A dangerous good is any solid, liquid, or gas that can harm people, other living organisms, property, or the environment. A solid' object is in the States of matter characterized by resistance to Deformation and changes of Volume. Liquid is one of the principal States of matter. A liquid is a Fluid that has the particles loose and can freely form a distinct surface at the boundaries of This page is about the physical properties of gas as a state of matter An equivalent term, used almost exclusively in the United States, is hazardous material (hazmat). Dangerous goods may be radioactive, flammable, explosive, toxic, corrosive, biohazardous, an oxidizer, an asphyxiant, a pathogen, an allergen, or may have other characteristics that render it hazardous in specific circumstances. Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable Atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting ionizing particles and Radiation. Flammability is the ease with which a substance will ignite causing Fire or Combustion. An explosive material is a material that either is chemically or otherwise Energetically unstable or produces a sudden expansion of the material usually accompanied Toxicity is the degree to which a substance is able to damage an exposed organism An oxidizing agent or oxidising agent (also called an oxidant, oxidizer or oxidiser) can be defined as either a Chemical compound A pathogen (from Greek πάθος pathos "suffering passion" and γἰγνομαι (γεν- gignomai (gen- "I give birth to" infectious An allergen is a nonparasitic Antigen capable of stimulating a Type-I hypersensitivity reaction in atopic individuals
Mitigating the risks associated with hazardous materials may require the application of safety precautions during their transport, use, storage and disposal. Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one place to another Most countries regulate hazardous materials by law, and they are subject to several international treaties as well.
Persons who handle dangerous goods will often wear protective equipment, and metropolitan fire departments often have a response team specifically trained to deal with accidents and spills. A fire station (also called stationhouse) is a structure or other area set aside for storage of firefighting apparatus (i These teams train with different organizations at a variety of specialized locations. Some of the most well-known in the U. S. and Canada include the California Specialized Training Institute, the Texas A&M TEEX Academy, Signet North America, the Justice Institute of British Columbia, and the U. S. National Fire Academy. Persons who handle or potentially come into contact with dangerous goods as part of their work are also often subject to monitoring or health surveillance to ensure that their exposure does not exceed occupational exposure limits. An occupational exposure limit is an upper limit on the acceptable Concentration of a Hazardous substance in Workplace Air for a particular material
Laws and regulations on the use and handling of hazardous materials may differ depending on the activity and status of the material. For example one set of requirements may apply to their use in the workplace while a different requirements may apply to spill response, sale for consumer use, or transportation. Most countries regulate some aspect of hazardous materials.
The most widely applied regulatory scheme is that for the transportation of dangerous goods. The Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods of the United Nations Economic and Social Council issues Model Regulations on the Transportation of Dangerous Goods. The Economic and Social Council ( ECOSOC) of the United Nations assists the General Assembly in promoting international economic and social cooperation Most regional and national regulatory schemes for hazardous materials are harmonized to a greater or lesser degree with the UN Model Regulation. For instance, the International Civil Aviation Organization has developed regulations for air transport of hazardous materials that are based upon the UN Model but modified to accommodate unique aspects of air transport. The International Civil Aviation Organization ( ICAO) an agency of the United Nations, codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation Individual airline and governmental requirements are incorporated with this by the International Air Transport Association to produce the widely used IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations. Similarly, the International Maritime Organization has developed the IMO Dangerous Goods Regulations for transportation on the high seas. The International Maritime Organization ( IMO) formerly known as the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization ( IMCO) is a late 20th century Many individual nations have also structured their dangerous goods transportation regulations to harmonize with the UN Model in organization as well as in specific requirements.
Dangerous goods are divided into classes on the basis of the specific chemical characteristics producing the risk.
Note: The graphics and text in this article representing the dangerous goods safety marks are derived from the United Nations-based system of identifying dangerous goods. Not all countries use precisely the same graphics (label, placard and/or text information) in their national regulations. Some use graphic symbols, but without English wording or with similar wording in their national language. Refer to the Dangerous Goods Transportation Regulations of the country of interest.
The statement above applies equally to all the Dangerous Goods classes discussed in this article.
|Class 1: Explosives|
|Information on this graphic changes depending on which, "Division" of explosive is shipped. Explosives are any substance or article including a device which is designed to function by explosion or which by chemical reaction within itself is able to function in a similar manner even if Explosive Dangerous Goods have compatibility group letters assigned to facilitate segregation during transport. The letters used range from A to S excluding the letters I, M, O, P, Q and R. The example above shows an explosive with a compatibility group "A" (shown as 1. 1A). The actual letter shown would depend on the specific properties of the substance being transported. |
For example, the Canadian Transportation of Dangerous Goods Regulations provides a description of compatibility groups.
