significant faults in Australia, exposed for over 1 000 km in a north–south orientation near the west coast of southern The Yilgarn Craton is a large Craton which constitutes the bulk of the Western Australian land mass The Phanerozoic (occasionally Phanaerozoic) Eon is the current eon in the Geologic timescale, and the one during which abundant animal life has existed The Perth Basin is a thick Sedimentary basin in Western Australia. The Darling Fault is exposed for over 1,000 km, from the area east of Shark Bay, to the southern coast of Western Australia east of Albany. Albany ( is located in the Great Southern region of Western Australia, situated around a port on the southern coast
The Archaean granites and gneisses of the Yilgarn Craton form the high ground of the Perth Hills and can be observed in road cuts, with good examples in the Mundaring Weir area. Granite (ˈɡrænɪt is a common and widely occurring type of intrusive, Felsic, igneous rock. Gneiss (ˈnaɪs is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from preexisting formations that were originally Mundaring Weir is the name of a Dam (and historically the adjoining locality which are located from Perth Western Australia in the Darling Scarp. The only exposed sediments of the Perth Basin, west of the fault, are of Cenozoic age, and comprise the material such as sandy limestone, travertine and dune sand on which the city of Perth is built, including sand dunes of Pleistocene age formed during the last Ice Age. The Cenozoic (also Caenozoic or Cainozoic) Era (ˌsiːnəˈzoʊɪk/ /ˌsɛn- (meaning "new life" ( Greek ( kainos) "new" Limestone is a Sedimentary rock composed largely of the Mineral Calcite ( Calcium carbonate: CaCO3 Travertine is a Sedimentary rock. It is a natural chemical precipitate of Carbonate minerals; typically Aragonite, but often recrystallized to The Pleistocene ('plaɪstəsin is the epoch from 18 million to 10000 years BP covering the world's recent period
This area is also a distinct physiographic section of the larger Yilgarn Block province, which in turn is part of the larger West Australian Shield division. The Yilgarn Craton is a large Craton which constitutes the bulk of the Western Australian land mass Australian Shield, also called the Western Australian Shield or Western Plateau, occupies more than half of the continent of Australia.
Also, in traditionally hot summers, strong easterly winds travelling across the scarp have presented serious issues for planes using the Perth Airport due to the alignment of the runways. The Bureau of Meteorology is an Executive Agency of the Australian Government responsible for providing weather services to Australia and surrounding areas The Swan Coastal Plain in Western Australia is the geographic feature that lies directly west of the Darling Scarp, and which contains the Swan River Perth Airport is an Australian domestic and international Airport located south of Guildford Western Australia, and is the major commercial airport A documented accident in 1999 involving wind shear from the scarp is at the Perth Airport article.
Since the start of the 20th century, the Darling escarpment has been exploited for stone quarries, Forestry and Bauxite Mining. Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body Forestry is the Art and Science of managing forests tree Plantations and related Natural resources. Extensive timber railways and timber mills and the supporting communities existed along the escarpment due to the high quality jarrah forests. Lumber or timber is Wood in any of its stages from felling through readiness for use as structural Material for Construction, or
In the early twentieth century, most of the main rivers flowing off the escarpment had mainly been utilised for dams for water supply.
The dams on the scarp, or slightly inland include: Mundaring Weir (on the Helena River), and the Canning Dam (on the Canning River). Mundaring Weir is the name of a Dam (and historically the adjoining locality which are located from Perth Western Australia in the Darling Scarp. The Helena River is a tributary of the Swan River in Western Australia. Canning Dam is a major water source for the city of Perth Western Australia. Canning River may refer to Canning River (Western Australia Canning River (Alaska
The scarp also defines the easternmost limit of the various aquifers present in the Perth Basin sediments, most notably the Southwest Yarragadee Aquifer. An aquifer is an underground layer of Water -bearing Permeable rock or unconsolidated materials ( Gravel, Sand, Silt, or Clay The Yarragadee Aquifer is a significant freshwater Aquifer located in the south west of Western Australia and predominately beneath the Swan Coastal Plain The scarp forms a divide between the hypersaline groundwaters typical of the Yilgarn Craton basement from the fresh ground waters of the Perth Basin. Some dams along the scarp are contaminated by seepage of saline water from the granite into the base of the dam's water column and must be periodically flushed to preserve water quality.
Also in the early to mid-twentieth century numerous rock quarries existed on the edge of the escarpment - visible and affecting both the aesthetics and the environment of the escarpment.
In the area where the Helena River emerges from its valley to the sandplain, there are still four quarries evident, despite being unused for fifty years or more. The Helena River is a tributary of the Swan River in Western Australia. The Swan Coastal Plain in Western Australia is the geographic feature that lies directly west of the Darling Scarp, and which contains the Swan River
There have also been visible quarries on the scarp in the Gosnells and Herne Hill areas. Gosnells is a suburb of Perth Western Australia, located within the City of Gosnells. Herne Hill is a suburb of Perth, Western Australia, located in the City of Swan local government area.
