The daguerreotype (original French: daguerréotype) is an early type of photograph, developed by Louis Daguerre, in which the image is exposed directly onto a mirror-polished surface of silver bearing a coating of silver halide particles deposited by iodine vapor. A photograph (often shortened to photo) is an Image created by Light falling on a light-sensitive surface usually Photographic film or an electronic A mirror is an object with a surface that has good Specular reflection; that is it is smooth enough to form an Image. Silver (ˈsɪlvɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol " Ag " (argentum from the Ancient Greek: ἀργήντος - argēntos gen A silver halide is one of the compounds formed between Silver and one of the Halogens &mdash Silver bromide (AgBr chloride Iodine (ˈaɪədaɪn ˈaɪədɪn or /ˈaɪədiːn/ from ιώδης iodes "violet" is a Chemical element that has the symbol I and Atomic In later developments bromine and chlorine vapors were also used, resulting in shorter exposure times. Chlorine (ˈklɔriːn from the Greek word 'χλωρóς' ( khlôros, meaning 'pale green' is the Chemical element with Atomic number 17 and The daguerreotype is a negative image, but the mirrored surface of the metal plate reflects the image and makes it appear positive in the proper light. Thus, daguerreotype is a direct photographic process without the capacity for duplication.
While the daguerreotype was not the first photographic process to be invented, earlier processes required hours for successful exposure, which made daguerreotype the first commercially viable photographic process and the first to permanently record and fix an image with exposure time compatible with portrait photography. Portrait photography (also known as portraiture) is the capture by means of Photography of the likeness of a person or a small group of people in which
The daguerreotype is named after one of its inventors, French artist and chemist Louis J.M. Daguerre, who announced its perfection in 1839 after years of research and collaboration with Joseph Nicéphore Niépce, applying and extending a discovery by Johann Heinrich Schultz (1724): a silver and chalk mixture darkens when exposed to light. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. A chemist is a Scientist trained in the Science of Chemistry. Joseph Nicéphore Niépce ( March 7, 1765 &ndash July 5, 1833) was a French Inventor, most noted as the inventor of Johann Heinrich Schulze or Schultz ( 12 May 1687 &ndash 10 October 1744) was a German professor and Polymath The French Academy of Sciences announced the daguerreotype process on January 9 of that year. The French Academy of Sciences ( French: Académie des sciences) is a Learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the
Daguerre's French patent was acquired by the French government. In Britain, Miles Berry, acting on Daguerre's behalf, obtained a patent for the daguerreotype process on August 14, 1839. Events 1183 - Taira no Munemori and the Taira clan take the young Emperor Antoku and the three sacred treasures Year 1839 ( MDCCCXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Almost simultaneously, on August 19, 1839, the French government announced the invention a gift "Free to the World". Events 43 BC - Octavian, later known as Augustus compels the Roman Senate to elect him Consul. Year 1839 ( MDCCCXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common The government of France is a Semi-presidential system determined by the French Constitution of the fifth Republic, in which the nation declares
The daguerreotype is a unique photographic image allowing no reproduction of the picture. Preparation of the plate prior to image exposure resulted in the formation of a layer of photo-sensitive silver halide, and exposure to a scene or image through a focusing lens formed a latent image. A silver halide is one of the compounds formed between Silver and one of the Halogens &mdash Silver bromide (AgBr chloride A latent image on Photographic film is an invisible image produced by the exposure of the film to Light. The latent image was made visible, or "developed", by placing the exposed plate over a slightly heated (about 75°C) cup of mercury. Mercury (ˈmɜrkjʊri also called quicksilver or hydrargyrum, is a Chemical element with the symbol Hg ( Latinized hydrargyrum
The mercury vapour condensed on those places where the exposure light was most intense, in proportion with the areas of highest density in the image. This produced a picture in an amalgam, the mercury vapour attaching itself to the altered silver iodide. Removal of the mercury image by heat validates this chemistry. The developing box was constructed to allow inspection of the image through a yellow glass window while it was being developed.