The United States Department of Transportation (DOT) regulates hazmat transportation within the territory of the US. The United States Department of Transportation ( DOT) is a federal Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with Transportation
Mass Explosion Hazard
Minor Blast Hazard
Major Fire Hazard
Extremely Insensitive Explosives
|Class 2: Gases|
|Gases which are compressed, liquefied or dissolved under pressure as detailed below. The HAZMAT Class 2 in United States law includes all gases which are compressed and stored for transportation Some gases have subsidiary risk classes; poisonous or corrosive. |
|Class 3: Flammable Liquids|
|Flammable liquids included in Class 3 are included in one of the following packing groups:|
Note: For further details, check the Dangerous Goods Transportation Regulations of the country of interest.
|Class 4: Flammable Solids|
4. 1 Flammable Solids: Solid substances that are easily ignited and readily combustible (nitrocellulose, magnesium, safety or strike-anywhere matches). Nitrocellulose (also cellulose nitrate, flash paper) is a highly flammable compound formed by Nitrating Cellulose through exposure to Magnesium (mægˈniːziəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Mg, Atomic number 12 Atomic weight 24 A match is a consumable Tool for lighting a Fire under controlled circumstances on demand
4. 2 Spontaneously Combustible: Solid substances that ignite spontaneously (aluminium alkyls, white phosphorus). An alkyl is a Univalent radical consisting of Carbon and Hydrogen atoms arranged in a chain Phosphorus, (ˈfɒsfərəs is the Chemical element that has the symbol P and Atomic number 15
4. 3 Dangerous when Wet: Solid substances that emit a flammable gas when wet or react violently with water (sodium, calcium, potassium, calcium carbide). Sodium (ˈsoʊdiəm is an element which has the symbol Na( Latin natrium, from Arabic natrun) atomic number 11 atomic mass 22 Calcium (ˈkælsiəm is the Chemical element with the symbol Ca and Atomic number 20 Potassium (pəˈtæsiəm is a Chemical element. It has the symbol K (kalium from qalīy Atomic number 19 and Atomic mass 39 Calcium carbide is a Chemical compound with the Chemical formula of Ca[[Carbide C2]]
|Class 5: Oxidizing Agents and Organic Peroxides|
5. 1 Oxidizing agents other than organic peroxides (calcium hypochlorite, ammonium nitrate, hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate). Calcium hypochlorite is a Chemical compound with formula (2 It is widely used for Water treatment and as a Bleaching agent (bleaching The Chemical compound ammonium nitrate, the Nitrate of Ammonia with the chemical formula N[[Hydrogen H]]4 N[[Oxygen O]]3 Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is a very pale blue liquid which appears colorless in a dilute solution slightly more Viscous than water Potassium permanganate is the Chemical compound K[[manganese Mn]] O 4
5. 2 Organic peroxides, either in liquid or solid form (benzoyl peroxides, cumene hydroperoxide). Benzoyl peroxide (ˈbɛnzɔɪl pəˈrɒksaɪd is a Chemical in the Organic peroxide family Organic peroxides are Organic compounds containing the Peroxide Functional group (ROOR'
|Class 6: Toxic and Infectious Substances|
|Class 7: Radioactive Substances||Class 8: Corrosive Substances||Class 9: Miscellaneous|
Radioactive substances comprise substances or a combination of substances which emit ionizing radiation (uranium, plutonium). Radioactive substances are materials that emit radiation Divisions Any quantity of packages bearing the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW III label (LSA-III A corrosive material is a liquid or solid that causes full thickness destruction of human skin at the site of contact within a specified period of time The miscellaneous hazardous materials category encompasses all hazardous materials that do not fit one of the definitions listed in Class 1 through Class 8 Uranium (jʊˈreɪniəm is a silvery-gray Metallic Chemical element in the
Corrosive substances are substances that can dissolve organic tissue or severely corrode certain metals:
Hazardous substances that do not fall into the other categories (asbestos, air-bag inflators, self inflating life rafts, dry ice). Potassium hydroxide is the Inorganic compound with the formula K[[hydroxide OH]] Sodium hydroxide ( Na[[hydroxide OH]]) also known as Lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly according to IUPAC nomenclature
Australia uses the standard international UN numbers with a few slightly different signs on the back, front and sides of vehicles carrying hazardous substances. The country uses the same "HAZCHEM" as the UK HAZCHEM Code to provide advisory information to emergency services personnel in the event of an emergency situation.