Legislative restrictions upon such developments were initiated in the late twentieth century to prevent further visible scars on the western face of the scarp.
In the late twentieth century, the proving of bauxite deposits correlating to the extensive Jarrah Forests saw wide ranging protests against the proposals to mine the forests.
The lengthy process of protest forced the government and miners to check their original proposals, and wide ranging processes to guard segments of the Jarrah Forests from mining ensued.
Also in the late twentieth century, dieback effecting Jarrah timber in particular infected large tracts of the forest. Phytophthora cinnamomi is a soil-borne Water mould that produces an infection which causes a condition in plants called "root rot" or "dieback" Currently only the restriction of vehicle access has proved effective in slowing the spread of this disease. This gained greater acceptance and publicity through the decision to allow Rally Australia to operate along services roads provided that the vehicles had a thorough wash including the under carriage at the end of each stage. Rally Australia is an automobile rally event which was held in and around Perth, Western Australia between 1988 and 2006
In late 2004, the largest bushfire in the Northern Jarrah Forest for at least 100 years created significant issues for the forest as well. As a result of this fire intensity the Government increased the volume of controlled burns along the entire escarpment to reduce the build up of flammable materials.
In the early 2000s, Greenmount National Park and John Forrest National Park have been repeatedly burnt by bushfires - in most cases through suspected arson. Greenmount National Park is in the locality of Greenmount Western Australia ( Australia) 22 km east of Perth. John Forrest is a National park in Western Australia ( Australia) 24 km east of Perth.
The escarpment is currently the site of a number of approved mines of bauxite (or Aluminium ore), which are mined by the company Alcoa along with others. Bauxite is the most important Aluminium Ore. It consists largely of the minerals Gibbsite Al(OH3 Boehmite γ-AlO(OH and Alcoa Inc ( is the world's third largest producer of Aluminum, behind Rio Tinto Alcan and Rusal. The bauxite mines (and rehabilitated areas after mining) have erased all the evidence of the networks of the timber railways.
The localities or suburbs on the 'edge' of the scarp are those that sit at its western edge, and in most cases command excellent views of the Swan Coastal Plain:
The suburbs near Midland and Kalamunda are often referred to as the Perth Hills
The suburbs to the south of Kalamunda are the locations of the main Perth Metropolitan television station transmission towers. The Swan Coastal Plain in Western Australia is the geographic feature that lies directly west of the Darling Scarp, and which contains the Swan River Perth Hills is a term used primarily for marketing purposes to identify that part of the Darling Scarp and hinterland east of the scarp that lies within the shires of Mundaring Midland is a suburb in the Perth, Western Australia metropolitan area as well as the regional centre for the City of Swan local government area Stratton is a mostly residential eastern suburb of Perth, Western Australia, located within the City of Swan. Swan View is an eastern suburb of Perth, Western Australia. Its Local Government Areas are the City of Swan and the Shire of Mundaring Greenmount is a locality and a geographical feature in the Shire of Mundaring, Western Australia, on the edge of the Darling Scarp. Darlington, Western Australia is a locality in the Shire of Mundaring on the Darling Scarp, dissected by Nyaania Creek and north of the Helena Boya is a locality on the Darling Scarp, in the Shire of Mundaring, Western Australia. Helena Valley is the name of a river valley and a locality in the foothills of the Darling Scarp in Perth Western Australia. Gooseberry Hill is a suburb of Perth Western Australia, located within the Shire of Kalamunda. Lesmurdie is a suburb of Perth Western Australia, located within the Shire of Kalamunda. Walliston is a suburb of Perth Western Australia, located within the Shire of Kalamunda. Bickley is a suburb of Perth Western Australia, located within the Shire of Kalamunda. Carmel is a suburb of Perth Western Australia, located within the Shire of Kalamunda. Armadale is a suburb within the City of Armadale, located on the southeastern edge of Perth's metropolitan area Martin is a suburb of Perth Western Australia, located within the City of Gosnells. Roleystone is an outer southeastern suburb of Perth, Western Australia. Karragullen is a suburb of Perth Western Australia, located within the City of Armadale. Bedfordale is a suburb of Perth Western Australia, located within the City of Armadale.
The potential for further landuse conflict exists in the presence of unrelinquished mining leases over large tracts of the escarpment; plans by Governmental operations in Forest reserves; water authority sensitivity towards access to its water catchment areas; bushfire control measures; and demands for further intensification of urbanization on the escarpment.
A network of reserves of crown lands on the escarpment have been connected into a regional park to maintain and conserve parts of the escarpment.
In most cases the reserves or parks had individual names prior to being incorporated into the larger park, for example the Serpentine National Park, John Forrest National Park and the Greenmount National Park, or were simply known as State Forests (eg State Forest No. Serpentine is a National park in Western Australia ( Australia) 52 km southeast of Perth. John Forrest is a National park in Western Australia ( Australia) 24 km east of Perth. Greenmount National Park is in the locality of Greenmount Western Australia ( Australia) 22 km east of Perth. 42).