The next operation was to "fix" the photographic image permanently on the plate by dipping in a solution of hyposulphite of soda – known as "fixer" or "hypo". Sodium sulfite (sodium sulphite is a soluble compound of Sodium. The image produced by this method is so delicate it will not bear the slightest handling. Practically all daguerreotypes are protected from accidental damage by a glass-fronted case. It was discovered by experiment that treating the plate with heated gold chloride both tones and strengthens the image, although it remains quite delicate and requires a well-sealed case to protect against touch as well as oxidation of the fine silver deposits forming the blacks in the image. Redox (shorthand for reduction-oxidation reaction describes all Chemical reactions in which atoms have their Oxidation number ( Oxidation state The best-preserved daguerreotypes dating from the nineteenth century are sealed in robust glass cases evacuated of air and filled with a chemically inert gas, typically nitrogen. Nitrogen (ˈnaɪtɹəʤɪn is a Chemical element that has the symbol N and Atomic number 7 and Atomic weight 14
Daguerreotype photography spread rapidly across the United States but not in the United Kingdom, where Louis Daguerre controlled the practice with a patent. Richard Beard, who bought the British patent from Miles Berry in 1841, closely controlled his investment, selling licenses throughout the country and prosecuting infringers. Richard Beard ( 22 December, 1801 – 7 June, 1885) was an English Entrepreneur and Photographer who vigorously
In the early 1840s, the invention was introduced in a period of months to practitioners in the United States by Samuel Morse, inventor of the telegraph code. Samuel Finley Breese Morse ( April 27, 1791 &ndash April 2, 1872) was an American painter of portraits and historic A flourishing market in portraiture sprang up, predominantly the work of itinerant practitioners who traveled from town to town. A portrait is a painting, photograph, Sculpture, or other artistic representation of a person in which the face and its expression is predominant For the first time in history, people could obtain an exact likeness of themselves or their loved ones for a modest cost, making portrait photographs extremely popular with those of modest means. Their wealthy counterparts continued to commission painted portraits by fine artists, considering the new photographic portraits inferior in much the same way their ancestors had viewed printed books as inferior to hand-scribed books centuries earlier. In some ways they were right, in other ways wrong; the vast bulk of 19th-century portrait photography effected by itinerant practitioners was of inferior artistic quality, yet the work of many portrait painters was of equally dubious artistic merit, and although photographic images were monochrome, they offered a technical likeness of the sitter no portrait painter could achieve. Monochrome comes from the Greek μονόχρωμος ( monochromos) meaning “of one color” which is a combination The first erotic photography and the first experimenters in stereo photography also utilized daguerreotypes. Erotic photography is a style of Art photography of an Erotic, sexually suggestive and even sexually provocative nature
This method spread to other parts of the world as well. In 1857, Ichiki Shirō created the first known Japanese photograph, a portrait of his daimyo Shimazu Nariakira. was a pioneering Japanese Photographer. Ichiki was born in Satsuma Province (now Kagoshima Prefecture) in Kyūshū. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. The ( were powerful territorial lords who ruled most of Japan from their vast hereditary land holdings ( April 28, 1809 - August 24, 1858) was a Japanese feudal lord ( Daimyō) of the Edo period, the 28th This photograph was designated an "Important Cultural Property" by the government of Japan. Japan no longer officially has the traditional Federal system, and its 47 prefectures, and prefectural and municipal assembly members are popularly elected for
The daguerreotype is commonly, erroneously, believed to have been the dominant photographic process into the late part of the 19th century in Europe. Evidence from the period proves it was only in widespread use for approximately a decade before being superseded by other processes:
The intricate, complex, labor-intensive daguerreotype process itself helped contribute to the rapid move to the ambrotype and tintype. The resulting reduction in economy of scale made daguerreotypes expensive and not affordable for the average person. According to Mace (1999), the rigidity of these images stems more from the seriousness of the activity than a long exposure time, which he says was actually only a few seconds (Early Photographs, p. 21). The daguerreotype's lack of a negative image from which multiple positive "prints" could be made was a limitation also shared by the tintype and ambrotype and was not a factor in the daguerreotype's demise until the introduction of the calotype. Calotype or talbotype is an early Photographic process introduced in 1841 by Henry Fox Talbot, using Paper coated with Silver iodide Unlike film and paper photography however, a properly sealed daguerreotype can potentially last indefinitely.
Daguerreotype cameras are expensive. In May 2007, an anonymous buyer paid 588,613 euros (792,000 USD) for an original 1839 camera made by Susse Frères (Susse brothers), Paris, at an auction in Vienna, Austria, making it the world's oldest and most expensive commercial photographic apparatus. 
The Daguerreotype's popularity was not threatened until photography was used to make imitation Daguerreotypes on glass positives called "ambrotypes. The ambrotype process (from Greek ambrotos, "immortal" or amphitype is a photographic process that creates a positive photographic "-Meaning "imperishable picture" named by "Marcus A. Root. (Newhall, 107)
Some daguerreotypes which have maker's marks, such as those by Southworth & Hawes of Boston, or George S. Southworth & Hawes was an early photographic firm in Boston 1843-1863 Cook of Charleston, South Carolina, Gurney, Pratt and others, are considered masterpieces in the art of photography. Charleston is a city in Charleston county in the US state of South Carolina. South Carolina ( is a state in the southern region ( Deep South) of the United States of America. Photography (fә'tɒgrәfi or fә'tɑːgrәfi (from Greek φωτο and γραφία is the process and Art of recording pictures by means of capturing A daguerreotype of Edgar Allan Poe was featured on the PBS show Antiques Roadshow and appraised at US $30,000 to $50,000. The Public Broadcasting Service ( PBS) is a Non-profit Public broadcasting Television service with 354 member TV stations in the Antiques Roadshow is a British Human interest Television show in which Antiques appraisers travel to various regions of
Daguerreotypy continues to be practiced by enthusiastic photographers to this day, although in much smaller numbers; there are thought to be fewer than 100 worldwide. Its appeal lies in the "magic mirror" effect of light reflected from the polished silver plate through the perfectly sharp silver image and in the sense of achievement derived from the dedication and hand-crafting required to make a daguerreotype.
The Daguerreobase is a database registration system (currently only available in Dutch) for daguerreotypes, developed by the Nederlands fotomuseum (Rotterdam, The Netherlands). Rotterdam (pronounced) is the 2nd-largest City by population in the Netherlands, located in the province of It can be used by conservators and researchers as well as viewed by those interested. Its aim is to disclose historic and technical information about the daguerreotype on a worldwide level. The project was initiated by Hans de Herder, head of the conservation department of the Nederlands fotomuseum from its instigation in 1994 until 2005. It was further developed by Belgian photo conservator Herman Maes, de Herder's successor, Boudewijn Ridder and Nickel van Duijvenboden.
The daguerreotype in baseball:The Sporting News has periodically published a book called Daguerreotypes, a collection of playing statistics about retired Major League Baseball players who are either in the Baseball Hall of Fame or are otherwise widely known among baseball historians. Sporting News (previously The Sporting News, and known colloquially as TSN) is an American -based Sports The book is structured in the same style as the annual Baseball Register of active players. However, this has nothing to do with early photography.
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