Transportation of dangerous goods (hazardous materials) in Canada by road is normally a provincial jurisdiction. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The federal government has jurisdiction over air, most marine, and most rail transport. The federal government acting centrally created the federal transportation of dangerous goods act and regulations, which provinces adopted in whole or in part via provincial transportation of dangerous goods legislation. The result is that all provinces use the federal regulations as their standard within their province; some small variances can exist because of provincial legislation. Creation of the federal regulations was coordinated by Transport Canada. Transport Canada is the department within the government of Canada which is responsible for developing Regulations, Policies and services Hazard classifications are based upon the UN Model.
The province of Nova Scotia's dangerous goods transportation act can be viewed at: 
The province of Nova Scotia's dangerous goods transportation regulations can can be viewed at: 
The federal government's Transport Dangerous Goods website is located at: 
The European Union has passed numerous directives and regulations to avoid the dissemination and restrict the usage of hazardous substances, the most famous being the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive and the REACH regulation. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in A directive is a legislative act of the European Union which requires member states to achieve a particular result without dictating the means of achieving The Directive on the Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment 2002/95/EC ( / commonly referred to as the Restriction of Hazardous Registration Evaluation Authorisation and restriction of CHemicals ( REACH) is a new European Union Regulation, EC/2006/1907 of 18 December 2006 There are also long standing European treaties such as ADR and RID that regulate the transportation of hazardous materials by road, rail, river and inland waterways, following the guide of the UN Model Regulation.
Due to the increased threat of terrorism in the early 21st century, funding for greater HAZMAT-handling capabilities was increased throughout the United States, in recognition of the fact that flammable, poisonous, explosive, or radioactive substances in particular could make attractive weapons for terrorist attacks. Terrorism is the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
The United States Department of Transportation (DOT) regulates hazmat transportation within the territory of the US. The United States Department of Transportation ( DOT) is a federal Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with Transportation The regulations are found in 49 CFR (Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations).
The U. S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulates the handling of hazardous materials in the workplace as well as response to hazardous materials-related incidents, most notably through HAZWOPER (HAZ-ardous W-aste OP-erations and E-mergency R-esponse) regulations found at 29 CFR 1910. The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA is an agency of the United States Department of Labor. 120.
The Environmental Protection Agency regulates hazardous materials as they may impact the community and environment, including specific regulations for environmental cleanup and for handling and disposal of waste hazardous materials.
The Consumer Product Safety Commission regulates hazardous materials that may be used in products sold for household and other consumer uses. The United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (U S CPSC is an independent agency of the U
Following the UN Model, the DOT divides regulated hazardous materials into nine classes, some of which are further divided into divisions. Hazardous materials in transportation must be placarded and have specified packaging and labelling. Packaging is the science art and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution storage sale and use Some materials must always be placarded, others may only require placarding in certain circumstances.
Trailers of goods in transport are usually marked with a four digit UN (United Nations) number. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security This number can be referenced by first responders (Firefighters, Police Officers, and ambulance personnel) who can find information about the material in the Emergency Response Guidebook. Firefighters are rescuers extensively trained primarily to put out hazardous Fires that threaten civilian populations and property to rescue people from car accidents collapsed A police officer (also known as a policeman or policewoman) is a warranted employee of a Police force. An ambulance is a Vehicle for transporting sick or injured people to from or between places of treatment for an Illness or Injury. The Emergency Response Guidebook is used by first responders Firefighters Police officers and Ambulance personnel when responding to a transportation
Different standards usually apply for handling and marking HAZMATs at fixed facilities, including NFPA 704 diamond markings (a consensus standard often adopted by local governmental jurisdictions), OSHA regulations requiring chemical safety information for employees, and CPSC requirements requiring informative labeling for the public, as well as wearing Hazmat suits when handling hazardous materials. Symbolism The four divisions are typically color-coded with blue indicating level of Health Hazard, red indicating A hazmat suit is a garment worn as protection from '''haz'''ardous '''mat'''erials or substances